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work or labour) of the field for tillage (ngby slave-labour) of the ground, was Ezra, the son of Chelub." Job i. 2, 3: “And there were born unto him seven sons and three daughters. His substance also was seven thousand sheep, and three thousand camels, and five thousand yoke of oxen, and five hundred sheasses, and a very great household.” The word "household” is here translated from 17721 va ebudda, a body of slaves, i. e. a large family of slaves. Job ii. 19: “The small and the great are there, and the servant (729) ve ebed, the slave), is free from his master.' Job xxxi. 13: "If I did despise (vera misjudge) the cause of my man-servant,” (???y my slave.) Job xxxix. 9: “Will the unicorn be willing to serve thee ?” (7729 be a slave to thee.) Ps. cxvi. 16: “O Lord, truly I am thy servant (772y obedeka, slave); I am thy servant (577)y slave), and the son of thy handmaid (702x amatheka, female slave) : thou hast loosed my bonds." It is a little remarkable how similar is this sentiment of David to one expressed by St. Paul. Prov. xii. 9: “He that is despised and hath a servant (ayebed, slave) is better than he that honoureth himself and lacketh bread." Prov. xvii. 2: “A wise servant (72, ebed, slave), shall rule over a son that causeth shame, and shall have part of the inheritance among the brethren.” Prov. xxx. 21, 22, 23: “For three things is the earth disquieted, and for four which it cannot bear: For a servant (hay ebed, slave) when he reigneth (isp. imlok), and a fool when he is filled with meat. For an odious woman when she is married, and a hand
maid (nmou, female slave) that is heir to her mistress.” Eccl. ii. 7.
('nun kanithi, I purchased) servants (O'gay male slaves) and maidens (nirowa female slaves), and had servants born in my house.” Eccl. vii. 21: “Also take no heed unto all words that are spoken, lest thou hear thy servant (77 slave) curse thee.” Jer. ii. 14: 6 Is Israel a servant ( a slave)? is he a home-born slave? why is he spoiled ?" In the latter part of this quotation, the word 72 y ebed is not expressed in Hebrew, but understood, as is often the case in English: yet King James's translators did not hesitate to supply it in Eng
“I got me
lish with the word slave, giving indisputable proof of what they understood the word ebed to mean, and also, that they used the English word servant as a synonyme of the word slave. The omission to express the word ay ebed in Hebrew, in this instance, has the effect to make the idea conveyed by the prophet more emphatic; and hence the translators seem to have felt the necessity of using the most forcible synonyme, in order that they might truly and beyond 'doubt convey the full import of the prophet's meaning. Mal. i. 6: “A son honoureth his father, and a servant (73Y7 slave) his master.” This passage is a connecting link in a chain of reasoning, and the prophet continues thus: “If then I be a father, where is my honour? If I be a master, where is my fear? saith the Lord of hosts unto you, O priests that despise my name. And ye say, Wherein have we despised thy name ?” As though they were astonished at the accusation!. And this is the answer—7: “Ye offer polluted bread upon mine altar.” A figure, to show that they had become wholly disobedient, and held in disregard the law of God. By their disobedience, they were degenerating from the condition of the son to that of the ebed. Instead of being influenced by love, they were about to be operated upon by fear, and hence the prophet continues, ii. 1: “And now, 0 ye priests, this commandment is for you. If ye will not hear, and if ye will not lay it to heart, to give glory unto my name, saith the Lord of hosts, I will even send a curse upon you, and I will curse your blessings, yea, I have cursed them already, because ye
do not lay it to heart. 3: Behold, I will corrupt your seed, and spread dung upon your faces.” He would curse them with the hateful curse of Cain. And we beg to notice this scriptural glancing at the doctrine that a course of sin does produce some change upon the physical man,--some change of countenance, which is continued, degenerating and deteriorating the succeeding generations,—and ask, is not such a doctrine alluded to in Ezek. xviii. 2, “The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge.” And, again, in Ps. lviii. 2, 3: “The wicked are estranged from the womb: they go astray as soon as they are born, speaking lies. Their poison is like the poison of a serpent.” Again, in Jer. vii. 19: “Do they provoke me to anger ? saith the Lord. Do they not provoke themselves to the confusion of their own faces ?" And, in Isa. iii. 9: “The show of their countenance doth witness against them, and they declare their sin as Sodom. They hide it not. Wo unto their soul! for they have
rewarded evil unto themselves.” Jer. xiii. 22: “If thou say in thy heart, wherefore have these things come upon me? for the greatness of thine iniquities are thy skirts discovered and thy heels made bare."
And ii. 22: “For though thou wash thee with nitre, and take thee much soap, yet thine iniquity is marked before me, saith the Lord God.” We will not enter into the examination of this doctrine at present, but hasten to close our view of the Hebrew use of the word y ebed. In Joel iii. 2 (ii. 29th of the English text) is this remarkable passage : “And also upon the servants (D'72,7 ha ebedim, the male slaves) and upon the handmaids (ningun hashshephahoth, the female slaves) in those days will I pour out my Spirit.” This passage was translated at Jerusalem by St. Peter, into Greek. See Acts ii. 18: “And on my servants, and on my hand-maids (dovous xal ani tas dovras), will I pour out in those days my Spirit,”-using those Greek words that most unconditionally mean a slave, and showing as effectually as language can show, and proving as distinctly as language can prove, that St. Peter well understood these words of Joel to mean male and female slaves. He translates the passage, referring to it, and quoting it. There can have been no mistake. Besides, the passage is rendered definite by its particularity; for the preceding sentence avers that his Spirit should be poured out
upon all flesh," and goes on to particularize, “your sons" and “ daughters," "your old men," "your young men,” and then in this passage includes the slaves, thus explaining whom he means by “all flesh.” It was on the day of Pentecost, when the disciples of Jesus Christ “ were all with one accord in one place, and suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting; and there appeared upon them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them, and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost.” Acts ü. 1, 2, 3.
Such were the circumstances under which this translation was made--just after the death of Jesus Christ. Circumstances more solemn, more imposing, more awful to the human mind cannot well be conceived. In the immediate presence of God the Father, and the Holy Ghost operating upon the mind of St. Peter !! Should any one, timorous, decline to believe men, or mortals, permit us, in the name of that Jehovah whose work we all are, to call their reflection on what may be the nature of that sin which contemns, denies, or treats as untruth the very language of the Holy Ghost.
THE Hebrew noun ebed belongs to the declension of factitious, euphonic segholate nouns of two syllables, with the tone on the penult and a furtive vowel on the final :
.a slave עֶבֶד
7y my slave.
-7727 thy slave.
. 1. (plur.) 13729 our slave.
. 2. f.
. oqay their slave. 3. f.
igay their slave.
.has slave עבדו .her slave עַבְדָה
.your slave עַבְדְכֶם .3Jour slave עבְדְכֶן עַבְדָם
* Termed grave, because they always have the tone accent.
.slaves עֲבָדִים .my slaves עֲבָדַי עֲבָדֶיךְ .thy slaves עֲבָדַיִךְ .has slaves עֲבָדָיו .her slaves עֲבָדֶיהָ
.your slaves עַבְדֵיכֶן .their slaves עַבְדֵיהֶם .m .3
1772y their slaves. Prefixed by a preposition, it will stand thus : Jy in, at, with, &c. a slave; or with thus, zayto, at, in, towards, till, until, &c. a slave; or, when the word jy is used as a verb, it will stand in place of our infinitive mood, thus, Täys to slave, as in Num. iv. 47. So this word ay or any form of it fixed by as a contraction of 12, a preposition of various meanings or applications, as from, apart from, of, out of, by, &c. &c.; and so it may be prefixed by any of the letters men forming the word heemanti, each prefixed letter giving to the root word some shade of meaning, emphasis, or adjective quality. So, also, it may be prefixed by ), used both as a preposition, and as a conjunction, thus, Tay? as, 80, according to, after, about, nearly,
, almost, &c. &c. a slave. Hebrew nouns may also be prefixed by particles of old obsolete words, varying their form, and exceedingly so their phonetic representation ; as for example, is bei Shelomah was the son and successor of King David. Now w, as the particle of some ancient word, and followed by ”, becomes the sign of the possessive case; but when the word begins with these two letters, they then will be duplicated, as in Canticles iï. 7, rigualmente inon mittatho shellishlomoh, Solomon's bed, &c.
Prepositions, sometimes two or more, are, or seem to be, com