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means of remarkably well-balanced and impartial not inadequately explained away, it is much more discussion of these, which strikes the reader difficult to condone his acceptance of Montausier's the more happily from its being obviously com- treatment of the Dauphin. The governor, a posed by selection from an abundant store of Huguenot by birth and training, a Catholic by knowledge. The chapters on the Gallican Con- policy rather than conviction, seems to have found troversy and on Quietism especially should re- an outlet for the sternness of his discarded relicieve the attention of students. There is a gion in making savage assaults upon his sullen specious attractiveness about the doctrine of pupil. Once, we are told, the unfortunate lad Disinterested Love which masks its dangers : missed a word in saying the Lord's Prayer. His just as on the other hand the rancour displayed governor fell upon him and beat him brutally by Bossuet—to which our author bears impartial with his fists. Frequently he was crippled by witness—may easily, to uninformed eyes, disguise flogging. The cruelty was notorious and must his true character as the champion of the un- have been well known to Bossuet. But there privileged. The Gallican controversy, which is is no record of intervention, and his passivity perhaps hardly well enough understood in must be reckoned a blot upon his character. England, should be of considerable interest Of the “human" side of the Bishop this study to the Church historian.

has less to say.

Frankly we could have wished Another question which deeply engaged the for more ; for the sketches of Rancé and others mind of Bossuet was that of the reunion of the reveal brilliant

powers of characterization. Church. This is found in the forefront of his mind That his personal character was beyond reproach from the time when, as Archdeacon of Metz, he is evident. In a Court where profligacy was a was brought into contact with considerable pleasant pastime, a director of fashionable connumbers of Jews and Huguenots. He had a sciences must have been singularly exposed to hunger for saving souls which never deserted him, temptation. But M. de Condom moved unsullied whether the soul was that of a peasant or of a in this moral slough. He is portrayed to us as a La Vallière. Hence it is not surprising to find born priest, as one whose vocation was never in that much of his life was spent in controversy doubt, less other-worldly, perhaps, than M de with Protestants. But it may surprise us to Cambray, not himself an ascetic, though deeply in find how little trace of the odium theologicum sympathy with La Trappe, inclined to compromise appears in his methods. Towards Ferry he but if necessary prepared to pursue his course showed warm sympathy and magnanimity in to the bitter end. It is clear, too, that he was an age when religious polemics were distinguished not without some love of pomp and dignity, only by their virulence. But though a courteous though there is no proof that he ever lived the opponent he may be said to have failed to seize luxurious life of a Court bishop. the Protestant point of view. Thus Leibniz, The production of the book leaves nothing to with whom he had a lengthy and friendly corre- be desired. The printing and paper are alike spondence, was quite prepared to admit the varia- praiseworthy and there are two excellent portraits. tions of doctrine in the various Protestant The bibliography is in itself a valuable piece of churches, but was no less prepared to defend the work and bears witness to the extent of Miss desirability of these variations, a position which Sanders's reading and researches. In short, the was quite incomprehensible to Bossuet. On book is to be reckoned a thoroughly successful the other hand, the massiveness of his intellect achievement, and as such reflects the greatest and his honesty made him despise the subtleties credit on author and publisher alike. The price of a Bellarmin and the Jesuits. The latter did is modest, and it is to be hoped the work will not fail to accuse him of watering down the faith not fail to find a wide circle of friends. to suit Protestant palates, and it may be admitted that some of his writing lends colour to the accusation.

THE Publisher urgently requires a copy each of The question of controversial methods has the indexes for vols. vii. and X., Ilth Series, as a corollary the general question of religious NOTES AND QUERIES. tolerance; this is dealt with in a most impartial Readers having copies to spare are asked to manner by Miss Sanders. It may be said at once communicate. that Bossuet is open to serious criticism in this respect. Though a kindly and charitable anta

CORRIGENDUM. gonist, the Bishop had a strain of intolerance in his nature. It cannot be doubted that he

At ante, p. 94, col. 1, line 14, for “blunder.

blus” read blunderbus. approved the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and, while discouraging violence in his own see of Meaux, he displayed no disapproval of a resort to dragonnades when argument had failed. But Notices to Correspondents. the influence of political considerations must not be forgotten. The Huguenots were a dangerously

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed disruptive factor in the State. Primarily, no to “ The Editor of Notes and Queries" "-Adver doubt, Protestantism was a sin against God him- tisements and Business Letters to “ The Pubself; but secondarily it

also crime lishers ”at the Office, Printing House Square, against the monarch, who was regarded by every London, E.C.4;. corrected proofs to The Editor, true Catholic as the representative of God on N. & Q.,' Printing House Square, London,

E.C.4. earth. Politically persecution was logical, and, All communications intended for insertion in more than that, might plausibly be justified as our columns should bear the name and address of necessary.

the sender-not necessarily for publication, but as If Bossuet's religious intolerance may thus be a guarantee of good faith.









Harbert, 1601.' This applies only to the LONDON, FEBRUARY 25, 1922.

entries from 1559 to 1601 posted up from

earlier notes; but the contents of the volume CONTENTS.No. 202.

cover the years from 1559 to 1671. Up to NOTES:-Commonwealth Registers,

May, 1610, when some of the records were Marriages and Burials in the Aldeburgh Register Book lost, each child

stated to be 142-Sir Richard Willys, Traitor, 145-John Charles Williams, a Buckinghamshire Parson, 146—“ Earthland"

christened”; but after the regular reCumulative Stories - Privileges of the Dean and Canons of sumption of registration in 1620, though Windsor-Portraits of Coleridge and Dickens, 148— the heading of each page continued to be * Scooter," 149.

"Christenings " the word used in all the QUERIES:-“ Mayor"

Woman's Title Aucher : entries was Depedene-Sir Ralph and Sir Edward Bashe: Anne Scot

baptised.” This was invariable inée Bashe), 149-Latin Proverb : Origin sought-Thomas until 1651-52, in the entries of which years Lwl-Jellyman Family: Register of All Saints' Church, there were instances of the use of “ borne,” Oxford-Pilate's WiteUnidentified Portrait Wood Pan-1--Portraits by Vandyck-" Once aboard the lugger"

though these were evidently written in Catherine Duchess of Gordon-Granger's Biographical later. But after July, 1653, the heading was History." 150-The Cap of Maintenance-John Filmer “Birthes,” and “ borne” was used in each Ennett-Lazenki Palace, Warsaw: Latin Inscriptions* The Tale of Two Cities': the Drugging of Darnay-Chalk entry except three, two in a later hand, in Kent and its Owner Rve. Coruhill. Vilers, St. Clair, this practice continuing until March, 1657,

151 – Poem wanted—Reference wanted-Authors wanted, when the heading became “ Birthes and REPLIES :-White of Selborne:

Baptismes,” the date of christening as well

Portrait wanted. 152Clonel Charles Whitefoord, 153-Arab Eastern) as of birth being affixed in many cases Horses-Pallone, an Italian Game-- American Humorists: after August of that year. The more strictly Capt. G. H. Derby. 154-Prime Minister-De Kemplen's Automaton Chess-player. 155–

The Arms of Leeds-Land Puritan rule was thus breaking down; and Measurement Terms-The Chevalier Schaub " —Kangaroo in July, 1660, and only a few weeks after Cooke-Heraldic Mottoes. 156- La Santa Parantela'– the Restoration, the heading was changed Derivation of Chinkwell--3amuel Hartlib, 157-Mrs. Gordon, Novelist-General Nicholson's Birthplace-Ewen : Coat of once more to the single word “Baptismes," Arns-Quotations in The Tatkr-Thomas Edwards, LL.D., and so remained to the end of the volume.

158--Mangles -Authors wanted, 159. NOTES ON BOOKS:- The Grey Friars of Chester 'ZA

It is concerning the marriages of the New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, x= Commonwealth period that the St. Mary ZYXT-* A Manual of French.'

Magdalene Register affords the most striking Notices to Correspondents.

indications of ecclesiastical dispute. In August, 1653, Parliament adopted an Act

for solemnizing marriages by justices of Notes.

the peace; and two months afterwards,

according to the Register, COMMONWEALTH REGISTERS.

Thomas Reese being before this tyme duly chosen

to bee Parish Register within this borrough in MR. ARTHUR T. WINN's contribution in obedience and according to the late act of this the Commonwealth Marriages and Burials vided was this present day [October 11] approved

present Parliament in yt behalfe made & proin the Aldeburgh Register Book' (ante, allowed of and also sworne before mee Richard pp. 81, 104, 124) suggests a wider field of Grills gent n. maior of this Borrough and one of historical inquiry. That would be as to ye Justices assigned. how far Parish Registers in Civil War and Yet it was apparently not for two years Commonwealth times contain any special after that statute was in operation that reference to the period, or show signs of justices of the peace actually solemnized being affected by it. I am induced to make marriages at Launceston. The wedding this suggestion by the results of a thorough entries from 1653 to the closing days of srarch I made close upon forty years ago 1655 appear in their customary form ; but, of the registers of my native parish, St. after one of November 27, 1655, and in a Mary Magdalene, Launceston.

blank space at the bottom of a page, there The volume covering the period under is written in a bold hand“ Hereafter follow examination is described on the title

marriages by Laymen, according to ye

page as “A true Register of all Marriages prophanes and giddynes of ye times, Baptisms and Burialls within ye parish of

without precedent or example in any Mary Magdalen in Launceston, from Christian Kingdom or Comonwealth from yeere of our Lord god 1559 Truely copyed the Birth of Christ unto this very year

1655." out accordinge to the old Register this present yeere 1601.

Written by John The first of these lay-made marriages,


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which opens literally and figuratively a is entered as having been performed “by fresh page, was celebrated on Dec. 20, Mr. Oliver,” no layman being mentioned, 1655, when there

while in April, when the bride was a were maried by Mr. Joseph Hull minister of this daughter of Nicholas Comins of this towne in the presents of Mr. Thomas Gewen and Towne gentn. deceased,” no celebrant was John Lampon Esquire and Philippe Pearse gent. named. Richard Grylls, who filled the and maior of this towne and divers other witnesses Thomas Mill of the psh of St. Gennis and vacancy caused by Comins's death, and now Joan Biam of the same psh having their bannes for the second time elected mayor, officiated published Three severall lords dayes in the said at only one marriage ; and Henry Bennett, psh as aforesaid by a Certificate from John Goutsoe who for the second time became mayor in Register of the said psh. The said parties, afore October, 1659, is not mentioned as having said were married the same time also by Thomas

celebrated any. Gewen Esqre and Justice of the Peace and

It may not be without pronounced by him to be man & wife according to significance that it was in the year of his The acte of pliment nowe in force.

mayoralty that Bennett himself was married ; The entries of subsequent marriages under but it was after Charles II. and the Church of this system are not so full, but in each case England had both come into their old place it is stated that the banns were called again that we find it recorded that on

without contradiction." In January, 1656, Sep. 17, 1660, there were wed “Henry

Philipp Pearse gentleman and Maior of Bennett, gent. mayor, and Johan, daughter this towne again officiated, it being noted of Mr. John Bewes." It is interesting to note that the banns had been published " in the that the previous June 29 had been kept Congregation,” but the last three words in Launceston as a thanksgiving day for were subsequently struck out. In the the Restoration, while on an unnamed day March the banns appear to have been called

when the Kinge was proclaimed ” the by his orders “on three severall markett Corporation, of which Bennett was the days,” but Sundays were named in every head, gave, away "2. hogsheads of beere other instance during the remainder of this and syder and “six seames of wood mayoralty, in the course of which fifteen for bunfires."

ALFRED ROBBINS. marriages were celebrated. In October, John Hicks was chosen mayor; and in his year of office he celebrated nine marriages, COMMONWEALTH MARRIAGES AND the banns for only one of which were pro- BURIALS IN THE ALDEBURGH claimed on market days, and, as is specially

REGISTER BOOK. noted, “in the Markett Place at Launceston,” the others being on Sundays, and, as

(See 12 S. x. 81, 104, 124.) frequently mentioned, “ in the Church of ALDEBURGH was certainly suffering from lanceston." In the next mayoralty some epidemic during the years 1653 and (October, 1657–October, 1658) that of 1654, as the number of deaths is almost Nicholas Comins, seven weddings were cele three times the average of the last years of brated by the mayor, for one of which the Queen Elizabeth's reign, and the population banns

published in the markett had not increased during the seventeenth Place of Lanceston Three severall markett century-but exact figures cannot be given days three weekes following without con- owing to the loss of the second Register. tradiction.”

There were several serious outbreaks of

authorities Signs that the purely lay marriage smallpox—and perhaps the system was breaking down now begin to were responsible to some extent, for we find show themselves in the Register. In

the following: January, 1658, a couple were married by

Friday April 9th 1733 å Stop Meeting Comins and also by Mr. William Oliver Wm Groom & his children shall be Inoculated

we whose names are hereunto set do agree that Minister of this Towne”; and in the fol. Imediately and that the Parish Officers Imploy lowing month the mayor was assisted by the Cheapest Doctor that can be found. “ Thomas Seamor Minister of Luffingcott The Elizabethan Register (1558-1600) is in Devon.” On March 4, Colonel Robert a transcript of the original paper book, Bennett, a local landowner who had repre- transcribed on parchment according to the sented Launceston in more than one Par- order of Oct. 25, 1597. It is beautifully liament and had been a member of Crom- written, practically in one hand, and in well's first Council of State, celebrated a very good state of preservation. It has marriage ; but twelve days later a wedding been transcribed, and hopes are entertained





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of its eventual publication. There are many Mary Robinson a Mayd buryed the 3rd day of interesting entries, and some curious ones,

Novber 1653.

Frances the wife of James Bawkey buryed the amongst them :

same day. July 9, 1568. John Arnold & Agnes Arnold Gregory Pulham buryed the 5th day of November were marr ed the 9th of July the said Agnes 1653. beinge his wyfe befor.

Robert the son of William Covell buryed the John had probably been taken prisoner same day: on the sea (as many other Aldeburgh

Robert Harper buryed the 6th day of November

1653. men), came home to find his wife had

Anne Hunt widdow buryed the 9th day of consoled herself with another partner, November 1653. and considered re-marriage (and not jacti- William the infant of John Goodman Junior tation) the easiest way of solving the diffi- buryed the same day. culty.

Mary Simly widdow buryed the same day. Thomas Pinocke (childe) & Phillis his wife 1653.

Richard Dugdell buryed November the 10th was buried and not Buried the twentithe daie of

Elizabeth Breeze widdow buryed the 12th of October 1583.

Novber 1653. John Ciarcke the sonne of Robert Clarcke Anne the daughter of William Harvey, buryed and Alice his wife was baptized and not Baptized Noyber 13th 1653. the Fourtenthe Dale of Apprill 1598.

Margaret Fisher widdow buryed Novber 14th 1653. Does the former entry imply that the

An infant (nameless) the son of John Mordock child was unbaptized and buried in the

buryed Novber 16th 1653.

Margaret the wife of Edmund Eade buryed north” end of the churchyard, and the Novber 17th 1653. latter entry that the child was baptized John Harman, servant to Mr Alex : Blowers privately at home, and not again publicly ? buryed Noyber 18th 1653. Amongst the many curious Christian

Edmund Firrman young


November the 22d 1653. names in the Elizabethan Register the

William Tompson gentleman buryed Noyber following appear: Athanasius, Manasses, 238 1653. Archilaus (several times), Cassander, Ry- Henry Cheney a youth son to Capt : Thomas neske, Finatt and Bene.

Cheney buryed the same day.

Joan the wife of Robert Munson buryed the BURIALLS FROM THE 29TH OF SEPTBER 1653. 25th of November 1653.

Margaret Grimer widdow buryed the 30th day Alice Meares widdow, buryed the same day. of Septber 1653.

Anne Cooper widdow, buryed the 27th of Joan Jessup widdow buryed the 1st day of November 1653. October 1653.

Emme Easter widdow, buryed the same day. Mary Martin widdow buryed the same day. Anne the wife of John Brightwell buryed the

Anne the wife of Robert Woollafer buryed the 28th day of November 1653. od day of October 1653.

Philip Capon a child, the son of Philip Capon Dinah the wife of Richard Dugdell buryed the buryed the same day. 30 day of October 1653.

Frances Hart a mayd buryed November the Thomas Bardwell buryed the same day. 29th 1653.

Margaret the wife of Nicolas Goodwin buryed Frances Salturne the daughter of John Salturne the 4th day of October 1653.

buryed Novber 30th 1653. John Bert a child Son of Mary Bert widdow Margery the wife of Robert Todd buryed burved the 6th of oct : 1653.

Decber the 1st 1653, Thomas Tarrar buryed the same day.

Susan Peterson widdow, buryed Decber the 3d Robert Browne buryed the 7th day of october 1653. 1653.

Alice Heckfer a mayd, buryed the same day. Anne Reeder a child, the daughter of John Robert Bundish buryed December the 4th Reeder buryed the 12th day of Oct : 1653.

1653. Rose the wife of John Browne buryed the 14th Mary Brightwell a mayd, buryed the same of october 1653.

day. Ellen Wackerson widdow buryed the same Richard son of Anne Chapman widdow, buryed day.

the same day. joan Simpson a mayd, buryed the 17th day of Anne Hurrin widdow, buryed December the Oct be 1653.

5th 1653. Anne the wife of Matthew Smith buryed the William Youngs buryed December the 8th 18ta of oct ber 1653.

1653. Joan Cobb widow buryed the 24th day of October Rose, an infant, daughter of Nicolas Pasmer 1653.

buryed December the 13th 1653. Anne Woollafer a child daughter of Robert John, an infant, son of Nicolas Bottrick burged Boxilafer buryed the 28th of Oct. 1653.

December the 15th 1653. Martin Tarvar a Ladd, buryed the 29th day of John Ryatt buryed the 17th day of December October 1653.

1653. Thomas Lease a Lad, the Son of William Lease Mary the wife of Capt: Thomas Cheney busyed the 30th day of oct : 1653.

buryed the 21st day of December 1653.

John the son of John Barker buryed December Mary infant daughter of George Moore was the 26th 1653.

buryed May the 3d. Robert Baxter buryed December the 27th John Hefker a youth servant to Will : Daniel 1653.

was buryed May the 6th. John the son of John Cooke buryed December John Reeder

was buryed May the 7th. the 28th 1653.

Base-borne Samuel the son of Anne Knights Anne Peirson widdow buryed December the singlewoman buryed May the 13th. 31st 1653.

Mary Russell singlewoman was buryed May Elizabeth the wife of Alexander Styles buryed the 15th. the same day.

Richard an infant son of Richard Youngs was Anne the wife of William Peachee buryed buryed May the 18th. January the 2d 1653.

John Fisk a marreyd man, buryed May the 19th. Margery Ollafer widdow, buryed the same day. Joan an infant daughter of Patrick Manlin, was

Susan the daughter of William Lease buryed buryed May the 29th. January the 4th 1653.

Robert a child son of Rance Knights was Mary Robinson Widdow buryed January the buryed June the 3d. 5th 1653.

Elizabeth an infant daughter of John Hester Henry Steele buryed January the 6th 1653. was buryed June the 4th.

Elizabeth, an infant daughter of Alex : Styles Simon an infant son of Simon Peacock was buryed January the 7th 1653.

buryed June the 16th. Thomas Holdin, a singleman, buryed January William Simpson a widdower was buryed June the 10tb 1653.

the 20th. Thomas the son of Thomas Bucke, buryed Elizabeth the wife of Robert Dymer was January the 16th 1653.

buryed June the 23d. William, a child, son of Francis Neave, buryed Nicolas a child son of Nicolas Palmer buryed January the 17th 1653.

June the 30th. Alice, a child, daughter of Henry Balls, buryed James Ladly a stranger & marryner buryed the same day.

July the 1st. Margery Granger widdow, buryed January the John a child son of Henry Gurling buryed 30th 1653.

July the 4th.
BURIALLS 1653. 1654.

Hester Youngs widdow was buryed July the Mary a child daughter of John Martin was


1654. buryed February the 3d 1653. Francis, a child, son of John Martin, buryed the

Richard a child son of Robert Robson was 5th day of February 1653.

buryed July the 27th, Priscilla the wife of John Knights buryed

Mary a child daughter of Frances Scutton was Febr : the 16th 1653.

buryed July the 29th. Mary the wife of Thomas Burwood, buryed

John an infant son of John Duxe was buryed Febr: 18th 1653.

August the Ist. Thomas, a child, son of Philip Capon, buryed Sarah a girle daughter of John Robberson Febr : 20th 1653.

buryed August the 30. Thomas, an infant son of Thomas Read, buryed

Susan an infant daughter of Tho: Thonger March the 10th 1653.

buryed August the 15th. Sara the wife of Richard Cocket, buryed the Thomas a youth son of Capt: Tho: Elliott 11th day of March 1653.

buryed September the 13th. Emme, a child, daughter of Thomas Beales Mary a child daughter of William Taylor was buryed the 12th day of March 1653.

buryed September the 19th, Emme the wife of Joseph Trundle, buryed the Peter a stranger an old man buryed October 17th day of March 1653.

the 8th, Robert, an infant son of Samuel Fowlar, buryed Daniel an infant son of Tho: Beale buryed the 18th day of March 1653.

October the 9th. Anne Burwood a mayd, buryed the 20th day of John West a marryed man buryed October the March 1653.

16th. (84)

Mary an infant daughter of Mrs Tompson

widdow was buryed November 1st. ANNO 1654.

Benjamin Wheeler a marryed man burged Elizabeth the wife of Nicolas Landamer November the 2d. buryed March the 27th.

Alexander a child the son of William Milburn Rose Atkerson a mayd buryed March the 29th. buryed November the 9th.

Sarah a child the daughter of Thomas Fowler Elizabeth an infant daughter of Blowers Hunt was buryed April the second.

buryed the same day. Ailce an infant daughter of Robert Foreman Rance the infant son of William Cooper was was buryed April the 5th.

buryed November the 13th. Mary infant daughter of Francis Woodrow John an infant son of John Telford buryed buryed April the 19th.

November the 19th. Thomas a child the son of Francis Neve buryed Ailce a child daughter of Gilbert Manlin April the 24th.

buryed November the 26th, Mary the wife of Richard Wall was buryed Mr Arthur Blowers one of our Capitall BurApril the 27th,

gesses was buryed Decber 4th. Richard a child son of Tho: Holding, buryed John Parker a marryed man was April the 29th,

same day.

buryed the

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