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difficult, looking at these pages, to refrain from are taken at random from a larger number, other
a repetition of what has so often been said before- members of which would have served equally well-
and it will fall to be said again when, in fact, the we may mention ye, you, and your ; yield (was the
work is complete about the magnitude of this classic example purposely omitted ?); yesterday ;
undertaking and the varied merit of the achieve- yoke ; and yellow.
ment. Perhaps it would hardly be rash to say The letter X calls for little comment. We
that there has never been any one enterprise to should, though, have supposed that Xantippe was
which so vast a number of human beings has quite as generally familiar as xylonite.
contributed--that is, if we except the Great War.
More than a thousand years speak to us from its A Manual of French. By H. J. Chaytor. (Cam-
columns, and so many decades have passed since

bridge University Press. 4s. net.)
the first volumes were published_decades fairly We have often thought that the hesitating be-
rich in newly developed vocabulary—that the
question of supplements already arouses interest. and sense of difficulty in acquiring a language:

ginner undergoes much unnecessary trepidation The last word of the Dictionary is zyxt, an and that this arises largely from his being occupied obsolete Kentish form for seeest."

The letter with learning grammar before he can read with 2 comprises a most interesting and varied voca

any comfort. Generalizations in an absence of bulary drawn from many sources-Greek (both particulars elude the struggling memory as a directly and through the Latin), the Romance wraith, visible to the eye, eludes the hand. Mr. languages, Semitic languages, modern German, Chaytor recognizes this. He has reduced grammar Slavonic, African and some others. The first

to a minimum ; but to a sufficient minimum ; and use of zero to denote the point or line on a he makes the main body of his work out of extracts graduated scale whence the reckoning begins for translation, to which the English is supplied is referred to 1795; the military zero-hour

interlineally or at the bottom of the page denoting the hour at which an operation is timed except for a few passages at the end.

The es to begin-seems to be a mid-war invention : the tracts are striking passages from great writers expressions zero-mark and zero-post are illustrated some thirty of them each for its own sake well by quotations, from The Times and The Daily worth thoroughly knowing. A few notes, aniChronicle respectively, which appeared within mirably brief, clear and well chosen, elucidate eight days of one another and relate to the same occasional peculiarities difficulties. It is subject- Tyburn-gate. Are the words to be possible here and there to pick a hole in the trans: considered as established terms for the mark lation—but only here and there. In general it from which distances along a road are measured ? gives the force of the French even surprisingly Zest has furnished a delightful article. The well considering that it is intended to be in some original meaning, according to Cotgrave, is degree literal even in the more advanced pieces. “the thicke skin, or filme whereby the kernell of Any one who has thoroughly mastered this book a wall-nut is divided," and, with this, orange or (and it is addressed to the beginner who knows lemon peel. All the instances of this first sense nothing all French) will have won for himself refer to lemons or oranges, and belong chiefly to

a solid grasp of real French, and that by means of the eighteenth century. It is interesting to find exceedingly pleasurable study. a modern writer, after a gap of over a hundred years, reviving the word and speaking of the

zest” of oranges. Under Zeuxis, the well-known story should surely have furnished one of the quotations. Zoological appears first in 1815; and the gardens of the society of that name in Regent's

Notices to Correspondents. Park were first known colloquially as the Zoological ” ; the first example of “the Zoo" is taken

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed from Macaulay (1847). The words derived from to“ The Editor of ‘Notes and Queries'"-Adrer (and wov, and the history and literature tisements and Business Letters to “ The Pub gathered, let us say, about Zamzummim, zecchin, lishers ”at the Office, Printing House Square, zenith, Zeppelin, Zend-avesta, zephyr, zone, are more London, E.C.4; corrected proofs to The Editor, than enough to rebut Kent's hasty reproach to N. & Q.,' Printing House Square, London, E.C.4. zed as being an unnecessary letter.

ALL communications intended for insertion in Y is not a letter which would stand high in a our columns should bear the name and address of table of frequency, yet it comprises a goodly the sender—not necessarily for publication, but as number of delightful old words still in ordinary a guarantee of good faith. use largely monosyllabic-picturesque words be

We cannot undertake to answer longing to primary things and actions and onoma

queries

privately. topoic words. The great mass of these is English, and with them must be taken the numerous com

WHEN answering a query, or referring to an pounds formed with the prefix y-, a great number article which has already appeared, correspondents of which have here been included among the are requested to give within parentheses main entries without perhaps quite sufficient immediately after the exact heading the numbers

The articles on y- prefix and -y suffix of the series, volume, and page at which the con are of the highest interest and excellently worked tribution in question is to be found. out. In fact the whole of this letter, which both WHEN sending a letter to be forwarded to in etymology and history presents material of a another contributor correspondents are requested specially engaging character, has been dealt with to put in the top left-hand corner of the envelope as it deserves and may take rank with the best the number of the page of ‘ N. & Q.’to which the work in the Dictionary. As examples and these letter refers.

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for

death of Mistress Margarite Hill (wife of LONDON, MARCH 4, 1922.

Dr. Robert Hill and previously wife of

Saravia), and the other in the later dedicaCONTENTS.-No. 203.

tion (to the Earl of Southampton) of the

Memorials of Mortalitie.' NOTES :Josuah Sylvester and Southampton, 161-Casanova in England, 163-Principal London Coffee-houses, Taverns

Most of these facts are stated in the and Inns in the Eighteenth century. 164-The Crown Inn, ' D.N.B.,' and also in Dr. Grosart's in. Shipton-under-Wychwood, Oxon-Early Domestic Use of Electrie Light—John Kendahl, 168-Emerson and Dr. John troductory memoir prefixed to his col. son-St. Dunstan'z, Regent s Park, 167.

lected edition of Sylvester's works. They QUERIES :- Temporary Fords: “ Sand "_" Sowmoyg.” 167 suggest a question to which they supply

The "Hand and Pen" -Nicholas Hilliard—" The ball no answer--why was the boy sent from
and mouth "=" The Parler within the Manor Place" Self: Eltham to the Southampton school ? In
Help"-Addison's 'Spectator'-Henry Siddons--Francis
Redfer-Refusa) to kotow-Cadby, 168--Nigger Minstrelsy my efforts to recall attention to the famous

The Marrying Man '-Col. Gordon, RE., in the Crimea-old boys of King Edward's School, South-
"Eucepbus " as a Christian Name-W, G. A. Fitzbarding-
Descendants of Richard Penderell - Historical Copper-plates ampton, of which I am headmaster, certain

The Expression “Up to." 169--Colonel Montresor of facts have come to light which furnish Belmont, Co. Kent-Use of “at" or " in " with Placenames - The Compleat Collier'-Devonshire MSS.-Bretel

an explanation, and moreover

are in--Epitaph in Tetbury Church. Glos. -$1,000 in 1653: teresting as being concerned with persons Present-day Equivalent-Author wanted, 170.

referred to in the poems. I think that they REPLIES :- De Kernpelen's Automaton Chess-player, 170 are of sufficient importance to be preserved.

The English "b" : Celtic, Latin, and German Influences-
Erghum, 172-Inference as to Date of Birth-General

William Plumbe died in 1593, and his Nicholson's Birthplace Pseudo-titles

" Dummy" will makes mention of his good brother Books

, 173–" Anglica (or Rustica) gens"_* Satan reproving and freind Mr James Parkynson.” This Sin "--House Bells, 174-The Pillow (Pilau) Club-Commonwealth Marriages and Burials-Edward Capern-The cannot mean that Parkynson was a brother Royal Society and Freemasonry-Pictures in the Hermitage of William Plumbe's wife, for it is known at Petrograd, 175-Eighteenth-century Poets. 176. The that Plumbe married first Margaret SouthIngoldsby Legends.' 177—Naming of Public Rooms in Inns - Nevin Family - British Settlers in America—Poem of the well, widow of Sir Robert Southwell and Sixties wated, 178.

daughter of Sir Thomas Nevil, and secondly NOTES ON BOOKS :- Alumni Cantabrigienses '—'Measure Elizabeth Gresham, widow of John Gresham for Measure,

and daughter of Edward Dormer. ParkynNotices to Correspondents.

son must therefore have married a sister of William Plumbe.

In the latter part of the sixteenth century Notes.

a Captain James Parkinson was Constable of the Castle of Southampton, and Captain

of Calshot Castle. In the circumstances it JOSUAH SYLVESTER AND

would not be very rash to surmise that he SOUTHAMPTON.

was the James Parkinson who had married The poet Josuah Sylvester (1563-1618), Miss Plumbe ; as we shall see, there are translator of Du Bartas's 'Deuine Weekes other pieces of evidence which place the and Workes,' and towards the end of his matter beyond reasonable doubt. life one of the most popular poets of the Though Josuah Sylvester dedicated most day, was the son of Robert Sylvester, a of his later poems to royal or noble patrons clothier, who had married a daughter of (or such as he hoped would become so), this John Plumbe of Eltham, in Kent. After was not the case with the earlier ones. His the death of both his parents in his early first poem was published in 1590-1, and in childhood, Josuah was brought up by his 1592 he dedicated 'The Triumph of Faith' mother's brother, William Plumbe, who to his uncle, William Plumbe. Mr. Plumbe also lived at Eltham. He was sent to the died a few months later, and a subsequent Free Grammar School of King Edward VI. edition of the poem bore an inscription at Southampton, of which the headmaster stating that it was “formerlie dedicated was at that time the distinguished scholar and now for ouer consecrated to the grateAdrian à Saravia, afterwards Prebendary full Memorie of the first kinde Fosterer of of Canterbury and Westminster, and one our tender Muses, my never-sufficientlyof the translators of the authorized version Honoured dear Uncle, w. Plumbe, Esq. of the Bible. Two references to his school. Another well-known instance of his dedi. days under Saravia occur in Sylv cations to relatives or connexions is the Forks, one in the Funerall Elegi

uch later case of " Auto-Machia,' which

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was dedicated first to one and afterwards to particulars which the study of the Southanother member of the Nevil family (to ampton records has elicited. In 1643 a which the first Mrs. Plumbe belonged). Captain John Parkinson died by his own But I do not think it has been observed hand, and in consequence his estates became that the earliest poem of all is another forfeit to the mayor and burgesses. Papers case of the same kind. The translation of relating to the matter are preserved among Du Bartas’s ‘Yvry' (1590-1) was dedicated the town muniments. One of them, ‘Henry to Maister James Parkinson and Maister Capelin's Release to Mr. Parkinson of free John Caplin, Esquires, his well-beloved Land and Garden,' is interesting as bringing friends, and the former of these was, as we together again the two names of Sylvester's have seon, the poet's uncle.

dedication. It is dated Dec. 30, 1613, Now in this dedication Parkinson is and in it John Parkinson is described as associated with John Caplin, and the brother and heir of James Parkinson gent Capelins were one of the most prominent deceased.” Taking account of all the dates, families in Southampton at this time. it would seem that the two brothers John A John Capelin had been Mayor of South and James were sons of that James Parampton at the time King Edward VI. kinson who married Miss Plumbe, and so School was founded in 1553, and ten years were first cousins of Josuah Sylvester. A later he was burgess of Parliament for the reference in another document to a sum of borough. He died in 1570, and his son, also money lent by Mr Jon Parkinson for called John Capelin, was admitted a burgess ye payment of ye garrisson repayed . of the town in the same year. It must have oute of ye Excise Office,” suggests that the been this younger John Capelin with whom connexion with the Castle of Southampton James Parkinson was associated in the had been maintained. Among the many dedication of Sylvester's first published bonds forfeited to the corporation there poem.

are almost as many drawn in favour of We can hardly stop at this point.

If Bridgett Parkinson as of John, so that Sylvester dedicated any early poems to Bridgett must have been his wife, though I relatives, the first of all was scarcely likely found no document in which she was so to have been an exception. And if the first

described. She was evidently possessed was dedicated to two men, of about the

of considerable property, and this agrees same age, of whom one, as we now know, with the fact that in 1635 a certain Bridget was an uncle of the poet, it is very probable Parkinson gave twenty pounds to the town that the other was an uncle also. Other- of Southampton for the annual benefit of wise, one imagines that his uncle Parkinson the poor, a gift which was afterwards would have had the dedication to himself. transferred to King Edward VI. School. Thus the association of the two names not

I add a note on the two Nevils to whom only makes it impossible to doubt the identity Sylvester dedicated his · Auto-Machia,' for of the James Parkynson of William Plumbe's it appears to me that the 'D.N.B.' is will with the James Parkinson of South- mistaken on one point. The dictionary ampton, but it further suggests the likeli- states that the poem was first dedicated hood of John Capelin's wife having been to Lady Mary Nevil, and afterwards to another of the daughters of John Plumbe. her sister Lady Cecily. I think that Cecily If that were so, we should have the fol- was the daughter, not the sister, of Mary. lowing tree :

The dedications are as follows:
John Plumbe

In 1607, “To the right noble, vertuous

and learned lady, the Lady Marie Nevil." William

In 1615, “ To the truely-honorable Mistris a daughter a daughter a daughter Plumbe m. Robert m. Capt.

Cecilie Nevil.”

m. John Sylvester James Capelin The writer in the ‘D.N.B.' appears to 1 Parkinson

have misquoted the title in the second JOSUAH SYLVESTER

case ; and it is obvious that the descripThe conjecture relating to John Capelin tion Mistris Cecilie is not in favour of the still waits to be confirmed. In the mean- sister-relationship, for Lady Mary Nevil time we have shown that the poet had at was a daughter of the Earl of Dorset. least one uncle living in Southampton, even On the other hand, a piece of positive if he had not two.

evidence for the daughter-relationship arises It may be worth while to give a few more out of Sylvester's inveterate habit of con

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structing anagrams on the names of those paring his handwriting with that of Casato whom his poems were dedicated. The nova's correspondent of Dec. 1, 1763, it cannot later dedication includes a enlogistic sonnet be determined that they are identical, and on the virtues of Cecilie Nevil, describing even then there is no direct evideno to her as the richly endowed daughter of connect Edgard with Agar, but it is not imMinerva ; and the significance of the de- probable that they were one and the same scription consists in the fact that in the

person. earlier dedication Alia Minerva had been The “ Canon," where Casanova dined (Garthe anagram on the name Maria Nevila. nier, vi, 540-41; vii. 60) appears to have been

C. F. RUSSELL. the famous Cannon Coffee-house in Cockspur

Street, Charing Cross, the site of which is

now occupied by the Union Club at the southCASANOVA IN ENGLAND.

west corner of Trafalgar Square. In 1763 (8 S. x. 171, 311; xi. 42, 242--10 S. viii. 443, it was owned by Patrick Cannon, and after

491 ; ix. 116 ; xi. 437–11 S. ii. 386 ; iii. 242; his death in 1765 was carried on by his iv. 382, 461; v. 123, 484-12 S. i. 121, 185, widow, Susannah Cannon. It was rated at 285, 467 ; ii. 505.)

£48. In 1815 it was owned by one Hodges Among his English acquaintances Casanova (vide . Story of Charing Cross,' by J. Holden

the Westminster Rate speaks of “le chevalier Edgard, jeune Anglais, Carmichael, and riche, et qui jouissait de la vie en caressant

Books).

The ses passions. J'avais fait sa connaissances

Star Tavern (Garnier, vi. 377, chez lord Pembroke" (Garnier ed., vi. 539). 383) to which I have already referred at Other editions of the "Mémoires' (e.g., in the Strand, near Charing Cross, which is

12 S. i. 122, may possibly have been the Star Laforgue's) describe him as Sir Edgar Each variation presents difficulties. The mentioned in MR. J. PAUL DE CASTRO's List title of Sir Edgar -, at this period, is of London Coffee-houses and Taverns,' at an unfamiliar one, and the name Edgard is 12 S. ix. 525. Casanova, who patronized the unknown.

Orange and the Cannon, which were close at Herr Gustav Gugitz of Vienna, the editor-hand, was familiar with this part of the town. in-chief of the forthcoming edition of

Casanova says that Lady Harrington inCasanova's · Mémoires '-basing his assump

troduced him to her four daughters (Garnier, tion on a letter formerly preserved in Count vi. 364). She had five daughters, but we Walstein's library at Dux in Bohemia, written cannot complain of Casanova's inaccuracy to Casanova while in England, dated Dec. 1, in this instance, as the youngest, Lady Anna 1763, and signed “W. E. Agar

Stanhope, afterwards Duchess of Newsuggests that the previously unidentified castle, was only three years old in 1763, and Edgard or Sir Edgar is the writer of this therefore it is quite probable that he did not letter. Unfortunately the letter itself con

see her. tains no clue and I have not been able to It is obvious that the story of the riot at obtain a facsimile.

Drury Lane Theatre (Garnier, vi. 369 ; cf. The most prominent W. E. Agar of the “ N. & Q.,' 12 S. i. 185) and the story of the period was Welbore Ellis Agar, who was wager at White's Club (Garnier, vi. 461; twenty-eight years old at the time of cf. 'N. & Q.,' 11 S. iv. 383) were both related Casanova's visit to London. He was the to Casanova by one of his friends, and that he son of Henry Agar, M.P., and Anne, only repeated them in his · Mémoires' as if he daughter of the Right Rev. Welbore Ellis, had actually been an eyewitness of the Bishop of Meath; born in 1735 ; married

incidents. October, 1762, Gertrude, daughter of Sir The file of The St. James's Chronicle for Charles Hotham, Bart. (who died at Margate, the year 1763 at the British Museum is üged 50, on Aug. 14, 1780); appointed one complete, but although I have searched it

the Commissioners of the Customs in twice I cannot discover any of the paraDecember, 1776; and died at his house in New graphs which Casanova says appeared in Soriolk Street, aged 69, on Oct. 30, 1805. this newspaper. He was brother to the first Viscount Clifden. “La pension

à Harwich” In The Hothams,' by Mrs. A. M. W.(obviously a misprint for Hammersmith) Sterling, ii. 333.4, it is stated that his where Sophie Cornelys was educated (Garnier, narriage was an unhappy one.

vi. 474) consisted of three houses in the BroadCatii there is an opportunity of com- I way, Hammersmith, yclept at the period

“the rat-trap,” and was conducted by the Casanova speaks of visiting a "labySisters of the Institute of Mary. In 1763 rinthe" in Richmond Park (Garnier, vi. 528). the Reverend Mother (“la directrice,” vide Probably this, was the “ labyrinth full of Gampier, vi. 474) was Frances Gentil. Un- intricate mazes which Queen Caroline, fortunately the list of pupils does not wife of George II., had constructed in the appear to have been preserved in the Catholic gardens of Richmond Lodge around a Gothic archives, but Casanova is corroborated by building called Merlin's Cave. John Taylor (vide 'Records of My Life,' i. 267), “ M. Leïgh," banker, mentioned in Garnier, who states that Sophie Cornelys was placed vii. 63, may have been Mr. Lee, a member in “ a Roman Catholic seminary at Hammer- of the firm of Brassy, Lee and Co., Lombard smith.”

Street.

HORACE BLEACKLEY.

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PRINCIPAL LONDON COFFEE-HOUSES, TAVERNS, AND INNS IN THE

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. (See 12 S. vi. and vii. passim ; ix. 85, 105, 143, 186, 226, 286, 306, 385, 426, 504, 525;

x. 26, 66, 102.)
(An asterisk denotes that the house still exists as a tavern, inn or public-house

-in many cases rebuilt.)
Waghorn's ..
Pope's Head Alley, Cornhill 1720 Daily Courant, July 8.

1774 Dartmouth MSS., 1887, i. 372.

Report of House of Lords MSS.,

1908, vol. iv. Watson's Strand

1782 • Lives of the British Physicians,'

1830, p. 182. Webb's Smithfield

1711 Post Bag, Feb. 24. Proposals for

the Joynt Adventure in the

£1,500,000 Lottery.
Welch lead
Dyott Street, St. Giles ..

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916.
Larwood, p. 8.
Named after Saunders Welch, the

High Constable of Holborn, and

later a Justice of the Peace. Well and Beckett Bethnal Green Road

Larwood, p. 374.
Welsh Trooper
Hammersmith

::
1745 Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916.

Also known as The Welsh Goat. Wenman's Punch- Near the Royal Exchange

1744 London Daily Post, Jan. 4. house West India .. Behind Royal Exchange

1749 General Advertiser, July 19. Wheatsheaf.. :: Fleet Market

.. 1776 J. T. Smith's ‘Book for a Rainy

Day,' 1905, p. 69.
Wheatsheaf..
Drury Lane

1789 Life's Painter of Variegated

Characters.'
Wheatsheaf..
Upper Tooting

London Museum : sketch by J. T.

Wilson (A22048).
Wheatsheaf..
Oxford Street

1789 Life's Painter

of Variegated

Characters.'
White Bear..
Basinghall Street, east side

1677 Ogilvy and Morgan's 'London

Survey’d.' 1708 A New View of London,' i. 5. 1732 Parish Clerks' Remarks

of
London,' p. 383.
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.'
1799 Harwood's 'Map of London,

Harben, p. 58.
White Bear ..
Bear Garden, Southwark

London Museum: pewter tankards

(A 2747 and 2751). Kept by Richard King and after

wards by Thomas Ward.
* White Bear
New End, Hampstead

1704 Baines's Hampstead,' p. 233.
1766 Hampstead and Highgate Express,

Oct. 9, 1920.
White Bear and The Mall, Chiswick

Thornbury, vi. 557. Whetstone

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