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PRIME MINISTER (12 S. ix. 446; x. 117). I remember years ago reading an account of --YE. JOHN BERESFORD is to be congratu- this automaton playing chess with Napoleon, lated greatly on his discovery of this title who, to test its knowledge of the game, made in the margin of Clarendon's .Continuation, three false moves. On the first occasion the &c.,' under 1661. This date now becomes the figure replaced the piece wrongly moved earliest of which the phrase is used. But and made its own move; on the second it I still think that the earliest to write it removed the offending piece from the board ; was Reresby in 1667 (p. 14 of the 1734 and on the third it swept off the pieces the first-edition). For his ‘Memoirs are and refused to continue the game. I am in the nature and almost the form) of a sorry that I cannot recall the source of this diary, as anyone can see at a glance, and amusing story, still less express any opinion the entry I cited must have been written as to its truth. I rather think-but cannot in or about 1667.

be at all certain—that it was in a magazine Now I assume (though I do not know) for boys in the mid-seventies. that the marginal notes of the ‘Continua- I certainly saw an automaton chess-player tion’ were written by Clarendon. The at the Crystal Palace a little before the date Continuation' was first published in 1759 mentioned by your correspondent.

It was (Oxford). (In the 1827 edition, Oxford, the a figure of a Turk sitting on a large ottoman, marginal note is on p. 416, vol. i.). We smoking a “hookah," the cord of which know (v. • D.N.B.,' article by Prof. Firth) looked as if it might have been the means of how the · Life' was written, and the “Con electric communication. As far as I know tinuation' is actually dated “ Moulins, the secret was never discovered. But one June 8, 1672." Clarendon died in 1674. thing that I saw tended to support the It seems pretty certain that the words “ hidden director theory. The figure prime minister were inserted after 1672. nodded twice for “ check" and three times

Anson, whom I cited, quotes Swift's for “ mate.” I saw it give check and nod " Inquiry into the Behaviour of the Queen's twice. While its opponent was considering last Ministry,' xvi. 19. I cannot find the his move, a bystander remarked “It is phrase in the Edinburgh edition, vol. V.,

mate" it

The figure at once D: 264 (1824), nor when it was first published, nodded a third time ! but it is of little importance, for in the

BARTON R. A. MILLS. title it is said, “Written in June, 1715." I thank your correspondents for interesting Anson's other reference to Swift is “ Pre- replies and gladly adopt L. L. K.'s correct face to the History of the last four years spelling of the name. The B.M. catalogue Queen Anne (xvi.], p. 38.” The words does not advance the study of the subject,

the conduct of those who are now but two illuminating notes by C. Babbage ile prime ministers (Edinb. edition, occur in a copy of a French edition of No. 1 1824, vol. V., p. 16), But Swift begins the' of 'Inanimate Reason,' published at Basle Preisee by saying that it was written (as chez l'Editeur," 1783. the title implies) about 1713 : it was not March 6, 1819.-I went this evening to Spring published till 1758 (* D.N.B.'). ·

Gardens to see the automaton play chess. He won The net result seems to be that the

the game.

The movement of his hand and arm

is not elegant and not so good as many of Merlin's earliest year of which the term is used is figures. The interior appears large enough for a 1661 (Clarendon), that the earliest writer boy and is lined with green baize. The man who to employ it is Reresby in 1667, and that exhibits it stands close to it, sometimes on one

Very near behind the earliest to recognize its coming into sometimes on the other side.

was a tent containing the figure of a trumpeter who cummon use is Swift (1713).

played two marches after the chess-player had If anyone discovers a literary reference finished. The automaton played very well and to the title earlier than 1661-7 it is greatly had a very excellent game in the opening. He to be hoped that he will publish it.

gave check-mate by Philitor's legacy. H. C-N.

Feb. 12, atdy, 1820.--Played with the automaton in St. James Street. He gave pawn and

the move. Automaton won in about an hour. DE KEMPLEN'S AUTOMATON CHESS

He played very cautiously-a trap door in the PLAYER (12 S. x. 72, 113).—There is a full floor of the room was very evident just behind the sipuunt of this invention, with diagrams figure. showing how the living player was These notes are written on pp. 1 and 3 of erzind, in chap. vi. of Tomlinson's · Chess,' an inserted piece of paper, on p. 2 of which pablished 1845.

G. A. ANDERSON. is recorded of the games played,





"presumably at the first date. A handbill of Mr. Tovey, in annotating the poem, says that this exhibition at No. 4, Spring Gardens, Sir Luke Schaub is described by Cunningadvertises the automaton chess-player and ham as “ a kind of Will Chiffinch (see Scott's “ The Automaton Trumpeter of John Maelzel ‘Peveril of the Peak,' passim) to George L. of Vienna." This handbill is c. 1819/20. and much in the favour of George II. He Your correspondent MR. A. S. E. ACKER- had several pensions from both kings for

can be assured that this is the confidential services abroad and at home.” earliest example ; its later replicas had a con. Mr. Tovey adds that Sir Luke died in 1758. cealed boy or dwarf as skilled player and

G. C. MOORE SMITH. were not entirely automata as they professed


DOCK omits the final “e” in his name. He THE ARMS OF LEEDS (12 S. ix. 507 ; x. 56, was Major-General Henry Frederick Cooke, 72, 115).—Although Leeds is honoured by C.B. and K.C.H., commonly called “ Kang. having a Duke and a Lord Mayor, an Cooke,” and a portrait of him under that esquire's helmet only adorns its coat of arms. sobriquet is to be found in Dighton's caricaThe Kings-of-Arms have confirmed and tures. About the year 1812 he was a Capassigned the supporters and crest as fol- tain and Lieut.-Colonel in the Coldstreams lows :

and A.D.C. to the Duke of York. Various On a wreath of the colours or and azure an owl rumours were in circulation as to the genesis proper as the same is in the margin hereof more of his nom de plume, Kangaroo. One was plainly depicted.

that he let loose a cageful of these animals On either side, an owl proper crowned or, as the at Pidcock's menagerie ; another, that on same are in the margin hereof also more plainly being asked by the Duke of York how he depicted, the whole to be borne and used for ever hereafter by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen and fared in the Peninsula, he replied that he Citizens of the City of Leeds and their successors, could get nothing to eat but kangaroo." in their corporate capacity, on seals, shields or He died at Harefield Park on March 10, 1837. otherwise, according to the Laws of Arms.

He was the last surviving brother of Lieut.The helm and shield are only depicted in General Sir George Cooke, K.C.B., who lost the blazon in the margin. The silver Savile an arm at Waterloo, where he commanded a owls have been changed to their natural division. colour and the Danby rowels have been In some verses written by Lord Erskine to changed to unpierced mullets, quite un commemorate a dinner he gave at Oatlands, necessarily, and have lost their historic and his guests, on Dec. 31, 1812, he thus connexion.

alludes to Cooke :What are the laws of arms ? If the con- Next to Lewis there sat, would you wish to know firmation and assignment are not in accor- who? dance with them, are they valid and effec- I will tell you—my worthy good friend Kangaroo. tual ? Would not the crest be more properly He who goes by a name by parents not given

Depend on't 'tis one highly favoured by Heaven; described as a badge ?

The friend whom we love we mould at our pleasure The Yorkshire Weekly Post of Jan. 14 con- And count on his temper the best of all treasure : tains a photographic reproduction of the Since in spite of the misanthrope's sullen pretence,

G. D. LUMB. Good nature is still the Companion of Sense. Leeds.

Thus take the world o'er, you will find very few

Who have more of sound brains than this same LAND MEASUREMENT TERMS (12 S, X. 48, And as for his person, his breeding, and taste, · 96).—I suggest that bidale or bidle is a They speak for themselves so I pass on in haste. modification of pightle. I have heard this

WILLOUGHBY MAYCOCK. word pronounced “ piddle.” Halliwell gives for it : A small meadow; any small enclosed HERALDIC MOTTOES (12 S. x. 110).piece of land.” I have heard it suggested Historic Devices, Badges and War-cries,' that its derivation is “pittike.” A. D. T. by the late Mrs. Bury Palliser (pub. Sampson THE “ CHEVALIER SCHAUB" (12 S. x. 110)

Low, Fleet Street, 1870), which is fully with whom King Stanislaus stayed in 1754 illustrated, will meet with all your corre. was probably Sir Luke Schaub, whose wife (a

spondent's requirements. Frenchwoman) when saying with Lady

CONSTANCE RUSSELL. · Cobham at the Mansion House in Stoke

Swallowfield Park, Reading. Pogis in 1750 paid a call on the poet Gray, MR. SOULBY will find ‘A Hand-Book of which led to his writing the ‘Long Story.' Mottoes,' by C. H. Elvin (1860). answers



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his query. This could be much enlarged Your correspondent, in suggesting that were a new edition published. Another Chinkwell may be “the same as Chigwell,”; helpful book is ‘Dictionary of Foreign may have remembered that Chingford Phrases and Classical Quotations,' by H. P. is within three four miles of the Jones (1913).

R. E. THOMAS. latter. And whɛt about Chignall St. James

and Chignall Smealy and Chignal Hall The following two books will be found (the variation of spelling is Bartholomew's), useful : 'A Hand-Book of Mottoes,' by six or seven miles north-west of Chelm ford ? C. N. Elvin, M.A. (Bell and Daldy, 1860); My people have a “ breeches Bible," with * Morals of Mottoes' by Samuel B. James, many entries of Chignells (who occasionally M.A., Vicar of Northampton (Religious spelt themselves with a w”) who were Tract Society, n.d., but about 1874).

born and married and buried in and about J. DE BERNIERE SMITH.

Colchester between three and two hundrea * LA SANTA PARENTELA ' (12 $. x. 107). old father in, ists that they came from

years ago. They were Huguenots, and my - There are many mutually destructive Chuignolles, a little way south of Bray (but legends relating to St. Anne ; but according I half suspect he invented this while dili

. to John Eck (1483-1543), professor in the University of Ingoldstadt, her first marriage while the war was on !).

gently studying the map round about Albert was to St. Joachim, by whom she became mother of Our Lady; her second to Cleophas, the query about Chinkwell

, or deserve

These similarities may not help to solve by whom she became mother of Mary, further discussion in your columns ; but if Cleophae (wife of Alphaeus and mother of the Apostles James the Less, Simon and any of your correspondents can tell me more

about Jude, and of Joseph the Just); and the third

any of these names I shall be grateful to Salomas, to whom she bore Mary Salomae

if I may hear from them. (wife of Zebedee and mother of the Apostles

(REV.) A. K. CHIGNELL. John and James the Greater).

Charterhouse, Hull, E. Yorks. Others identify Alphaeus and Cleophas; SAMUEL HARTLIB (12 S. X. 110).—The and Hegesippus says that Clopas was a latest and fullest account is found in Dr. brother of St. Joseph. Myself, and probably Turnbull's pamphlet Samuel Hartlib' (Oxother correspondents to N. & Q.,' would ford, 1920). From this we learn that 1628 be obliged if GENERAL LAMBARDE would give was probably the year of Hartlib's arrival us a fuller account of his miniature and of the in England. A letter dated Sept. 1 of that two pictures of the Flemish school in the year is addressed to him at a merchant Cologne Museum, of which Baedeker's

neere Dukes place [Aldgate) in London ” * Rhine' gives no notice. Baedeker does, another dated Dec. 13 at his lodginge in however, cell attention to a triptych by the Christchurch lane.” He was married at Master of the Holy Relationship.'

St. Dionis Backchurch on Jan. 20, 1629 The various Biblical dictionaries do not (n.s.), and a letter dated May 1 (presumably help much. Some of the legends relating to 1629) is addressed to him “at Dalston neere St. Anne give the names of her father and Kingsland ” (pp. 7, 8):mother, and also of St. Joachim's father and When he left this house is not certain, but it mot her, but these vary. Probably, however, seems that he was settled in a house in Duke's the grandparents of Our Lord were included Place, London, as early as June 18th, 1638.

The date of his removal to " Charing Cross, over in La Santa Parentela.' JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT.

against Angel Court," is also uncertain, but he was already there on May 2nd, 1651. Thence be

removed to a house in Axe Yard, Westminster, DERIVATION OF CAINKWELL (12 S. x. 93). apparently in 1658, for a letter to Boyle of --Probably this was Chingwell, like Ching- December 16th of that year mentions his new ford, the g being changed to k, forming a house, and subsequent letters bear the address better-known word, like “

Axe-yard.” Hlere he remained in all probability Inkpen,” which

until his death in 1662 (p. 42). was no doubt “ Ingpen.” In Domesday Book

Hartlib died on Monday, March 10, and there are mentioned some 30 Chings

was buried at the church of St. Martin-in. or “Cings," besides various Ings.'


the-Fields (p. 72). Most of the “ Ings ” and “Chings, &c.,

Swansea. were near Roman roads, and probably tribes or families settled at these places in MR. LAURANCE M. WULCKO would find a Roman times.

A. M. C. good deal of information about Hartlib in Mr.

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Donald McDonald's fine book, ‘Agricultural sold to this family by Edward VI. Mr. Writers from Sir Walter of Henley to Arthur Ewen is advised to communicate with the Young' (published in 1908 at the offices of vicar of Billericay with regard to Herne The Field, Windsor House, Bream's Build church and any souvenirs there may still ings, E.C.4). Mr. McDonald studies his remain of the Ewen family and arms. works rather than his life history, but a

HENRY CURTIS. certain amount of biographical detail emerges, as also the fact that A Bio


from graphical Memoir of Samuel Hartlib,' 94).—“ Cum tacent, clamant” is written by Mr. Henry Dircks of Blackheath, Cicero's First Speech against Catiline, 8, 21. was published in London by Russell Smith "

In the line which is apparently quoted from

Bombalio in 1865. Apparently, however, neither the Farnaby’s ‘Index Rhetoricus place nor date of Hartlib's death is known.

should be Bambalio (=Stutterer ; cf. the H. T. SHERINGHAM. Greek βαμβάλειν), the

given St. Michaels, Eynsham, Oxon.

“ propter haesitantiam linguae stuporemque MRS. GORDON, NOVELIST (12. S. vi. 38, M. Fulvius whose daughter was the wife of

cordis” (Cicero, 'Phil.' iii. 6, 16) to the 93).—Some light is thrown on the puzzling Clodius and afterwards of Mark Antony: identity of this lady by the dedication of The line seems to have been constructed Castles near Kreuznach, written by Janet by a grammarian to display words of Robertson, and published by Williams and onomatopoetic origin. Pope's couplet, Norgate, 1856 :-

offered as an English equivalent in sound in To Mrs. Gordon, author of . King's Connell,' later editions of The Tatler, is taken from his &c., to whom these sketches were originally addressed, this little work, in which they are Imitation of the First Satire of Horace's collected, is inscribed by her attached relative, Second Book, lines 25, 26. the author.

EDWARD BENSLY. Miss Robertson wrote • Affinities of Foreigners' in 1850 and Lights and Shades x. 16).—Although I have been unable to give

THOMAS EDWARDS, LL.D. (12 s. ix. 511 ; a Traveller's Path' in 1851. Some reader may be able to identify her.

the place and the exact date of this person's

birth, I find that he was brought from J. M. BULLOCH.

Parsons Green to Ellesborough, Bucks, to be 37, Bedford Square, W.C.

interred. On the south side of Ellesborough GENERAL NICHOLSON'S BIRTHPLACE (128. x. churchyard is a large stone slab, upwards of 109.)-Nicholson's father was a Dublin physi. two yards in length and about one in width, cian of note, who at the time of his son's close to the south porch, which has on it the birth, December, 1821, lived in Moore Street, following inscription : Dublin. When the father died in 1829 the Under this stone are deposited | the Remains widow and her children went to reside in of Thomas Edwards Esquire 1 of Turrick in this Lisburn. It is somewhere stated that John Parish | where he spent the last XVII years | of Nicholson was born at Vergemount in the a studious and usefull life. He was sincere and

constant in the Profession | and Practice of parish of Donnybrook. I am interested in Christianity without Narrowness Superold Donnybrook worthies and should be stition, | steadily attached to the cause of Liberty, 1 obliged for any information.

nor less an enemy 1 to Licentiousness and FacUnfortunately the Parish Register for that tion : 1 in his Poetry simple, elegant, pathetic

; !

in his Criticism exact, acute, temperate ; | affecperiod has been missing for half a century.

tionate to his Relations, | cordial to his Friends, DAVID F. R. WILSON. in the general Commerce of life obliging and St. Mary's, Donnybrook.

entertaining. | He bore a tedious and painfull EWEN : COAT OF ARMS (12 S. X. 94).- arise | from a habit of Virtue and Piety: I and

distemper | with a Patience, which could only MR. C. L. EWEN may be interested to quitted this life I with the decent unconcern of know that though Herne, Essex, is appa- one whose hopes are firmly fixed on a better. I rently too small to appear even in the ‘Post He dyd on the III of Ianuary MDCCLVII aged Office Guide, it is mentioned in Sir Henry with the truest concern and gratitude, l by his

LVIII , and this stone is inscribed to his memory, 1 Spelman’s ‘Villare Anglicum,' 2nd ed., two Nephews and Heirs, | Nathanael Mason and 1678, · Hern, Essex, Barnstable h[un- Ioseph Paice. I dred]," and in Stephen Whatley's 'Eng- The ‘ D.N.B.' states that both his father land's Gazetteer,' vol. ii., 1751, Herne, and grandfather were barristers. Essex, late Sir J. Tyrrel's seat, near Billeri.

L. H. CHAMBERS. cay.” The manor of Billericay had been Bedford.


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MANGLES (12 s. ix. 354).—On Sept. 14, conveniently to bring in stone and wood. The 1789, the Rev. George Mangles was ap- by the Water Gate, north of Watergate Street,

site allotted to them was close under the city wall pointed one of the Chaplains-in-Ordinary and west of Linen Hall Street. For three hundred to his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. years they lived there, and departed at the Disso. He may have been the father of one of the lution, leaving little trace behind them. What boys referred to as having been admitted we know of their history is very largely comprised to Westminster School in 1787 and 1810 in the record of gifts and bequests made to them.

In 1331 the King gave them permission to grind respectively.

their own corn and malt. In 1392 two of the friars JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. were imprisoned for having too briskly taken 39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex.

possession of gold and silver goods, probably left

them as a legacy, when the testator's estate was AUTHORS WANTED (12 S. s. 111).-3. My copy

indebted to the Crown. Richard II. pardoned of the lines beginning

What silences we keep them. The Franciscans, it may be noted, were year after year was cut out of a newspaper took the Yorkist side. When the Dissolution came

staunch friends to Richard. Later on, they about 20 years ago.

There is no author's name attached. The title is Too Late !' and in the this Chester house was in no very flourishing tenth line the word is loneliness.” There are

state. But seven brethren were dwelling there also other six lines :

and the plea of poverty, with which the surrender “This is the cruel cross of life-to be

of a religious house was usually bound up, came Full visioned only when the ministry

here not very far from the truth, as may be seen Of death has been fulfilled, and in the place

by the inventory of their goods. William Wall, Of some dear presence is but empty space.

the Warden, who took his degree of Doctor of What recollected services can then

Divinity at Oxford in 1516 or 1518, had an Give consolation for the 'might have been ’?"

interesting but not wholly admirable career

after his expulsion from the convent. He became

W. E. WILSON. Hawick.

a prebendary of Chester Cathedral, and conformed

and reconformed as religion in England changed. (12 S. x. 94.)

Just before the Dissolution he had been active The late Sister Xavier (of the Convent, Liver- in building a conduit at Boughton for conveying pool?) was the author of * Just for to-day,' water from the springs in that neighbourhood to the correct version of which will be found in the city. When the Grey Friars were gone the the Westminster Hymnal and other collec- site and the buildings they had occupied were tions of Catholic hymns. Other versions have delivered to one Richard Hough, a connexion been adapted by other denominations, who have, of Cromwell's, and from him they passed succesin some cases, taken great liberties with the sively into the hands of Cocks, Dutton, Warbymn-altering the teaching and missing out burton and Stanley. The church was transformed the verses dealing with purgatory, supreme eighteenth century a body of Irish linen mer

into dwelling-houses. Towards the end of the unction and sacramental teaching.

chants acquired the property and erected their J. FAIRFAX-BLAKEBOROUGH. Linen Hall upon it. Grove House, Norton-on-Tees.

A few relics, mostly in the shape of tiles and grotesque carvings, yet remain, together with an impression of the conventual seal attached

to a deed granting part of the friary church to Notes on Books.

merchants and sailors of the city. Excavations have brought to light some part of the founda

tions of the church and other buildings : wbile The Grey Friars of Chester. By J. H. E. Bennett. the inventory taken at the Dissolution and a

From the Chester Archeological Society's deposition taken in a dispute as to the right to Journal.

bear certain arms supply some details as to the THE Grey Friars came to Chester in the reign of interior. Henry III. The Black Friars had preceded them Mr. Bennett has collected and arranged his and seem to have seen their arrival with un- material with admirable care and skill.. He has favourable eyes. Alexander de Stavensby, bishop neglected no line of research, and puts his readers of Coventry and Lich field, to whose diocese into complete possession of what he has found. (hester then belonged, received from Robert The record is somewhat meagre, nor does it present Grosseteste, always the friend of Franciscans, a unusual features : but it has its rightful place in letter of remonstrance and appeal on their behalf, the history of English Church life and, thanks which yet remains to us. In 1240 Henry sent an to this monograph, fills that place in some suttiinjunction to the “ Custodes” of Chester to be cient clearness and relief. The undistinguished *rviceable to the Fria rs Minors in the building constitutes the most important part of history d a house in Chester, and from that date their after all. permanent establisbment in the city was assured. Three grants in the years 1245 and 1246 show us A New English Dictionary on Historical Printhat the settlement was not yet complete : they ciples. Vol. x. (TI.—Z) X-ZYXT. By C. T. wanted the removal of a lane which disturbed Onions. (Clarendon Press. 10s. net.) their reace; and stone from the fosse of Chester Although the Great Dictionary still lacks a few Castle for their building, and a door pierced for sections belonging to the later letters of the them in Chester wall to enable them the more alphabet, the final section is now before us.

It is

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