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Protestant faith. Though he was excepted TURNER FAMILY (12 S. v. 94, 249 ; viii. from banishment under the Revocation of 238, 299).-Notwithstanding the notes at the Edict of Nantes, his sons had to resign the above references, and searches that have their commissions in the Army and Navy. been made, I have not yet been able to After his death his body was refused connect the family of Turnor of Martholme honourable sepulture, but his son Henri and Altham with that of Manchester and erected a statue to his memory at Geneva Wilmslow, and as I feel convinced that the (see Charnock,“ History of Naval Archi- information required can only be supplied tecture,' vo'. ii., pp. 311-13).

from private records, I again appeal to For copious biographies of Duquesne and readers of ‘N. & Q.' who may

have Renau see Larousse ; and for a description genealogical data regarding Turner families of the “hell-burner," or infernal machine to help me if they can. invented by the Italian, Giambelli, and The first of the family of whom I have used to destroy the Duke of Parma's bridge record was Robert Turner of Martholme, over the Scheldt during the siege of Ant. in 1687. He was buried at Great Harwood werp, see Motley, History of the United Church, Dec. 2, 1727. The name of his Netherlands, vol. i., pp. 190-97.

wife is not known, but he left, with other The bomb-ketch must have been intro. issue, a son, Thomas Turner of Martholme, duced into the British Navy between 1684 a trustee of township charities in 1743 and and 1688, as it is not noticed in the enumera- 1759. He married and had issue :tion of vessels given by Charnock, vo'. ii., 1. Margaret Turner, born 1723, died 1790. pp. 422-25. Boats of this description took She married, firstly, Giles Hoyle of Altham part in the battle of Copenhagen (1801), Hall; secondly, Thomas Royston of Great where they were placed in a row behind the Harwood. line of warships and fired their mortars 2. William Turner of Martholme, of whom over them into the town and fortifications. pre-ently (I.). They were also used ineffectively by Nelson 3. Thomas Turner of Altham Hall; in his unsuccessful attack on the Boulogne bpt. at Great Harwood, Aug. 13, 1731; flotilla of invasion in August of the same died April 10, 1812 (II.). year ; but in the bombardment of Sverborg 4. Robert Turner of Blackburn; died Oct. in 1855 they did excellent service ; for 17, 1811 (III.). these occasions see the volumez of Clowes. 5. Jennet Turner; bpt. at Great Har

N. W. HILL.

wood. Nov. 1, 1738. Berkeley, Cal.

6. John Turner, M.D., of Hobstones, Colne.

William, Thomas and Robert built up DOMINOES (12 S. ix. 447).—As to the a large business in calico-printing in the material of which Napier's bones were vicinity of Blackburn. composed, the following may be quoted I. William Turner, of Martholme, born from The Standard newspaper of Oct. 5, 1727, married Jane, daughter of William 1912 :

Mitchell, or Robinson, of Hoarstones, in The first calculating machine ever invented Pendle Forest, on Jan. 3, 1753. He died is to be put on the market shortly by Messrs. May 22, 1782, aged 55, havirg had issue :Sotheby. The parent of the modern slide-rule

1. Thomas Turner, born 1755, died 1781. is known as “Napier's Bones." It was the device of John Napier, Baron of Merchiston, who

2. Robinson Turner, born 1757, died 1761. invented the present notation of decimal fractions 3. William Turner, born 1758, died 1796 and the canon of logarithms.

“ Napier's (of Martholme). Bones are wooden and metal numbering rods, 4. James Turner, born 1759, of Carter and by manipulating them in conjunction with Place, Haslingden. He married Mary, dau. some numbered metal plates a calculator was able to add, subtract, divide, and multiply large of Ralph Ellison, gentleman, of Accrington, numbers with much greater speed than the un- and died May 30, 1822. assisted brain allowed.

5. John Turner ; bpt, at Great Harwood, In William Lilly's * History of his Life Sept. 21, 1761. and Times,' he says, “Lord Merchiston 6. Edward Turner ; bpt. at Great Harwas a great lover of astrology; and the wood, Feb. 4, 1766 ; of Woodlands, near edition of 1822 contains a portrait of Napier Manchester. He married Alice in the act of manipulating his invention He died May 26, 1833, and was buried at “from a rare print by Delaram.”

St. Mark's, Cheetham Hill. She died W. B. H. March 26, 1830.

7. Robinson Turner ; bpt. at Great Har. 2. Solomon. wood, July 13, 1769 ; died Nov. 14, 1814 ; 3. Samuel. buried at St. Luke's Church, City Road, 4. James; died Oct. 16, 1866, aged 51; London.

buried at Wilmslow. 8. Jennet Turner ; bpt. at Great Harwood, 5. William. July 13, 1769.

6. Emanuel, born 1825 ; assistant comp9. Jane Turner ; bpt. at Great Harwood ; troller, cashier and committee clerk to the married her cousin, William Turner, M.P. Manchester Corporation from 1842 to 1857 ; for Blackburn, of Shrigley Hall, Co. Chester, married Hannah Boumphrey of Liverpool; and had a daughter, Ellen Turner, who was died 1878. married, Jan. 14, 1829, to Thomas Legh, 7. Oswald, born 1827, died Nov., 1905; Esq., LL.D. and F.A.S., of Lyme Park, Co. buried at Wilmslow, Cheshire. Chester, and Haydock Lodge and Golborne 8. Elizabeth. Park, Co. Lancaster, and was the mother of 9. Jane. Ellen Jane Legh, who in 1847 became the 10. Ellen, born 1820 ; married to James wife of Brabazon Lowther, fourth son of Bligh. She died March 14, 1877; and he died Gorges Lowther, of Hampton Hall, Co. Somer- Feb. 22, 1876. Both buried at Wilmslow. set, representative of a younger branch of the 11. Hannah; married to Christopher Batty. family of Lowther, raised to the peerage in Mr. William Turner of Wilmslow died 1696 under the title of Lonsdale.

Sept. 28, 1865, and was buried at Wilmslow. II. Thomas Turner of Altham Hall; bpt. His wife, who died Sept. 29, 1863, aged 75, Aug. 13, 1731, at Great Harwood; married, was also buried at Wilmslow. The place of May 31, 1770, Ellen, dau, of James Aspinall his birth is unknown and I have not been of Westwell, at Whalley, and had issue :- able to trace any record of a will. 1. Thomas Turner.

If any reader can prove the connexion 2. James Turner.

with the first-named family I shall be very 3. Robert Turner, born 1790, of Shuttle- grateful. JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. worth Hall, Hopton; married Sarah, dau. 39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. of Roger Green of Whalley Abbey, and had

AUTHORS WANTED (12 S. ix. 470).issue :

4. “ Time with a gift of tears, i. Thomas Turner.

Grief with a glass that ran." ii. Roger Turner.

It has been humorously suggested that Swiniii. Robert Turner of Shuttleworth Hall. burne meant to write; iv, James Turner.

Grief with a gift of tears, III. Robert Turner of Blackburn; bpt.

Time with a glass that ran,” 1734, married Ellen

He died Oct. or, at any rate, ought so to have written ; and 17, 1811, and was buried at St. John's, certainly the meaning of his verses would in

have been more obvious. What, Blackburn. She died Feb. 5, 1808, aged 72. exactly, do they mean as they stand ? They had issue :

C. C. B. 1. Thomas Turner of Stokes ; died 1825.

2. Robert Turner of Mill Hill and Manchester; born 1770, died March, 1842,

Notes on Books. at his residence in Piccadilly, Manchester. 3. John Turner; died 1825.

A Nene English Dictionary on Historical Prin4. William Turner, born 1777; M.P. for ciples. Vol. x. W—Wash By Henry BradBlackburn; of Shrigley Hall, Cheshire;

ley, (Clarendon Press. 108. net.) married his cousin, as mentioned above, A LARGE proportion of the most interesting English

words belong to this section, which contains no and died at Mill Hill, July 17, 1842.

derivatives from Greek and Latin. Old French I am anxious to trace the connexion be- words, of which there are many, are referable to tween this family and William Turner of the Teutonic element of that language which Wilmslow, born 1782, who married Ellen appears, slightly disguised, under an initial g (u),

in such words as guetter, guerre, gaufre, for example, Wilson, and had issue :

of which we have made wait, war

and 1. John, born 1811; died at Brooklyn “wafer.” It is singular, as the dictionary tells House, Ruabon, Jan. 20, 1893 ; buried at us, that no Germanic nation in early historic Overton, Ellesmere, Salop. He married times had a current word for war" in its proper Mary and had issue:

French and English developed a word Elizabeth Hardman Turner of

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from that stem which is found in the German Thorn

verwoorren and in our worse"; but other Teuton,” Ruabon. She died Sept. 17, 1916. tonic languages adopted other words. The

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articles on " wait," whether considered from the English Organ-Cases. By Andrew Freeman. historical point of view or from that of their (London: G. A. Mate and Son.) structure and their illustrations, are admirable. The subject of organ-cases has the rare distinction One small criticism we may make, because it of being comparatively fresh. It sometimes seems to indicate that the makers of the great happens that a neglected subject is brought into dictionary sometimes forget how monumental a prominence by an incompetent enthusiast. Such Fork they are achieving. Under“ wait and see a person stimulates rather than informs, functions we read : “ Recently often used with allusion to as a door-keeper rather than a guide. This is Mr. H. A. Asquith's repeated reply

to a by no means Mr. Freeman's case. He is equipped succession of questions in Parliament.” In fifty with solid and extensive information. He knows pears time this will appear but a futile account, thoroughly well the organs and organ-cases while the precise particulars will be tiresome to throughout the length and breadth of England, find. A similar want of precision may be observed the history of the making and use of these inin the definition of “warm-blooded." Probably struments, and the principles by which the few people realize that the first uses of " waft successful construction of a good organ in its have somewhat the meaning of " whiff" -a taste place in a building is determined. His knowledge or flavour, than a scent carried in the air. Its nauti- of English organ-cases is illuminated by his study cal use for a flag or ensign goes back to the early of foreign examples as well as by an evident seventeenth century. As a verb “ waft"

covers competence in architecture. His book is illustrated two origins--first, a back-formation from “wafter," by a large number of excellent photographs, (cf. L.G. vachter) a convoy, and, secondly, waff, a of which the great majority were taken by himform used in Scotland and Northern England for self, and he makes dexterous use of the illustra

* waive." The two meanings tions in his text. have in use become considerably confused. The The introduction of organs into England goes obsolete word waghalter " (a gallows-bird”) back to the end of the seventh century. is thought to survive, in jocose use, in the sub- first rare, owing to their cost and also to the stantive : wag.” It is curious how dignified this difficulty of finding a man to play them, organs Turb once was and how it has declined in modern had become tolerably common by the middle sperch. “ Waggon "—the Dutch wagen-which of the fifteenth century. At the Reformation has a thoroughly native English sound, is in fact a and during the Great Rebellion many were sisternth century importation, coming from the destroyed by the zeal of iconoclasts-a destruction wars and used first of military transport. As a greatly to be regretted because, in the old mining term it is used for a measure of weight- examples, the case was treated as an important 24cwt. “Waif” and “waive" come from the addition to the adornment of the church, and Norman O.F. gaif, are probably of Scandinavian had lavished on it the same skill, care and feeling origin, and appear first as legal terms. “Waive,” for beauty as the medieval craftsman brought however, covers also the root signifying to move to the fashioning of sedilia or rood-screen.

The or swing. The articles on walk may be noted musical development of the instrument was for their great historical interest and for the slow, and up to the end of the seventeenth cen. abundance of idioms and phrases they contain. tury most English organs were of small size. Most of these are familiar-but the old “walks For hundreds of years English organ-building of the Royal Exchange, a "walk" of snipes and was done by monks, a fact which will largely eren a “ walk-clerk” (a modern term) may serve explain the traditions which grew up for the as examples of senses which will be new to many design and decoration of pipes and case. The students. The origin of the word is 0.E. wealcan, custom of gilding is mentioned by St. Aldhelm. to roll or toss. Under “wall,” we noticed that We have in England twelve organ-cases bethe dictionary does not commit itself to any longing to the pre-Restoration period, of which espianation of the origin of the phrase " to go to the earliest is that at St. Stephen's, Old Radnor the wall.” " Waist," it seems, is to be connected (c. 1500), and the latest an organ-case at Blair with " war,'' to grow, and the modern spelling Atholl Castle (1650). Of these an exceedingly 2x rare till Johnson fixed it in his dictionary. interesting example is that at St. Nicholas, Another interesting Dutch word is “ wainscot Stanford-on-Avon, Northants, which is said to it.ro laced in the fourteenth century-of which have come from Whitehall and is conjectured Ihr original sense is all but lost. Urquhart, in by our author to have contained that organ 16,52, could still say that " a wedge of wainscot is which Samuel Pepys heard played on a July Patrst and most proper for cleaving of an oaken Sunday—the first time he remembered to have *** Wainscot was a superior foreign oak heard the organs and singing-men in surplices.” hought from Russia, Germany or Holland. Its The most magnificent is at King's College, inology remains obscure.

Cambridge--a case built in 1605-6 by Chapman The articles on " -ward and “-wards,” both and Hartop for an organ of Thomas Dallam's;

to derivation and as to development of use, and another, worth mentioning for its attractive*** among the most valuable of the section, or, ness, is that at Hatfield, also probably for an

offering fresh discussion on an important suffix, organ by Dallam. of ihr whole dictionary. We had marked a large From 1600 to 1790 English organ-building naaber of other words, and details in the account produced the most numerous and famous of of words, for mention, but can hardly, in a short the older works of the art. The Dallams, the trview, cope with such an embarras de richesses. Harrises and Father Smith designed cases which, It should, however, be said that the derivations if details may be objected to as alien from their to this section are of quite special interest. The purpose when erected in churches, were yet tion contains 2,659 words and 14,787 quota- conceived upon plans of noble and graceful

proportion, and carried out with great success.

Their work is here most carefully and critically would be about £650. In present circumstances discussed. On the period of debasement which the committee were not prepared to advise exclosed the eighteenth and began the nineteenth penditure of so large a sum for this purpose, but century Mr. Freeman writes with vigour, but proposed a tablet of similar design, although also with discrimination ; on the revival and executed in painted tile panels instead of in on modern examples and tendencies he is ap- bronze and enamel, which can be provided at a preciative but also ready with suggestive and comparatively small cost. The committee prohelpful criticism. He advises a return to the posed that the inscription placed on the tablet be use of shutters—which would both be useful in the following terms : to enclose the organ at cleaning times and add

• This Tablet is in memory of Sir Hugh Wila signal opportunity for decoration; and he loughby, Stephen Borough, William Borough, says all that should be said about the enormity Sir Martin Frobisher, and other navigators, who, of letting the tops of pipes appear above the in the latter half of the Sixteenth Century, set sail wood-work of the case.

from this Reach of the River Thames near RatWe have not discovered upon what principle cliffe Cross to explore the Northern Seas. the illustrations are arranged, and there is no

“ Erected by the London County Council, 1922." index of persons. Moreover, so good a book might, we think, have been more attractivelymittee expressed the opinion that it should be

As regards the position for the tablet, the comprinted. Otherwise we have nothing but praise erected on a stone to be placed in the King Edward for a sound and careful piece of work.

Memorial Park. With the concurrence of the
Parks Committee a site had been selected for the

purpose. In this position the memorial will be RATCLIFFE CROSS AND STAIRS close to the river and will be well under observaMEMORIAL.

tion and thus less liable to damage than if placed

on the Ratcliffe tunnel entrance in the open street. THE movement for the restoration of Ratcliffe Moreover, it will probably be seen by more people. Cross and Stairs to public memory, and honour An offer to present and fix a suitable stone has as the rendezvous and sailing-place of many of the been made by Mr. E. C. Hannen, of the firm of first oversea adventurers of England (whose little Messrs. Holland and Hannen, and the total cost ship-crews were mainly recruited in the maritime of providing and fixing the panel will, it is estiparts of Old Stepney), would appear to have mated, not exceed £60. originated some sixty years ago at the instance of the teaching corps of the two most conspicuous

The London County Council adopted this reFoundation schools in the locality, supported by port, none dissenting, and the Records Committee the authorities of the Mother Church of St. Dun- were empowered to take all the necessary steps in stan, Stepney:

Mc. And of late years it has enjoyed

the matter. attention in the most exalted quarters with intimate Naval associations, in connexion with the designing of the King Edward Memorial Park, at

CORRIGENDA. the adjacent Shadwell, in the same reach of the i 1. ANCIENT British DYE (12 S. ix. 491, 531).Thames.

In my communication at the last reference, for Long before the reign of the Pudors--when / “ Cambridge” read Corbridge, and for men-at-arms and archers were for ever passing to not,” read would.

J. T. F. and from the French heritages, fiefs and acquisitions of English kings--the shipwrights of Rat

2. At 12 s. ix. 527, col. 1, l. 12, for 1541" cliffe were building vessels for what was to be, read 1542.

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. practically, the King's Navy in the making ; and the ancient Stepney Vestry had scarcely settled to! its functions ere resident Masters, Captains, Brethren, Mariners of the Trinity Guild are found

Notices to Correspondents. serving actively on the body, with brewers, artificers, craftsmen, gunmakers, powdermakers, cannon-founders, ropemakers, sailmakers, riggers,

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed blockmakers, shipwrights, carpenters, sawyers, tisements and Business Letters to

to “ The Editor of “Notes and Queries'"-Adver

“ The Pubshipsmiths, fleshers, victuallers, salters, coopers, lishers"-at the Office, Printing House Square, &c., upbuilding the Port of London.

In the report of the Records and Museums Com- London, E.C.4 ; corrected proofs to The Editor, mittee submitted at the last meeting of the Lon. N. & Q.,' Printing House Square, London, E.C.4. don ('ounty Council, it was recalled that, in May, ALL communications intended for insertion in 1914, the ('ommittee had under consideration a our columns should bear the name and address of proposal made by Sir John Benn, Bt., that a the sender-not necessarily for publication, but as memorial to Elizabethan explorers and navigators a guarantee of good faith. should be erected at the place“ formerly known as WE cannot undertake to answer queries Ratcliffe Cross.” It was proposed that a bronze tablet with a suitable inscription and a design in

privately. enamel of a ship of the Tudor period in full sail When answering a query, or referring to an should be aflixed to the wall of the Ra liffe en- article which has already appeared, correspondents trance of the Rotherhithe Tunel (which is the are requested to give within parentheses-imactual site of the historic Ratcliffe Cross). The mediately after the exact heading the numbers project was estimated to cost £270. It was, how- of the series, volume, and page at which the conever, postponed until after the war, and now it'tribution in question is to be found.

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articles on " wait," whether considered from the English Organ-Cases. By Andrew Freeman. historical point of view or from that of their (London: G. A. Mate and Son.) structure and their illustrations, are admirable. The subject of organ-cases has the rare distinction One small criticism we may make, because it of being comparatively fresh. It sometimes seems to indicate that the makers of the great happens that a neglected subject is brought into dictionary sometimes forget how monumental a prominence by an incompetent enthusiast. Such work they are achieving. Under“ wait and see a person stimulates rather than informs, functions we read : “ Recently often used with allusion to as a door-keeper rather than a guide. This is Mr. H. H. Asquith's repeated reply

to a by no means Mr. Freeman's case. He is equipped succession of questions in Parliament.” In fifty with solid and extensive information. He knows years' time this will appear but a futile account, thoroughly well the organs and organ-cases while the precise particulars will be tiresome to throughout the length and breadth of England, find. A similar want of precision may be observed the history of the making and use of these inin the definition of " warm-blooded.” Probably struments, and the principles by which the few people realize that the first uses of " waft successful construction of a good organ in its have somewhat the meaning of “ whiff” -a taste place in a building is determined. His knowledge or flavour, then a scent carried in the air. Its nauti- of English organ-cases is illuminated by his study cal use for a flag or ensign goes back to the early of foreign examples as well as by an evident seventeenth century. As a verb " waft'

covers competence in architecture. His book is illustrated two origins-first, a back-formation from “wafter,” | by a large number of excellent photographs, (cf. L.G. zachter) a convoy, and, secondly, waff, a of which the great majority were taken by himform used in Scotland and Northern England for self, and he makes dexterous use of the illustra

" waive." The two meanings tions in his text. have in use become considerably confused. The The introduction of organs into England goes obsolete word “waghalter ” (a" gallows-bird ") back to the end of the seventh century. At is thought to survive, in jocose use, in the sub- first rare, owing to their cost and also to the stantive's wag.” It is curious how dignified this difficulty of finding a man to play them, organs verb once was and how it has declined in modern had become tolerably common by the middle speech. “Waggon”—the Dutch wagenwhich of the fifteenth century. At the Reformation has a thoroughly native English sound, is in fact a and during the Great Rebellion many were sixteenth century importation, coming from the destroyed by the zeal of iconoclasts-a destruction wars and used first of military transport. As a greatly to be regretted because, in the old mining term it is used for a measure of weight- examples, the case was treated as an important 24 cwt. “Waif” and “waive come from the addition to the adornment of the church, and Norman 0.F. gaif, are probably of Scandinavian had lavished on it the same skill, care and feeling origin, and appear first as legal terms. “Waive,” for beauty as the medieval craftsman brought however, covers also the root signifying to move to the fashioning of sedilia or rood-screen. The or swing. The articles on “ walk may be noted musical development of the instrument for their great historical interest and for the slow, and up to the end of the seventeenth cen. abundance of idioms and phrases they contain: tury most English organs were of small size. Most of these are familiar-but the old “ walks For hundreds of years English organ-building of the Royal Exchange, a "walk" of snipes and was done by monks, a fact which will largely even a “ walk-clerk " (a modern term) may serve explain the traditions which grew up for the as examples of senses which will be new to many design and decoration of pipes and case. The students. The origin of the word is 0.E. wealcan, custom of gilding is mentioned by St. Aldhelm. to roll or toss. Under “wall,” we noticed that We have in England twelve organ-cases bethe dictionary does not commit itself to any longing to the pre-Restoration period, of which explanation of the origin of the phrase to go to the earliest is that at St. Stephen's, Old Radnor the wall.” “Waist,'' it seems, is to be connected (c. 1500), and the latest an organ-case at Blair with “ wax," to grow, and the modern spelling Atholl Castle (1650). Of these an exceedingly was rare till Johnson fixed it in his dictionary. interesting example is that at St. Nicholas, Another interesting Dutch word is “ wainscot Stanford-on-Avon, Northants, which is said to introduced in the fourteenth century-of which have come from Whitehall and is conjectured the original sense is all but lost. Urquhart, in by our author to have contained that organ 1652, could still say that " a wedge of wainscot is which Samuel Pepys heard played on a July fittest and most proper for cleaving of an oaken Sunday—the first time he remembered“ to have tree." Wainscot was a superior foreign oak heard the organs and singing-men in surplices.” brought from Russia, Germany or Holland. Its The most magnificent is at King's College, etymology remains obscure.

Cambridge-a case built in 1605-6 by Chapman The articles on -ward ” and -wards,” both and Hartop for an organ of Thomas Dallam's; as to derivation and as to development of use, and another, worth mentioning for its attractiveare among the most valuable of the section, or, ness, is that at Hatfield, also probably for an as offering fresh discussion on an important suffix, organ by Dallam. of the whole dictionary. We had marked a large From 1660 to 1790 English organ-building number of other words, and details in the account produced the most numerous and famous of of words, for mention, but can hardly, in a short the older works of the art. The Dallams, the review, cope with such an embarras de richesses. Harrises and Father Smith designed cases which, It should, however, be said that the derivations if details may be objected to as alien from their in this section are of quite special interest. The purpose when erected in churches, were yet saction contains 2,559 words and 14,787 quota- conceived upon plans of noble and graceful tions.

proportion, and carried out with great success.

was

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