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Martinique, he fought actions with the French fleet.

Serres early in life was master of a vessel trading to Havana, so that he probably knew Port Royal.

My West Indian books not being here, my only authorities are an article on hurricanes from The Nautical Magazine for 1848, Cust's Naval Prints and the D.N.B.' V. L. OLIVER.

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Weymouth. These seem to represent the Battle of the Saints " fought between Dominica and the Iles des Saintes, April 12, 1782, and the subsequent bringing of the prizes to Plymouth. The Formidable was Rodney's flagship, and the Ville de Paris was Grasse's flagship. See Mahan, Influence of Sea Power, pp. 480-500; Hannay, Rodney,' pp. 179-213; and Hood's ' Letters,' pp. 10121, 123-30; Mundy, Life of Rodney,' ii. 22250; Annual Register for 1782, 252-7.

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JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT.

MRS. HOLT: ISOULT BARRY OF WYNSCOTE (12 S. x. 93). This book was first published in 1871, and again in 1873 and 1880, and probably since, as it is a fairly well-known book appearing in many public library catalogues of juvenile books, but none of Mrs. Holt's many works seem to be now in print. I should think the nearest public library may have a copy, if not, I shall be glad to lend it to your correspondent on application. ARCHIBALD SPARKE.

Notes on Books.

Jacques Bénigne Bossuet. A Study. By E. K. Sanders. (S.P.C.K. 158.) BOSSUET has never come into his own in England. Pascal, Corneille, Fénelon, are familiar enough figures to us, but the Bishop of Meaux, if he is more than a name to most Englishmen, is known as a panegyrist, the author of the Oraisons Funèbres, which we seldom read, but are quite prepared to take on trust. This is a strong statement, but a glance at the careful bibliography which completes the present work will prove it to be well founded. Until now, in fact, we have had no biography of Bossuet in English. Yet to Frenchmen he stands as one of the greatest figures of the literature of France or of the world. So careful a critic as Brunetière places him as an orator above Chrysostom and Augustine, and Miss Sanders assures us that "Shakespeare alone of English writers holds with us a position akin to that which he occupies among his countrymen."

The present careful study should remove much of the reproach, and we may congratulate ourselves that a task which presents certain special difficulties should have been taken up by a writer

possessed of special aptitudes to meet them. Miss Sanders's competence' as a scholar and an been fully established by her earlier books: and authority on seventeenth-century France has these have displayed also a detached, yet penetrating and sympathetic, insight into the ideals, the temperament and the experiences of success or failure to be observed in people who have dedicated themselves to religion. All biography moves between an account of its subject as he appears to his own consciousness and an account of his relations with the external world. In the former lurks implicitly, with or without biographical consequence, his relation (or want of relation, if the expression may be permitted us) with God. This may, as it does in the case of Religious, dominate the whole biography, forcing be so slight, or so deeply latent, that the bioall the rest into a second place: and may also grapher hardly at any moment seizes it, and virtually omits it from his portrait. The difficulty in drawing the portrait of a great ecclesiastic is that this relation can neither be ignored nor ecclesiastic is a person who has undertaken to yet suffered to occupy the whole study. An stand out as a representative or agent of the supernatural in the midst of the natural life of men. He may bungle over this business, he refuse it, forget it. may come to despise it, despair over it, detest it, None the less that undertaking remains the clou to his life, its first differentiating factor, and a biography which the man himself, and what were his resources for has no grasp of how this problem appeared to solving it or his reasons for virtually giving it up, will certainly, as so many ecclesiastical biographies do, lack vitality. It is not enough to chronicle the priest's or bishop's external actions: enough to draw a picture of his personal piety or edifying these may be. his good thoughts and aspirations, however Just how he tackledor failed to tackle his unique job is the question wherein lies the secret of making the portrait live a question seldom squarely taken, and often, it would seem, but vaguely present to the biographer's mind. The signal and rare merit of the study before us is its direct seizure of this central problem; and the reward of that true centrality is seen in the distinctness with which Bossuet, in these pages, lives. Fundamentally, he has been understood: and the world he lived in understood in its relation to him. The sense that this is so adds the pleasure of confidence to the reader's enjoyment.

nor

Miss Sanders is well served by a firm and delicate English style, and also by a remarkable gift for translation. Readers who know the French of Bossuet's letters, and especially any who have made attempts at putting them into English, will regard her rendering of the extracts in this book with much respect.

Our author does not follow her hero year by year throughout his long and laborious life, but gives full-length portraits of him in his various aspects and in the various stages of his development. Thus he is presented to us as a brilliant student; as Archdeacon of Metz; as preacher at Paris; as Court ecclesiastic; as tutor to the Dauphin; as controversialist; and finally as Bishop of Meaux. In each case his reaction to the burning questions of the day is brought out by

means of remarkably well-balanced and impartial discussion of these, which strikes the reader the more happily from its being obviously composed by selection from an abundant store of knowledge. The chapters on the Gallican Controversy and on Quietism especially should recieve the attention of students. There is a specious attractiveness about the doctrine of Disinterested Love which masks its dangers: just as on the other hand the rancour displayed by Bossuet-to which our author bears impartial witness-may easily, to uninformed eyes, disguise his true character as the champion of the unprivileged. The Gallican controversy, which is perhaps hardly well enough understood in England, should be of considerable interest to the Church historian.

Another question which deeply engaged the mind of Bossuet was that of the reunion of the Church. This is found in the forefront of his mind from the time when, as Archdeacon of Metz, he was brought into contact with considerable numbers of Jews and Huguenots. He had a hunger for saving souls which never deserted him, whether the soul was that of a peasant or of a La Vallière. Hence it is not surprising to find that much of his life was spent in controversy with Protestants. But it may surprise us to find how little trace of the odium theologicum appears in his methods. Towards Ferry he showed warm sympathy and magnanimity in an age when religious polemics were distinguished only by their virulence. But though a courteous opponent he may be said to have failed to seize the Protestant point of view. Thus Leibniz, with whom he had a lengthy and friendly correspondence, was quite prepared to admit the variations of doctrine in the various Protestant churches, but was no less prepared to defend the desirability of these variations, a position which was quite incomprehensible to Bossuet. On the other hand, the massiveness of his intellect and his honesty made him despise the subtleties of a Bellarmin and the Jesuits. The latter did not fail to accuse him of watering down the faith to suit Protestant palates, and it may be admitted that some of his writing lends colour to the accusation.

The question of controversial methods has as a corollary the general question of religious tolerance; this is dealt with in a most impartial manner by Miss Sanders. It may be said at once that Bossuet is open to serious criticism in this respect. Though a kindly and charitable antagonist, the Bishop had a strain of intolerance in his nature. It cannot be doubted that he approved the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and, while discouraging violence in his own see of Meaux, he displayed no disapproval of a resort to dragonnades when argument had failed. But the influence of political considerations must not be forgotten. The Huguenots were a dangerously disruptive factor in the State. Primarily, no doubt, Protestantism was a sin against God himself; but secondarily it was also a crime against the monarch, who was regarded by every true Catholic as the representative of God on earth. Politically persecution was logical, and, more than that, might plausibly be justified as

necessary.

If Bossuet's religious intolerance may thus be

not inadequately explained away, it is much more difficult to condone his acceptance of Montausier's treatment of the Dauphin. The governor, a Huguenot by birth and training, a Catholic by policy rather than conviction, seems to have found an outlet for the sternness of his discarded religion in making savage assaults upon his sullen pupil. Once, we are told, the unfortunate lad missed a word in saying the Lord's Prayer. His governor fell upon him and beat him brutally with his fists. Frequently he was crippled by flogging. The cruelty was notorious and must have been well known to Bossuet. But there is no record of intervention, and his passivity must be reckoned a blot upon his character.

Of the "human" side of the Bishop this study

has less to say. Frankly we could have wished for more; for the sketches of Rancé and others reveal brilliant powers of characterization. That his personal character was beyond reproach is evident. In a Court where profligacy was a pleasant pastime, a director of fashionable consciences must have been singularly exposed to temptation. But M. de Condom moved unsullied in this moral slough. He is portrayed to us as a born priest, as one whose vocation was never in doubt, less other-worldly, perhaps, than M de Cambray, not himself an ascetic, though deeply in sympathy with La Trappe, inclined to compromise but if necessary prepared to pursue his course to the bitter end." It is clear, too, that he was not without some love of pomp and dignity, though there is no proof that he ever lived the luxurious life of a Court bishop.

The production of the book leaves nothing to be desired. The printing and paper are alike praiseworthy and there are two excellent portraits. The bibliography is in itself a valuable piece of work and bears witness to the extent of Miss Sanders's reading and researches. In short, the book is to be reckoned a thoroughly successful achievement, and as such reflects the greatest credit on author and publisher alike. The price is modest, and it is to be hoped the work will not fail to find a wide circle of friends.

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LONDON, FEBRUARY 25, 1922.

CONTENTS.-No. 202.

Harbert, 1601.' This applies only to the entries from 1559 to 1601 posted up from earlier notes; but the contents of the volume cover the years from 1559 to 1671. Up to May, 1610, when some of the records were

NOTES:-Commonwealth Registers, 141-Commonwealth
Marriages and Burials in the Aldeburgh Register Book lost, each child was stated to be
142-Sir Richard Willys, Traitor, 145-John Charles 66
Williams, a Buckinghamshire Parson, 146-" Earthland

"

Cumulative Stories-Privileges of the Dean and Canons of Windsor-Portraits of Coleridge and Dickens, 148

"Scooter," 149. QUERIES:-" Mayor" Woman's as a Title Aucher: Depedene Sir Ralph and Sir Edward Bashe: Anne Scot (née Bashe), 149-Latin Proverb: Origin sought-Thomas Lovell Jellyman Family: Register of All Saints' Church,

66

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christened "; but after the regular resumption of registration in 1620, though the heading of each page continued to be Christenings the word used in all the entries was 66 baptised." This was invariable until 1651-52, in the entries of which years there were instances of the use of "borne," Oxford-Pilate's Wife-Unidentified Portrait on Wood Panel-Portraits by Vandyck-" Once aboard the lugger though these were evidently written in Catherine, Duchess of Gordon-Granger's Biographical later. But after July, 1653, the heading was History, 150-The Cap of Maintenance John Filmer Emmett-Lazenki Palace, Warsaw: Latin InscriptionsThe Tale of Two Cities: the Drugging of Darnay-Chalk ia Kent and its Owners: Rye, Cornhill, Vilers, St. Clair, 151-Poem wanted-Reference wanted-Authors wanted,

152.

"

REPLIES:-White of Selborne: Portrait wanted, 152-
Colonel Charles
Eastern)
Whitefoord, 153-Arab (or

Horses Pallone, an Italian Game-American Humorists:
Capt. G. H. Derby, 154-Prime Minister-De Kemplen's
Automaton Chess-player, 155-The Arms of Leeds-Land
Measurement Terms The "Chevalier Schaub "-Kangaroo
Cooke-Heraldic Mottoes, 156- La Santa Parantela'-
Derivation of Chinkwell-Samuel Hartlib, 157-Mrs. Gordon,
Novelist General Nicholson's Birthplace Ewen: Coat of
Arms-Quotations in The Tatler-Thomas Edwards, LL.D.,
158-Mangles-Authors wanted, 159.

NOTES ON BOOKS:- The Grey Friars of Chester'—' A

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"Birthes," and "borne" was used in each
entry except three, two in a later hand,
this practice continuing until March, 1657,
when the heading became
'Birthes and
Baptismes," the date of christening as well
as of birth being affixed in many cases
after August of that year. The more strictly
Puritan rule was thus breaking down; and
in July, 1660, and only a few weeks after
the Restoration, the heading was changed
once more to the single word "Baptismes,"
and so remained to the end of the volume.
It is concerning the marriages of the
Magdalene Register affords the most striking
indications of ecclesiastical dispute.
August, 1653, Parliament adopted an Act
for solemnizing marriages by justices of
the peace; and two months afterwards,

New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, X-Commonwealth period that the St. Mary

ZYXT— A Manual of French.'

Notices to Correspondents.

Notes.

COMMONWEALTH REGISTERS. MR. ARTHUR T. WINN'S contribution in the Commonwealth Marriages and Burials in the Aldeburgh Register Book' (ante, pp. 81, 104, 124) suggests a wider field of historical inquiry. That would be as to how far Parish Registers in Civil War and Commonwealth times contain any special reference to the period, or show signs of being affected by it. I am induced to make this suggestion by the results of a thorough search I made close upon forty years ago of the registers of my native parish, St. Mary Magdalene, Launceston.

The volume covering the period under examination is described on the title page as A true Register of all Marriages Baptisms and Burialls within ye parish of Mary Magdalen in Launceston, from ye yeere of our Lord god 1559 Truely copyed out accordinge to the old Register this present yeere 1601. Written by John

according to the Register,

In

Thomas Reese being before this tyme duly chosen
to bee Parish Register within this borrough in
obedience and according to the late act of this
present Parliament in yt behalfe made & pro-
vided was this present day [October 11] approved
allowed of and also sworne before mee Richard
Grills gentn. maior of this Borrough and one of
ye Justices assigned.

Yet it was apparently not for two years
after that statute was in operation that
justices of the peace actually solemnized
The wedding
marriages at Launceston.
entries from 1653 to the closing days of
1655 appear in their customary form; but,
after one of November 27, 1655, and in a
blank space at the bottom of a page, there
is written in a bold hand "Hereafter follow
marriages by Laymen, according to ye
ye times,
prophanes and giddynes
without precedent or example in any
Christian Kingdom or Comonwealth from
the Birth of Christ unto this very year

1655."

of

The first of these lay-made marriages,

which opens literally and figuratively a fresh page, was celebrated on Dec. 20, 1655, when there

were maried by Mr. Joseph Hull minister of this towne in the presents of Mr. Thomas Gewen and John Lampon Esquire and Philippe Pearse gent. and maior of this towne and divers other witnesses Thomas Mill of the psh of St. Gennis and Joan Biam of the same psh having their bannes published Three severall lords dayes in the said psh as aforesaid by a Certificate from John Goutsoe Register of the said psh. The said parties afore said were married the same time also by Thomas

Gewen Esqre and Justice of the Peace and pronounced by him to be man & wife according to the acte of pliment nowe in force.

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is entered as having been performed "by Mr. Oliver," no layman being mentioned, while in April, when the bride was a daughter of Nicholas Comins of this Towne gentn. deceased," no celebrant was named. Richard Grylls, who filled the vacancy caused by Comins's death, and now for the second time elected mayor, officiated at only one marriage; and Henry Bennett, who for the second time became mayor in October, 1659, is not mentioned as having celebrated any. It may not be without significance that it was in the year of his mayoralty that Bennett himself was married; The entries of subsequent marriages under but it was after Charles II. and the Church of this system are not so full, but in each case England had both come into their old place it is stated that the banns were called again that we find it recorded that on "without contradiction." In January, 1656, Sep. 17, 1660, there were wed "Henry "Philipp Pearse gentleman and Maior of Bennett, gent. mayor, and Johan, daughter this towne" again officiated, it being noted of Mr. John Bewes." It is interesting to note that the banns had been published in the that the previous June 29 had been kept Congregation," but the last three words in Launceston as a thanksgiving day for were subsequently struck out. In the the Restoration, while on an unnamed day March the banns appear to have been called when the Kinge was proclaimed by his orders on three severall markett Corporation, of which Bennett was the days," but Sundays were named in every head, gave away "2 hogsheads of beere other instance during the remainder of this and syder" and "six seames of wood mayoralty, in the course of which fifteen for bunfires." marriages were celebrated. In October, John Hicks was chosen mayor; and in his year of office he celebrated nine marriages, COMMONWEALTH MARRIAGES AND the banns for only one of which were pro- BURIALS IN THE ALDEBURGH claimed on market days, and, as is specially REGISTER BOOK. noted, "in the Markett Place at Launceston," the others being on Sundays, and, as frequently mentioned, "in the Church of lanceston." In the next mayoralty (October, 1657-October, 1658) that of Nicholas Comins, seven weddings were celebrated by the mayor, for one of which the banns were "published in the markett Place of Lanceston Three severall markett days three weekes following without contradiction."

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In

Signs that the purely lay marriage system was breaking down now begin to show themselves in the Register. January, 1658, a couple were married by Comins and "also by Mr. William Oliver Minister of this Towne "; and in the following month the mayor was assisted by "Thomas Seamor Minister of Luffingcott in Devon." On March 4, Colonel Robert Bennett, a local landowner who had represented Launceston in more than one Parliament and had been a member of Cromwell's first Council of State, celebrated a marriage; but twelve days later a wedding

66

ALFRED ROBBINS.

(See 12 S. x. 81, 104, 124.)

the

ALDEBURGH was certainly suffering from
some epidemic during the years 1653 and
1654, as the number of deaths is almost
three times the average of the last years of
Queen Elizabeth's reign, and the population
had not increased during the seventeenth
century-but exact figures cannot be given
owing to the loss of the second Register.
There were several serious outbreaks of
authorities

smallpox-and perhaps the
were responsible to some extent, for we find
the following :—

Friday April 9th 1733 at a Stop Meeting Wm Groom & his children shall be Inoculated we whose names are hereunto set do agree that Imediately and that the Parish Officers Imploy the Cheapest Doctor that can be found.

The Elizabethan Register (1558-1600) is a transcript of the original paper book, transcribed on parchment according to the order of Oct. 25, 1597. It is beautifully written, practically in one hand, and in very good state of preservation. It has been transcribed, and hopes are entertained

of its eventual publication. There are many interesting entries, and some curious ones, amongst them :

July 9, 1568. John Arnold & Agnes Arnold were marr ed the 9th of July the said Agnes beinge his wyfe befor. John had probably been taken prisoner on the sea (as many other Aldeburgh men), came home to find his wife had consoled herself with another partner, and considered re-marriage (and not jactitation) the easiest way of solving the difficulty.

Thomas Pinocke (childe) & Phillis his wife was buried and not Buried the twentithe daie of October 1583.

John Ciarcke the sonne of Robert Clarcke and Alice his wife was baptized and not Baptized the Fourtentbe Daie of Apprill 1598.

Does the former entry imply that the child was unbaptized and buried in the north" end of the churchyard, and the latter entry that the child was baptized privately at home, and not again publicly?

Amongst the many curious Christian names in the Elizabethan Register the following appear: Athanasius, Manasses, Archilaus (several times), Cassander, Ryneske, Finatt and Bene.

BURIALLS FROM THE 29TH OF SEPTBER 1653. Margaret Grimer widdow buryed the 30th day of Septber 1653.

Joan Jessup widdow buryed the 1st day of October 1653.

Mary Martin widdow buryed the same day. Anne the wife of Robert Woollafer buryed the 21 day of October 1653.

Dinah the wife of Richard Dugdell buryed the 3d day of October 1653.

Thomas Bardwell buryed the same day. Margaret the wife of Nicolas Goodwin buryed the 4th day of October 1653.

John Bert a child Son of Mary Bert widdow buryed the 6th of oct: 1653.

Thomas Tarvar buryed the same day. Robert Browne buryed the 7th day of october 1653. Anne Reeder a child, the daughter of John Reeder buryed the 12th day of Oct: 1653. Rose the wife of John Browne buryed the 14th of october 1653.

Ellen Wackerson widdow buryed the same day.

Joan Simpson a mayd, buryed the 17th day of Octber 1653.

Anne the wife of Matthew Smith buryed the 18th of octber 1653.

Joan Cobb widow buryed the 24th day of October 1653.

Anne Woollafer a child daughter of Robert Woollafer buryed the 28th of Oct. 1653.

Martin Tarvar a Ladd, buryed the 29th day of October 1653.

Thomas Lease a Lad, the Son of William Lease buryed the 30th day of oct: 1653.

Mary Robinson a Mayd buryed the 3rd day of Novber 1653.

Frances the wife of James Bawkey buryed the same day.

Gregory Pulham buryed the 5th day of November 1653.

Robert the son of William Covell buryed the same day.

Robert Harper buryed the 6th day of November 1653.

Anne Hunt widdow buryed the 9th day of November 1653.

William the infant of John Goodman Junior buryed the same day.

Mary Simly widdow buryed the same day. Richard Dugdell buryed November the 10th 1653.

Elizabeth Breeze widdow buryed the 12th of Novber 1653.

Anne the daughter of William Harvey, buryed Novber 13th 1653.

Margaret Fisher widdow buryed Novber 14th 1653. An infant (nameless) the son of John Mordock buryed Novber 16th 1653.

Margaret the wife of Edmund Eade buryed Novber 17th 1653.

John Harman, servant to Mr Alex: Blowers buryed Novber 18th 1653.

Edmund Firrman a young man November the 22d 1653.

buryed

William Tompson gentleman buryed Novber 23d 1653.

Henry Cheney a youth son to Capt: Thomas Cheney buryed the same day.

Joan the wife of Robert Munson buryed the 25th of November 1653.

Alice Meares widdow, buryed the same day. Anne Cooper widdow, buryed the 27th of November 1653.

Emme Easter widdow, buryed the same day. Anne the wife of John Brightwell buryed the 28th day of November 1653.

Philip Capon a child, the son of Philip Capon buryed the same day.

Frances Hart a mayd buryed November the 29th 1653.

Frances Salturne the daughter of John Salturne buryed Novber 30th 1653.

Margery the wife of Robert Todd buryed Decber the 1st 1653.

Susan Peterson widdow, buryed Decber the 3d 1653.

Alice Heckfer a mayd, buryed the same day. Robert Bundish buryed December the 4th 1653.

Mary Brightwell a mayd, buryed the same day.

Richard son of Anne Chapman widdow, buryed the same day.

Anne Hurrin widdow, buryed December the 5th 1653.

William Youngs buryed December the 8th 1653.

Rose, an infant, daughter of Nicolas Pasmer buryed December the 13th 1653.

John, an infant, son of Nicolas Bottrick buryed December the 15th 1653.

John Ryatt buryed the 17th day of December 1653.

Mary the wife of Capt: Thomas Cheney buryed the 21st day of December 1653.

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