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LONDON: TRÜBNER & co., 19 PATERNOSTER ROW.

1860.

ENTERET, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860,

BY HENRY BARNARD,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Connecticut.

This Number (XX.) begins a new year (1860) and a new Volume (VIII.,) and
will be sent only to subscribers who pay in advance, for the number, ($1.50,) or for
the Volume, ($2.50,) or for the year, ($4.00.)

F. B. PERKINS, HARTFORD, CT.

81

III. SCHOOL ARCHITECTURE,

91

Plans of Union Public School-house,

91

Illustration 1.-Perspective,..

92

2.-Grounds...

92

3.-First and Second Floors,....

93

IV. MEMOIR OF CHARLES 8. Hovey, First Principal of State Normal University of Illinois, 94

Portrait,......

94

V. ON TEACHING HISTORY. By Karl von Raumer,.

101

Aphorisms-what to avoid,

101

Correct methods,....

104

Ultimate object of this study,.

109

VI. GEOGRAPHY, ...

111

Rousseau's views on teaching this subjech....

Raumer's dialogue on,.......

112

Results of experience in teaching, .

115

United with study and reading of history,..

121

VII. INSTRUCTION IN NATURAL SCIENCE. By Karl von Raumer,

123

Jotroduction,.....

123

1. Difficulties in the extent of the subject,.

125

2. Objections to this study in the gymnasia,..

125

3. Extent of acquirement....

130

4. Where and how to begin instruction,

131

5. Science and art should be joined..

134

6. Mathematics and laws of nature,..

135

7. Instruction in mineralogy,.

137

8. Characteristics of pupils,.

143

9. Instruction in botany,.....

146

10. Necessary inconsistency,.

147

11. “Mysteriously revealed," or unavoidable obscurity,..

147

12. Natural law and moral freedom,......

151

Conclusion. Devotional method of investigating nature,

152

Note. Collections or museum for teaching inineralogy,

153

VIII. GEOMETRY. By Karl von Raumer,.

155

Geometry and Euclid synonymous,

155

Opinion of Montücla, Leibnitz, Lorenz of Euclid's Elements,".

.. 111

.... 156

Raumer's attack and Kepler's answer,.

Euclid's method, .......

Reasons for modern deviations,..

Museum of Alexandria,..

The origin and aim of the "Elements,"

Intuitional instruction in form,......

Application of geometry in crystallography,

IX. ARITHMETIC. By Karl von Raumer,..

Difference between ancient and modern methods of teaching arithmetic,.

Peurbach's "Elementa Arithmetices "-A. D. 1450,

Pestalozzi's method,..

Algebra-or use of letters,......

Mental arithmetic based on realities, ..

Intuitional processes by beans, &c.,.

Iutuitional tables, or the visual element,.

Use of counters,..

True use of mental arithmetic, ...

Limits to arithmetical instruction in elementary schools,......

in burgher and high schools,.

in gymnasia, ........

Excessive stimulation to be avoided,...

Example of DeLaspé, cited by Diesterweg, disapproved,

Note. Counters,.....

Explanation of abbreviated processes,..

X. PHYSICAL EDUCATION. By Karl von Raumer,

1. Hygiene, or care of the health,..

Diet,

Clothing,...

Secret vices-extent and causes,...

2. Inuring to endurance of want and toil,.

3. Gymnastics,....

Opinions of Luther, Montaigne, Rousseau,..

System of Guts Muths,.

Meierotto and Fichte,..

Friedrich Friesen,.....

Effects of factory labor,...

Influence of luxury,...

Discontinuance of popular festivals,

Gymnastics of the Pestalozzi school,

Friedrich Ludwig Jahn,.......

History of the German Turning system,.

The Turning institution,...

Turning excursions,....

Objections to the Turning system,..

Oken's answer and remedy,..

Passow's object of Turning,

Steffen's caricatures, ..........

Harnisch-Raumer,....

Consequences of Sand's act,.

4. Training of the senses,..

Rousseau's views.

Guts Muths, .

Raumer's aphorism,.....

Pestalozzi's intellectual exercises,..

Justus Möser,.....

Herr Roth's suggestion,

XI. CHRISTIANITY IN EDUCATION,

1. Pedagogy.......

2. Pelagian Pedagogy,.

3. Christian training,

4. Evil training,....

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