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COLONEL MONTRESOR OF BELMONT, Co. EPITAPH IN TETBURY CHURCH, Glos.KENT.--Colonel Montresor gave the bells Over one of the inner doors of this church to Throwley Church, Kent, in 1781, where is a large marble tablet with this inscription he intended to be buried. He died, however, i (it is quoted from memory, but is substanin Maidstone Gaol and was buried apparently tially accurate): in Maidstone Church, June 9, 1799. The In this vault are interred several Saunderses Kentish Gazette states he was then “proved of this parish. Particulars the last day will innocent," but does not say with what

disclose. Amen. crime or misdemeanour he had been charged. Is any story attached to this unusual What was his supposed offence ? Belmont epitaph ?

M. N. 0. was sold and the sheriff was in possession

£1,000 IN 1653: PRESENT - DAY Equi. for 1800 and 1801. Why ?

VALENT.-Sir Marmaduke Constable had his PERCY HULBURD. [The ‘D.N.B.' states that he died about 1788.) being put to sale, he was forced to purchase

whole estate sequestered for ten years, which, USE OF

AT” OR “IN” WITH PLACE- it of the Commonwealth for the sum of £1,000, NAMES.-What governs the preposition “in” April, 1653, 5 Car. II. or“ at

in reference to a city or town? What would be to-day's value ? We always say “in London,


CLIFFORD C. WOOLLARD. London." at Leamington,” not

68, St. Michaels Road, Aldershot, Hants. in Leamington.' Where is the distinc- AUTHOR WANTED.- -Whence comes the followtion ?

RAVEN. ing sentence, which appeared in the “In Memo

riam " list, The Times, Feb. 6:* THE COMPLEAT COLLIER.'—Perhaps some " Sorrow is, then, a part of love, and love does

S. C. Northumbrian reader could kindly help not seek to throw it off.” me to find * The Compleat Collier ; or, The whole art of

Replies. sinking, getting, and working the Coal Mines &c., as is now used in the Northern Parts, es- DE KEMPELEN'S AUTOMATON pecially about Sunderland and Newcastle. By F. C. Printed at London for G. Conyers, at the

CHESS-PLAYER. Ring in Little Brittain, 1708.

(12 S. x. 72, 113, 155.) A reprint was issued by M. A. Richardson, Von KEMPELEN's chess-player has been often Newcastle, in 1846. I cannot find either described, with details of its working. Briefly, the original or the reprint in the British it depended on the skill of an expert chessMuseum catalogue and suspect that the player concealed partly in the figure and reference is wrong.

L. L. K.

partly in the large box on which the figure DEVONSHIRE MSS.--I should feel obliged

was seated. After its invention in 1769 it had to any correspondent who could point out 1838, when it was exhibited in public for the

a great career in various ownerships until the present whereabouts of the original last time in Philadelphia, and in 1854 was manuscripts of Risdon’s ‘History of Devon, Westcott's “Survey of Devon,'; Bishop Chinese Museum of that city. An account

destroyed in the fire which demolished the Ward's Papers, and Dr. Plot's Natural

of the figure will be found in Bogue's ‘Boy's History of Devon.'

W. S. B. H.

Own Book,'1855, but the automaton possesses BRETEL.-What is the meaning of this little interest now, as it has been entirely forename? There is a Bretel in Domesday superseded by later and cleverer inventions. Book, who has large and numerous holdings The figure which MR. ACKERMANN saw in from the Count of Mortain, in Somerset, South Africa 35 years ago, and which he Devon and Dorset. One of his properties, so accurately remembers, was, no doubt, a Ash, in Somerset, is now known as Ash- copy of Mr. J. N. Maskelyne's whist-player brittle. The name appears again in the Psycho," and it is quite likely that I have Pipe Roll of 1130, under “Bretellus de Am- handled some parts of this identical figure. berer,” who has notices in Hampshire, About 1880 I numbered amongst my friends a Warwick and Devon.

professional conjuror, Mr. Edward Le Mare Does the name derive from Berthold or of Manchester, who had a genius for mecha. Bartholomew ? Surely it can hardly be a 'nical construction and who was one of the diminutive of “Brito.” Solution of the very few makers of automata and appaorigin of the name will be appreciated. ratus for professional illusionists. Maske

INA CRISTAL. | lyne's ingeniously conceived whist-player


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was first shown at the Egyptian Hall in 1875, first in the book, occupying 37 pages. It and, as is usually the case, imitations of it was suggested to the author by finding on began to appear after a few years had his shelves a thick volume containing six or elapsed. I saw the original figure as a mem- more tracts on the subject. The important ber of the public and afterwards handled the parts are too lengthy to quote in full, beautiful mechanism of the hand and arm but the following notes may be given. The of a similar figure that was being made in my invention appeared first at Vienna in 1770. friend's workshop for dispatch to the Cape. Mr. Walker, in English, first quotes from

The full mechanical details would take too a work by M. Windisch, ‘Briefe über den much space to describe here. Suffice to say Schachspieler des Herrn von Kempelen,' &c. it was really a mechanical device containing (Basle, 1783), giving a full description of the no human figure. A spring-driven clock appearance of the automaton :work provided the motive power.

Of two The chest to which it is fixed is three feet and separate trains of mechanism, the first a half long, two feet wide, and two feet and a half worked the sweep of the hand and head side- high ; and is, by means of the aforesaid castors, ways through a quarter circle, and the second moved with facility from place to place. Behind train actuated, by a single cord, the closing in the Turkish costume, seated upon a wooden

this chest is seen a figure the size of life, dressed of the thumb so as to grip one of the cards chair fastened to the

body of the Automaton, and arranged in the quadrant spoken of by MR. which of course moves with it, when rolled about ACKERMANN, and, by still further tension

on the apartment. The figure leans its :ight arm the cord, to raise the hand, wrist and fore-arm on the table, holding a long Turkish pipe in his

left hand, in the attitude of a person who ceases into such a position as showed the face of to smoke. It plays with its left hand ; which the card to the audience. The secret of M. de Kempelen informed me was an oversight the control of the apparatus lay in the fact on his part.

When the Iurk is about that behind the stage an air-pump was used to play, M. de Kempelen, as pipe-bearer, takes the

Before the Automaton is to raise or lower the pressure of air in a pipe pipe from

his hand.

a chess-board, screwed on the table, or upper which passed under the stage and up one surface of the chest, on which the eyes of the figure leg of the lower wooden base. The green appear to be constantly fixed. baize covering of this base allowed the Then follows a description of the paravariations of pressure to be conveyed to phernalia accompanying the figure and the inside of the upright glass cylinder and Clockwork in the chest, and the doors to be to the mechanism inside the figure where, opened to exhibit these, before playing, I believe, a simple piston arrangement was and a description of how the figure moves his raised or lowered by the high or low pressure, hands and head while playing. and switched the driving power of the clockwork on to either of the trains of gearing not at first care for the notoriety of his

De Kempelen was a modest man and did mentioned above, or stopped midway, when no motion took place. The man who played exhibit it, actually took it partly to pieces

toy,” and, pestered from all quarters to ** Psycho's ” cards controlled the air-pump and stored it, giving out that it was damaged. unseen. The cards of the other players But it was brought to light again by request could be overlooked from behind the curtains at the sides of the stage, so that the chances when the Grand Duke Paul of Russia visited of winning were well in favour of “ Psycho.'

" the Emperor Joseph II. at Vienna. De Full details of both Kempelen's and Kempelen now decided to reap the financial Maskelyne's machines, with illustrations of harvest promised by his invention, and it the mechanism, are given in The Old and went to Paris in 1783 and was an instant Sew Magic," by Mr. Henry Ridgeley Evans, success ; from Paris it proceeded to England. published by the Open Court publishing In 1785, Philip Thicknesse (1719-1792-this Company, Chicago, *1906, and probably seems to have appeared anonymously in obtainable from Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench 1784, see · D.N.B.") printed a pamphlet deand Co., London. ARTHUR BOWES.

nouncing the chess-player as a hoax, and

touching perilously near to the secret. A full account and satisfactory explana- After

this the inventor was invited to go to tion (presumably correct) of the automaton Berlin ; eager to solve the mystery, Frederick and its inventor, Wolffgang de Kempelen, the Great purchased the figure, and when Hungarian, appears in a book by the

well. he held the clue, banished it to an obscure known chess writer, George Walker, entitled lumber room,

where it remained for 30 is headed The Chess Automaton, and is the it once more set out on its travels and to her and Chess. Players (1860); the article years, until the advent of Napoleon, when

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became the property of M. Maelzel, who sold and country round it. Hence the modern the key to Prince Eugene for 30,000 francs, Indian province of Sindh or Sind. repurchasing it for the interest on the There is a well-known phonological law money ! Maelzel eventually arrived in by which the sibilant breathing s becomes London in 1819. Games played by the transferred lower down the mouth to the figure were taken down and published in a breathing h. Hence very long ago the name small volume by Mr. Hunneman in 1820. Sind became Hind to the people west of During this final visit to England several modern India, who still say Hind for Sind. essays on the subject appeared, one by an e.g., Persians and Arabs. Long ago, tooOxford graduate,

Observations on the very long ago—the Greeks, with their love Automaton Chess-Player' (1819), giving a of fitting foreign words to their own tongue, full description of the figure and its mode of adopted ’Ivdos for the river, and 'ly ta play. Robert Willis of Cambridge (1800- for the country and land, with Iveo for 1875, see ‘ D.N.B.') brought out an interest. the people. These the Romans transformed ing work on the subject in 1821, 'An again into “Indus," India," without even Attempt to Analyse the Automaton Chess- the very light breathing indicated by the Player, and this proves that a man might Greek spelling. be concealed in the contrivance. Dr.

There was a clear dropping of h here, as the Brewster copied this account in his work on older form Hind is still in common use, as is natural magic. Walker now tells us that seen in the term Qaisar-i-Hind (Cæsar of

the man who really played the Chess. Hind) for the title of the King of England as Automaton was concealed in the chest,” and Emperor of India ; while in poetical par: describes how this could be so that he could lance Ind is still a common term. move about while the works were being ex- use the aspirated form in the very common hibited with apparent candour, and how he terms Hindostan, Hindostani. controlled the movements of the figure after the moves of the game had been indicated on sind, Hind and India, we are unconsciously

In fact, by the ordinary use of the forms the underside of the chess-board, but the still disclosing the history of “ India” in our ingenious details must be perused in Mr. Walker's book, as they occupy some space.

everyday speech. Mouret, a great chess-player, was the chief

There is yet another very interesting form, “jack-in-the-box for Maelzel, and they

Scinde, which was common until quite lately, appeared in Spring Gardens and St. James's and is still sometimes seen as the name of Street. The automaton travelled over

the province we now write as Sind. This was Europe and eventually arrived in America. due to the general European influence, The last Mr. Walker tells us of it is that arising ultimately out of old Latin usage, " for some years the figure has lain in a state which produced such words as scimitar, of inglorious repose in a warehouse at New scion, scent and many others. I have often Orleans," so the note by L. L. K. in wondered whether educated people grasp N. & Q.' that it perished in a conflagra- that when our dear friends Tommy and his

“Hindia," they tion is of interest ; this may have occurred wife talk about through the candle that was used when ex. etymologically right, as they are, by the way, hibiting the interior, or that used by the when, in discussing the late war, they talk enclosed player, after taking up his final about “ Wypers. position. RUSSELL MARKLAND.

The use of the word “ India ” for that

portion only of the whole country which was THE ENGLISH H”: CELTIC, LATIN AND known to the speaker or writer has been GERMAN INFLUENCES (12 S. x. 32, 116).—common through all history from the days of Dropping the h-origin of India.” The the Persians, Greeks and Romans to those Sanskrit word for the ocean, wide estuary, of the Portuguese, English and other Eurogreat river, was (and is) Sindhu ; root Syand, peans, to say nothing of the Mughals or fluidity, seen in Syundu, the name of one of Mongols.

R. C. TEMPLE. the three principal rivers in Kashmir, still called by ordinary Indians and Europeans ERGHUM (12 S. 9, 55, 99, 136).-I now the Sindh. In contemporary vernacular find that “ Ralph de Urgham occurs in speech, the Sanskrit Sindhu became Sindh Hardy's 'Le Neve'as prebendary of Decem and Sind, and was applied specially to the Librarum in Lincoln some time between great western river of Northern India, known 1306 and 1360."

J. T. F. to us now as the Indus, and also to the delta

Winterton, Lincs.

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John Nicholson,

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INFERENCE AS TO DATE OF BIRTH (12 S. Capt. Trotter, in mentioning the memorial
x. 127).-Immediately after reading FAMA's in Bunnoo church, adds a footnote (p. 316),
helpful directions I took a case, the working "On this memorial Nicholson's age is rightly
out of which exemplifies one of the pitfalls given as 34, not as the tombstone gives it
mentioned by him, and perhaps other points as 35.”
of interest. George Baker was admitted on In the ‘Dictionary of Indian Biograph'
the foundation at Eton, March 20, 1698, æt. (C. E. Buckland, C.I.E.) the dates of birth

10. He died, according to the most ex. and death are given, 1821-1857, the place
panded notice, on 28 January, 1772, in the of birth not being mentioned.
eighty-sixth year of his age.” But the

W. M. CLAY, notices in The Gentleman's and London Maga- Alverstoke, Hants. zines of 1772 have" at. 85.” To take “aged

PSEUDO-TITLES " DUMMY" Books 10” and “ aged 85 ” results in a contradiction, producing different latest possible (12 S. x. 129). —I have always taken an dates. I then took “ aged 10” and “aged

interest in this subject and herewith I 84," and found that he was born between venture to enclose a list of dummy books March 21, 1687, and Jan. 28, 1688.


I made many years ago for a door in my confirms the parish register, which records own library. his baptism on July 17, 1687. I say con

They were chiefly compiled from a comfirms because the years in parish registers are petition which was then going on in Truth. not seldorn misplaced, and in the case of two It will be observed that some of them are of George Baker's brothers, while Eton and topical of the past. It would be interesting Oxford agree, the parish register makes them to collect specimens from some of the country each two years older.

A. T. M.

houses of England. There was a good list

at Ritchings, the home of the Meekings GENERAL NICHOLSON'S BIRTHPLACE (12 s. in Buckinghamshire. Viscount Long of . 109, 158). — There is in the Life of Wraxhall has one at Rood Ashton, and I

by Capt. Lionel J. have somewhere a list compiled by Charles Trotter (2nd ed., 1898), p. 4, a distinct Dickens for the door in his library at Gadsstaternent that the eldest boy of Dr. Nichol- hill. I recollect (when I stayed there son's family was born as Lisburn, where his with Major Austin Budden, the penultimate wife's mother, Mrs. Hogg, lived, and that owner) there were ten thick volumes devoted he was born on Dec. 11, 1822.

to 'Five Minutes in China,' and some In a footnote Capt. Trotter, referring to scathing sub-titles to an encyclopædia called Kaye's 'Lives of Indian Officers,' vol. ii., The Wisdom of our Ancestors.' says : " Kaye has given 1821 as the year of 1. 'A New England Cat,' by M. E. W. John's birth : this is a manifest error, for

Thoughts on my Bed,' Stead. John's eldest sister was born in October of

3. The Rightful Heir : a Story of the Whigs.'

A Brief Tale of a Manx Cat,' by Hall Caine.
There is also much information bearing

5. “Open Sesame ! or Taken in.'

The Strange Case of Ann Chovies,' by the on the date of Nicholson's birth in ‘Memo- Editor of Rowe on Toast. rials of the Life of Sir Herbert Edwardes,' by

7. "The Bloodhounds of Bodega ; or Whines Lady Edwardes (1863); valuable because he

from the Wood.' was a contemporary in years and Indian lors’ Buttons.

8. ' Lost in the Wash,' by the author of' Bacheservice, and an intimate friend of Sir John 9. On a Japanese Bike,' by the author of Nicholson ; and also because he is responsible Cycle of Cathay." for the inscriptions on the tomb of Nichol.

io. ` Contents of a Library,' Wood. son at Delhi, and on the tablets in the church

11. · Appearances are Deceitful.' (Illustrated.) at Bunnoo (western border of the Punjab)

Carpenter's Works.'

'Cover Hunting,' by M. T. Ness. and in the parish church at Lisburn,

Co. 14. Bunyan on the Great Toe.' Antrim, Ireland, where Nicholson's mother

15. ‘A Bolt from the Blue; or the Deserting had lived “ ever since she had been

i Policeman.' widow."

Master Wouldn't,' by Mrs. Wood. The inscription

17. "The Last Letter,' by Omega. on the tomb at Delhi

18. ' Midnight Musings on the Itchen': records that Nicholson died Sept. 23, 1857, sequel to A Night at Margate; pod 35; the inscrpition on the tablet in the 19. 'Lays Ancient and Modern ;

or Thirteen church at Bunnoo and also that in the church Eggs for

a Shilling:

Deceived,' by Ascham Dawe. he died on the 23 September 1857 aged only 34."

Backs et praeterea nihil,' by a Carpenter. 22. Euvres de la Porte.'


that year."


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23. *


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Keep your Pecker up; or Prometheus An Editor's note to a query on the and the Vulture.'

above in 11 S. iv. 230, says that 24. Outside the Pale,' by Handel.

List of Imitation Book Backs' was made 25. * The Fatal Blow,' hr John Knos. 26. - Tall Tales,' by a Kidder.

by Dickens for Mr. Eeles in 1851 and can be 27. The Air Apparent : a Tale of the London seen in the edition of his letters published Fog.'

by Messrs. Macmillan, 1893, or in the National 28. The Art of taking Notes.' by a Burglar.

edition of his works, vol. 37, pp. 279-80. A 29. * A Vocabulary of British Oaths : sequel to “Bradsbaw's Railway Guide.'

long list of Sham Book Titles,' by Hood, will 30. ^ The Window Smasher; or the Man who be found at 8 S. i. 63, 229 and 301. For saw Glasgow.'

other lists see 9 S. viii. 212; ix. 384, 432. 31. ' After Death,' Watt.

ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 32. ' The Disappointed Cabman ; or lo Thoroughfare,' by Charles Dickens. 33. • The Successful Burglar; or Self Help,' (10 S. ï. 405 ; 12 S. x. 95). —Let me thank

* ANGLICA (OR RUSTICA) GENS," &c. by S. Smiles. 34. • Infra Dig. ; or Ashamed to Beg.'

FAMA for this earlier example of the 35. The Circular Saw; or Who saw the Cir. " Anglica ” version of the line, which has cular?'

now been shown to go back at least as far 36. ' Certain to Snore,' by the author of 'Per- as 1558. But I can cap this with a much chance to Dream.'

Rustica " type. 37. * The Last Watch,' by George Atten- older specimen of the borough.

On p. 86 of Jakob Werner's Latein38. * Vestments,' by Bishops Westcott. ische Sprichwörter und Sinnsprüche des 39. - What's in a Name?' Anon.

Mittelalters aus Handschriften gesammelt,' 40. Heavenly Twins,' by the author of · The Heidelberg, 1912, we find Double Event,' 41. " Exposed Cards,' by Miss Deal.

Rustica gens est optima flens, sed pessima ridens. 42. * Tboughts on a Future State ; or The This is taken from a MS. in the University Musings of a Faded Wall Flower.'

Library at Basel, which has been assigned 43. - The Garden of Sleep,' by a Collector of Church Sermons.

to the fourteenth century, but which 44; · A Staunch Whig; or How to Hide Bald- Werner judged to be of the early fifteenth.

EDWARD BENSLY. 45. * La Chrymose,' by M. Thiere.

46. ' Reminiscences of Waterloo ' (with Plans), * SATAN REPROVING SIN " (12 S. x. 130).by a Visitor to Richmond.

The earliest instance of this saying at the 47.

Neck or Nothing,' by Walter Crane. 48. * All Round my lat, Ma ! by Annie B.'s above reference was dated 1721. But “The Aunt.

Devil rebukes sin " is in John Ray's 'Col49. * Let us Pray,' by a Company Promoter. lection of English Proverbs,' p. 126, 2nd 50. ` Eavesdropping,' by Heard.

ed., 1678. Ray appends the Latin equiva51. “Thrice Blessed : à Tale of the Queen's lent, Bounty.' 52, Garden Hoe,' by Quida.

Clodius accusat moechos.
A Life of Payne,' by Aikin.

adapted from 54. ' On Home Rule,' by Lilian Bull.

(si ... Clodius accuset moechos. 55. Ann Chovey, or Toasts.'

(Juvenal, Sat. ii. 27.) 56. A Counter Attraction ; or the Pretty

The passage in Juvenal beginning at Shopgirl.'

line 24, 57. The Triple Alliance ; or Thrice a Bigamist.'

58. “Who goes Home or the Martyrdom of Quis tulerit Gracchos de seditione querentes? St. Stephen's.'

is certainly the locus classicus for the ex. 59. "The Entrance Out,' by C. R. Greene. 60. • Cells,' by Warder.

pression in detail of the same thought as that 61: · Brigands and their Haunts,' originally in the English phrase. This latter could published as · A Handy Guide to the Hotels of probably be traced to a much earlier date Europe.'

than Ray's.

EDWARD BENSLY. 62. • The Mother's Dilemma ; Which Daughter ?' by Watson.

House BELLS (12 S. ix. 190, 236).--Mrs. 63. Tales of the Vint,' by Lamb. 64. A History of the Scalds," by Robert Burns. Adams, on her arrival at the White House, 65. 'Boyle on the Veck.'

Washington, in 1800, wrote: “ Bells are 66. 'False better than True : a Tale of the wholly wanting, not one single one being last Decade,' by a Dentist.

hung through the whole house and promises 67. 'Punch, on the Head.'

are all you can obtain." See ‘Walks about 68. “Our Pet Tragedian ; or a Pop'lar Tree.' Washington,' by Francis E. Leupp and 69. * Hints on Golf,' by One of a Clique. Lester G. Homby (Boston: Little, Brown WILLIAM BULL. and Co., 1915).


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