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that the weight and trust of the affairs of Christ, and his kingdom, should be laid upon the whole party of such as bave been enemies to cur cause; contrary to the word of God, and the declarations, remonstrances, solemn warnings, and serious exhortations of his church, whose public protestations the Lord did admirably bless, to the encouragement of the godly, and the terror of all the opposers of the work

“Since we are very shortly to appear before our dreadful Master and Sovereign, we cannot pass from our protestation, trusting we are therein accepted of him; though we should lie under the imputation of dividing spirits, and unpeaceable men. We acknowledge all due obedience, in the Lord, to the king's majesty ; but we disown that ecclesiastic supremacy, in and over the church, which some ascribe to him; that power of commanding external worship not appointed in the word ; and laying bonds upon the consciences of men, where Christ has made them free. We disown antichristian prelacy, bowing at the name of Jesus, saints' days, canonizing of the dead, and other such corrupt inventions of men, and look on them as the highway to popery. Alas! now there is no need of a spirit of prophecy to declare wbat shall be the woful condition of a land that hath broken covenant, first practically, and then legally, with the Lord our God: and what shall be the day of the silent and dumb watchmen of Scotland ? Where will we leave our glory ? and what if Christ depart out of our land ? We verily judge, they are most loyal to the kings majesty, who desire the dross may be separated from the silver, and the throne established in righteousness and judgment. We are not (our witness is in heaven) against his majesty's title by birth to the kingdom, and the right of the royal family: but that the controversy of wrath against the royal family may be removed; that the huge guilt of the throne may be mourned for before the Lord ; and that his majesty may stand constantly, all the days of his life, to the covenant of God, by oath, seal, and subscription, known to the world; that so peace and the blessings of heaven may follow his government; that the Lord may be his rock and shield ; that the just may flourish in his time; that men fearing God, hating covetousness, and of known integrity and godliness, may be judges and rulers under bis majesty— and they are not really loyal and faithful to the supreme magistrate, who wish not such qualifications in him. We are not, in this particular, contending that a prince, who is not a convert or a sound believer, falls from bis royal dominion; the scriptures of God warrant us to pray for and obey, in the Lord, princes and supreme magistrates, That are otherwise wicked; and to render all due obedience to them, Rom. xiii. 2, 5. 2 Tim. ii. 12. 1 Pet. ii. 18. Our souls should be afflicted before the Lord, for the burning of the Causes of God's Wrath.' A sad practice, too like the burning of the roll by Jebudi, Jer. xxxvi. 22. In these controversies, we should take special heed to this, that Christ is a free, independent Sovereign, King, and Lawgiver. The Father bath appointed him his own King in mount Zion; and he cannot endure, that the powers of the world should encroach upon his royal prerogatives, and prescribe laws to him : this presumption is not far from that of citizens that hated him, Luke xix. 14.

• He shall not rule over us ;' and from the intolerable pride of those who are for breaking asunder the bands of the Lord, and his anointed, and for casting away their cords from them, Psal. ii. 3. especially seeing the man Christ would not take the office of a judge upon him, Luke xii. 14. and discharged his disciples, to exercise a civil lordship over their brethren. True it is, the godly magistrate may command the ministers of the gospel to do their duty, but not under the pain of ecclesiastic censure, as if it were proper for him to call and uncall, depose and suspend from the holy ministry. The lordly spiritual government in and over the church, is given unto Christ, and none else : he is the sole ecclesiastic lawgiver. It is proper to him to smite with the rod of his mouth; nor is there any other shoulder, in heaven or on earth, that is able to bear the government. As this hath boen the great controversy betwixt our Lord Jesus and the powers of the world from the beginning, so it has ruined all that coped with him. Christ has proved a rock of offence to them; they have been dashed to pieces by the stone that was cut out of the mountain without hands, Dan. ii. 34, 45. And the other powers that enter the lists with him shall bave the same dismal exit. Whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken ; and on whomsoever it shall fall, it shall grind them to potvder, Matth. xxi. 44. As the blessed prophets and apostles of our Lord contended uot a little with the rulers of the earth, that Christ should be head corner stone : that Christ is the only bead of the church, is as sure, as that he died, was buried, and rose again. It is a most victorious and prevailing truth, not only preached and attested by the ambassadors of the Lord of hosts, but confirmed by blood, martyrdom, and suffering. Many precious saints have thought it their honour and dignity, to suffer shame and reproach for the name of Jesus ; and it is beyond doubt, that passive suffering for the precious name of Christ comes nearest to that noble sampler, wherein Christ, though a Son, learned obedience by the things which he suffered, Heb. v. 8. Now blessed is the soul, who loves not his life to death, Rev. xii. 11. For on such rests the Spirit of glory and of God, 1 Pet. iv. 14. We cannot but say, it is a sad time to our land at present, it is a day of darkness, and rebuke, and blasphemy. The Lord hath covered bimself with a cloud in his anger, we looked for peace, but behold evil : our souls rejciced, wben bis majesty did swear the covenant of God, and put thereto his seal and subscription; and therefore confirmed it by his royal promise. So that the subjects' hearts blessed the Lord, and rested upon the healing word of a prince. But now, alas ! the contrary is enacted by law, the carved work is. broken down, ordinances are defaced, and we are brought into the former bondage and chaos of prelatical confusions. The royal prerogative of Christ is pulled from his head, and, aster all the days of sorrow we have seen, we have just cause to fear we shall be made to read and eat that book, wherein is written mourning, and lamentation, and wo. Yet we are to believe Christ will not so depart from the land, but a remnant shall be saved ; and he shall reign a victorious conquering king to the ends of the earth. () that there were nations, kindreds, tongues, and all the people of Christ's babitable world, encompassing his throne with cries and tears for the spirit of supplication, to be poured down upon the inhabitants of Judah for that effect."

Sic. Sub.-SAMUEL RUTHERFORD. February 28th, 1661.


[This illustrious nobleman, having received a religious education,

began very early to discover his zeal for the interests of the presbyterian church. In 1638 he attended the General Assembly which met at Glasgow, and contributed much by his presence and advice to give dignity and effect to its deliberations. Next year, and indeed for five years after, he was active in defending the same cause by his sword, which hitherto he had promoted by his talents and influence; and till the year 1648, might be regarded as the principal supporter of the covenated reformation in Scotland. In 1049, he assisted in reinstating Charles II. on his father's throne, and received many professions of favour from that monarch. Having afterwards, however, during the success of Cromwell, been induced to capitulate, though after many refusals; all his good services were forgotten, and at the king's return in 1660, he was arrested, and sent to the Tower of London, whence he was brought to Scotland to be tried by the parliament for alleged high treason. This was early in 1661. On the 25th of May that year, he was tried and condemned, and, on the 27th, he suffered the death of a traitor, though there can be no doubt the essence of his crime consisted in his rigid adherence to the presbyterian interest. ]

His LAST WORDS IN Prison. After sentence, he was ordered to the commou-prison, where bis excellent lady was waiting for him. Upon seeing her, he said, “ They have given me till Monday to be with you, my dear, therefore let us make for it.” She, embracing him, wept bitterly, and said, “ The Lord will require it; the Lord will require it;" which drew tears from all in the room. But being himself composed, be said, “ Forbear, forbear. I pity them, they know not what they are doing. They may shut me in where they please, but they cannot shut God out from me. For my part, I am as content to be here as in the castle, and as content in the castle as in the Tower of London, and as content there as when at liberty; and I hope to be as content on the scaffold as any of them all.” He added, he remembered a scripture cited by an honest minister to him while in the castle, which he intended to put in practice :-" When Ziklag was

• Rutherford's Life and Testimony.--Glasg. 1781.

taken and burnt, the people spake of storing David, bat be escozaaged himself in the Lord.”

He spent the short time, till Monday, with the greatest serenity and cheerfulness, and in the proper exercises of a dying Christian. To some ministers who were permitted to attend him, be said, " That ehortly they would ency him, who was got before them, and added.

Remember that I tell you, my skill fails me, if you who are ministers will not either suffer much or sin mach; for though you go along with these men in part, if you do not in all things, you are but where you were, and so must suffer; and if you go not at all with them you must but auffer."

lle also said, that be was naturally inclined to fear in his temper, but desired those about him, to observe that the Lord had heard his prayer, and removed all fear from him. Mr. Robert Douglas and Mr. George Hutcheson preached to him in the tolbooth on the Lord's day, and at his own desire, his lady took ber leave of him that erening. His dear and much valued friend, Mr. David Dickson, it is waid, was his bed-fellow the last night be was in time.

The Marquis had a sweet time in the tolbooth as to the condition of his soul, and this still increased the nearer be approached his end; as be slept calmly and pleasantly the preceding night, so on Monday morning, though much engaged in settling his affairs in the midst of company, be had at intervals much spiritual conversation, and was so overpowered by a sensible effusion of the Holy Spirit, that he broke ont on one occasion into a rapture, and said, “ I thought to have concealed the Lord's goodness, but it will not do. I am now ordering my affairs, and God is sealing my charter to a better inheritance, and just now saying to me, Son, be of good cheer, thy sins are forgiven thee."

About this time he received an excellent letter from a certain minister, his friend, full of encouragement and comfort under his present circumstances. He then, with his own hand, wrote to his majesty in the following pathetic terms, respecting his family.

His LETTER TO THE KING “ Most sacred Sovereign,—I doubt not but your majesty hath an account given you from others of the issue of that strange process and indictment laid against me, before this can come to your royal bands ; of which, if I had been guilty according to the charge, I should have esteemed myself unworthy to breathe upon the earth; much less would I have presumed to make an application to your majesty. But of all those great crimes which have been charged upon me, there hath nothing been proven except a compliance with the prevalent usurping rebels, after they had subdued all your majesty's dominious ; wbereby I was forced, with many others, to submit unto their unlawful power and government, which was an epidemic disease and fault of the time.

“What measure soever I have met with, and wbatever malice or calumny hath been cast upon me, yet it is my inexpressible joy and comfort under all these sufferings, that I am found free and acquitted of that execrable murder committed against the life of your royal father, which (as I desire a comfortable appearance before the Judge both of the quick and the dead), my soul did ever abominate ; for death, with the inward peace of my innocency, is much more acceptable to me than life itself, with the least stain of treachery.

“ And now, I am confident, that your majesty's displeasure will be satisfied, and you will suffer my failings to be expiate with my life, which, with all bumility and submission, I have yielded up; and in this small period that remains of my life, no earthly thing shall be more cordially desired by me than your happiness; and that your majesty and your successors, to all generations, may sway the scentro of these nations, and that they may be a blessed people under your government.

“ And now, hoping that the humble supplication of your majesty's dying subject may find some place within the large extent of your princely goodness and clemency, I have taken the boldness to cast the desolate condition of my poor wife and family upon your royal favour ; for whatever may be your majesty's displeasure against myself, these, I hope, have not done any thing to procure your majesty's indignation. And since that family have had the honour to be faithful subjects, and serviceable to your royal progenitors, I humbly beg my faults may not extinguish the lasting merit and memory of those who have given so many signal proofs of constant loyalty for many generations. Orphans and widows, by special prerogative and command from God, are put under your protection and defence, that you suffer them not to be wronged: they will owe their preservation so entirely to your majesty's bounty and favour, that your countenance, and nothing else that's human, can be a shield against their ruin.

" I shall add no more : only being addebted to several of your majesty's good subjects, and your royal justice being the source and fountain of all equity, whereby all your people are preserved in their just rights and interests, I humbly beg tbat none of them may suffer for my fault, but that you would allow them satisfaction and payment of what is justly owing unto them, from those sums and debts which are truly resting to my son and me. And as it is my serious and last desire to my children and posterity, next to their duty to Almighty God, that they may be faithful and serviceable to your majesty; so, were I to enjoy this frail life any longer, I would endeavour, before all the world, to evidence myself to be your majesty's most humble, devoted, and obedient subject and servant,

ARGYLE." “ From your Prison, Edinburgh,

May 27th, 1661.”

After this, he dined precisely at twelve o'clock, in company with his friends, displaying great cheerfulness, and then retired a little. Upon his opening the door, Mr. Hutcheson said, “ What cheer, my lord ?" He answered, “ Good cheer, Sir, the Lord bath again confirmed and said to me from heaven, Thy sins be forgiven thee." Upon this tears of joy flowed in abundance; he retired to the window and wept; from that he came to the fire, and made as if he would stir it

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