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hint that the Cambridge registers might in their turn be published.
It would be difficult to exaggerate our manysided indebtedness to Foster and to Colonel Chester before him, but it must be conceded that the compilers of the Cambridge Register have both encountered greater difficulties and achieved more. The Alumni Oxonienses' go back but to 1500; the first Alumni Cantabrigienses' date from 1261. Yet again, Foster had the Oxford matriculation records in a complete transcript to form his basis: the Cambridge matriculation records from their inception in 1544 had not been so prepared. Moreover, for the earlier years they are but scanty and the business of supplementing them brought a new complication to light. Students were found duly entered at a College who had never matriculated. It became clear that the matriculation records were far from representing the whole of the men who had passed through the university; and further, that the men unrecorded in them tended to be specially youths of some social or political importance. Hence it was seen to be necessary to search the Admission Registers of all the Colleges, and no fewer than 3,000 additional names were thereby obtained. It must be conceded that this suggests the desirability of making similar investigations at Oxford. The name of Oliver Cromwell, as the Preface points out, is the monumental instance to this purpose. He appears on the Register of Sidney and resided for a year, but neither matriculated nor graduated. A most interesting section of the Preface is that describing the University Records. The dislike of writing things up seems ineradicablenot to be overcome save by compulsion. The Registrary for 1590-1601 was, in that respect, a person of such negligence that he recorded no matriculations at all. This would not be possible at the present day, but was easy enough according to the old system, by which the boys' names, with other requisite particulars, were sent in to the Registrary by prelectores-College officers in charge of the youth-for him to copy into his book. These prelectors' lists have been kept, and recourse has been had to them to supplement and correct the errors and omissions of the official scribe: and it is interesting to observe that these exemplify the not uncommon inverse proportion between the importance of a document and its legibility. The Grace Books form a continuous series from 1454 to the present day; and in the Ordo Senioritatis Cambridge possesses a nearly unique Honours list." A third list, that of the Supplicats, completes the records of Degrees. The Grace Books go furthest back; for about two centuries of university history anterior to these search has to be made elsewhere.
hostels or boarding-houses which were as populous as the Colleges, and frequented, it would appear, by the youths of higher social position, So far as is now known none of their books has been preserved, and it seems improbable that any of the lists of names belonging to them will now be recovered.
For the most interesting names-those of the earliest times, search had to be made in many quarters. Episcopal Registers naturally yielded a good deal: and the compilers point to one class of information contained in these which is of peculiar interest-the occasional leave of absence from his parish granted by a bishop to a clerk to enable him to study for a certain length of time at a university. College Accountbooks; Patent and Close Rolls, Papal Letters and other public records, as well as lists of ordinations and institutions to livings will present themselves to most readers' minds as sources to be investigated, and a consideration of the labour thereby involved will occur as a matter of course. It is greatly to be regretted that the compilers found their work obstructed in some quarters. It seems extraordinary that so heavy a fee as six shillings and eight pence an hour should be charged for examination of an Episcopal registry when the research was for a purely historical purpose.
To turn from the Preface to the list itselfthis is arranged substantially on the plan of the Alumni Oxonienses,' minor alterations in the spelling of well-known names being ignored in the alphabet. The biographical notices frequently contain points of curious interest. Those who make a study of names will discover instances worth noting-while the systematic genealogist needs no recommendation to send him to a work for which he has been waiting. Those who possess the D.N.B.' might usefully annotate one or two biographies from this listthat of Walter Balcanqual, for example, which is astonishingly incorrect, or that of Henry Billingsley. Among the names included in Part I. are those of more than a hundred Cambridge students who emigrated to New England before 1650, biographies of whom have been supplied by Mr. J. Gardner Bartlett of Boston, Mass. The names contained in this first volume number some twenty thousand.
Measure for Measure. (Cambridge University Press. 78. net.)
WE have here before us the fourth volume of that New Shakespeare "which has already established itself as an authoritative interpretaton of the Plays. There is none among these like Measure for Measure' for tantalizing an editor and pricking his ingenuity; and none which more acutely vexes Four of the Colleges have published their a lover of the poet by its incongruities and its records. The best of them is that of Gonville steep descents from the height of beauty to depths and Caius, but Trinity possesses, in the names of of squalid futility. Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch in students of King's Hall, the earliest continuous his Introduction first gives us Whetstone's sketch list of scholars in existence. These "King's of the Italian story upon which the plot is founded, Scholars were assisted by payments from the and then proceeds to search for the flaw whereby Exchequer, and the list has been extracted from the play as a whole must be acknowledged to the records of the Exchequer. Published or miss fire. He discusses first its licentiousness, and anpublished, all the College records have been since it has come to be regarded as the locus worked through, but even so finality is not to classicus for this quality in Shakespearian drama be reached. Up to about the middle of the he takes occasion by it to deliver his main sixteenth century there abounded at Cambridge | opinion on the subject as a whole. These sections,
in our opinion, express very happily, and with Sir Arthur's usual freshness and sureness of handling, the judgment formed by most plain ders who know and love Shakespeare well without being inspired or compelled to find something new to say of him. Not, however, in these matters does he find the cause of failure, though he reminds us that the play belongs to the mysteriously troubled period of Shakespeare's life when his view of the relations between man and woman shows itself dark and bitter.
Our critic agrees with Walter Pater in taking the idea of the play to be poetical justice; but he urges that Pater reports aright not what Shakespeare succeeded in doing but only what he intended to do. A criticism of the character of Isabella leads him to the heart of the puzzle to the radical inconsistency which damns the play as unrealized. We think he bears too hardly on Isabella in the matter of Mariana, and makes too little of the pre-contract. After all a solemn betrothal could be annulled only by a papal dispensation, without which the parties were not free to marry elsewhere. Perhaps Sir Arthur "forgot to remember " the tedious business between John Paston and Anne Haute. The intervening century would count for little as regards stories. On the other hand, more emphasis might well have been laid on the inconsistency of Isabella's easy consent to marry the Duke. Her rebukes to Claudio, as they stand, are impossibly rough in wording, but at least they convey, in addition to the anger of an honest woman, detestation of the suggested violation of her vows; they carry on the note struck in the scene in the nunnery, that of the" thing enskied and sainted." The character in fact splits in two; being, as we find her, so nobly a nun, the Isabella of the first part could not, without a struggle of some sort, have renounced her calling. In fact, in such a person, the breakdown of a vow would itself be matter for a play. Here it is treated with a carelessness which, from the dramatic point of view, ruins the character.
Who is to say what Shakespeare himself did or intended in Measure for Measure'? We have nothing but the folio text, in which appear plainly numerous inaccuracies to be imputed to careless transcribing, and also at least two processes, of abridgment and expansion, in a working over of the text. Mr. Dover Wilson, after discussing these processes makes an important contribution to the question of the date of the play, confirming the entry in the Account Books of the Revels Office, by which this is now accepted as Dec. 26, 1604. He points out that the "black Masques" which "proclaim an enshield beauty are a compliment, in advance, to Ben Jonson and his Masque of Blackness," which was given at Court on Twelfth Night, 1605. In this the masquers were placed in a great concave shell devised by Inigo Jones. The allusion falls in happily with those already noted by students to James I.'s dislike of crowds. The discussion of the copy used for the play as printed in 1623an excellent handling of an intricate matter works out to the conclusion that a prompt-copy was the basis of it, and that not a copy made from the original MS. but one from an abridgment made for the occasion in 1604, and existing largely as a set of players' parts.
Mr. Child summarizes skilfully the stage-history of the play, which was brilliant enough during the eighteenth century and the period of the great actors and actresses. More even than most of Shakespeare's plays it depends for its true effect on being seen upon the boards, and its very faults serve as opportunities to the genius of the player.
WE have received the following letter, which will be read with interest by all old readers of N. & Q.' :
Mollington Vicarage, Banbury, Feb. 25, 1922. Dear Sir,-Owing to the death of my mother, I am having to dispose of the whole of MR. W. J. THOMS's collection of papers on "Longevity," also a great many wonderful engravings of Centenarians. They are to be sold by auction shortly by Messrs. Puttick and Simpson of Leicester Square. If you would kindly insert this letter in your next issue your readers would have the opportunity of seeing them before the sale.
(MRS.) CICELY DUMMELOW.
PRESENTATION TO THE ROTHAMSTED LIBRARY. The library of the Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, has recently been enriched by a rare volume (believed to be the first printed book on agriculture in France), given by Lady Ludlow. It is entitled Le livre des prouffitz champestres et ruraulx,' and was printed by Pierre de Sainte-Lucie at Lyons in 1539. It is of special interest in view of the influence exerted by the French agricultural authors of a somewhat later period on the Elizabethan agricultural writers in this country, whose influence in turn lasted almost to Victorian times.
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ANEURIN WILLIAMS.-(1) Edward Ellerker Williams, son of John Williams, a captain in the East India Company's army; b. 1793; d. 1822. A short life of him by Richard Garnett will be found in the D.N.B.' (2) Archdeacon Stephen Phillips, D.D.; b. 1638; d. 1684. Married Mary Cook, daughter of his predecessor at Bampton. See article on his son in 'D.N.B.'
LONDON, MARCH 11, 1922.
in the year 1470. The great affinity of the art of Botticelli with that of Botticini speaks for a close relation between the two.
In the National Gallery catalogue of 1921 named alone. Thus our cherished faith are given no choice, Botticini being is shattered by the modern expert.
NOTES:- The Assumption of the Virgin,' by Botticini (?), | We
wheel-Sir Charles Cox,
QUERIES:-Stroud Green, 188-John Planta's Spinning
Bernasconi-William Milburn-Sir T. Phillips, 189
Havene-Sir Hans Fowler-Burr-walnut-Book-plate of D.
REPLIES:-Tercentenary Handlist of Newspapers, 191-
Oxfordshire Masons, 194-The Cap of Maintenance-Chalk
British Settlers in America-Portraits of Coleridge and Dickens-Land Measurement Terms, 198-Samuel Maunder --Unidentified Arms-Gezreel's Tower-Author wanted, 199. NOTES ON BOOKS:- The General Eyre'-'A Volume of
Notices to Correspondents.
* THE ASSUMPTION OF THE VIRGIN,' BY BOTTICINI (?).
UNDER this title there is a large and beautiful picture at the National Gallery, numbered 1126 in the catalogue of 1921, originally on wood, afterwards transferred to canvas, about which I venture to make the following remarks. First as to the painter. Vasari mentions it as being by Sandro Botticelli, or, as the learned call him, Filipepi, and it is so described in Bryan's Dictionary' (1898), in the abridged National Gallery catalogue, 1901, and in the catalogue of 1906, where, however, we are told that it "is now attributed by critics of the modern school to Botticini, of whose life little is known." The compiler quotes from Uhlmann as follows:
It may well be that Botticelli had had from Palmieri the Commission for the picture of the Assumption,' and have designed only the comsition and left the working out to Botticini, with whom, having probably known him at some former time in Verocchio's studio, he worked
To go back to the catalogue of 1906. of the painting, written, I think, originally It contains in a note a remarkable account of which I will now give an abstract. by Sir Frederic Burton, director 1874-94, Assumption' was executed perhaps about 1472 for Matteo Palmieri, and placed in the family chapel in S. Pietro Maggiore, Florence. rendered important services to the Republic, That distinguished man, who was also a profound theologian and an earnest student of Dante's works, who of the Divina Commedia.' After his composed a poem somewhat on the model death and honourable burial, in or after 1475, the poem, which had not previously been circulated, was thought by some invidious critics to contain unorthodox views brought to the notice of the Church authorias to the nature of angels. These were ties, and pending inquisition, the picture, which was supposed to reflect in some way the surmised doctrine in the poem, was covered, and the chapel in which it stood closed to public worship. Finally, after some lapse of time, the book was declared innocuous and the chapel was re-opened. Meanwhile, however, the question of Palmieri's heresy had been so violently debated in Florence that the story spread through and inaccurate reports which were variously Europe, giving rise by degress to extravagant recounted by ecclesiastical writers, some of whom stated that Palmieri had been burnt alive for heresy, others that his dead body had been disinterred and burnt with his than Palmieri, was included by the malevopoem. Vasari says that the painter, no less lent in the charge of heresy. The painting bears evidence of intentional injury, the face of the donor and that of his wife having been scored through; an attempt to restore them uncertain time it was removed to the Villa was afterwards made. At some Palmieri (which had been bought by Matteo), near Florence. On the death of the last picture fell into the hands of a Florentine heir, within the nineteenth century, the dealer, and later became the property of the eleventh Duke of Hamilton. It was purchased from the Hamilton sale, June 24, 1882. The original draft of Palmieri's poem,
entitled 'La Cietà (Città) della Vita,' is Palmieri, author of the poem which inspired in the Magliabecchian Library at Florence. this great painting, and here Botticelli A copy is, or was, in the Strozzi Library; may have been his guest. Boccaccio makes the Ambrosian Library at Milan contains this the abode of the tellers of the stories the only other known copy. in his Decamerone' during the plague of 1348.
In 1892 it was the home of the widowed Lady Crawford and her daughters, and four years earlier it had been occupied for a short time by that illustrious personage her late Majesty Queen Victoria. PHILIP NORMAN.
In the National Gallery catalogue of 1921, p. 32, the compiler gives an accurate though concise account of the main portions of the picture, but in his reference to the "landscape background showing the Arno and Florence left," he makes rather a serious error. In fact, the scene was described with much detail by that accomplished lady the late Miss Margaret Stokes, honorary member AT 6 S. x. 436, a query appears as to the of the Royal Irish Academy and Associate family of of the Scottish Society of Antiquaries, Meath. Ralph Lambert, Bishop of whom I met in Florence many years ago. answered. Having made some research as It does not appear to have been She had a photograph of the landscape to the kinsfolk of this bishop, I venture to background to the left of the group of send the result to N. & Q.' as a contribution apostles round the Virgin's tomb, armed to Irish genealogy, repeating the question with which she determined to find out the of your correspondent of 38 years ago point of view of the great artist, whoever who was Robert Lambert, otherwise Robert he may have been. The results of her search Lambert Tate, father of Lady Annesley? are described and illustrated in a volume His wife was a descendant of the Lambert entitled Six Months in the Apennines,' family, as will appear below, but he himself published 1892. She tells us how, starting is described as Robert Lambert Tate in his from Fiesole, she crossed the bridge over the marriage entry in 1750. There does not Mugnone, a picturesque tributary of the appear to be any connexion between this Arno, and walked uphill towards the Villa family and that of the Earls of Cavan, whose Salviati. Then, standing among the ruined terraces of an ancient garden, she saw at later on, several references to this family in name is spelled Lambart. As will be seen her feet the very scene depicted by the painter the wide horizon reaching from published pedigrees are erroneous. San Domenico and the Apennines beyond Monte Moro, Scala, and Monte Maggio, round the whole Val d'Arno to San Lorenzo
A note was published in N. & Q.' (2 S. viii. 10), regarding the first known ancester, who was :
The Rev. THOMAS LAMBERT, ordained priest by Theophilus, Bishop of Llandaff, March 15, 1625; Chaplain in H.M.'s Army Vicar of Dromiskin 1633-61, and Vicar of Dunany, both in Co. Louth; died 1661. Prerogative will proved Feb. 1661-2, having
had four children :
I. James Lambert.
II. George, of whom immediately.
and the northern boundary of Florence." She traced out all the details, and in her volume the scene is reproduced from the picture, and also from her own drawing, made at the time of her visit. The two views are surprisingly alike. The Arno is not visible. The Mugnone, flowing with devious course from the immediate foreground towards Florence, has been narrowed and straightened somewhat. In the picture it is crossed by a bridge of three arches, where there is now one of a single span. GEORGE LAMBERT of Dundalk, Co. Louth, The old walls of the city have been swept m. Alice, sister of the Right Rev. William away, but various delightful buildings remain almost unchanged, and of these Miss Capt. Ralph Smyth of Ballymacash, near Smyth, Bishop of Kilmore, and dau. of Stokes gives a list. I will only refer to two Lisburn, Co. Antrim, High Sheriff Co. of them. On high ground to the extreme Antrim 1680, by Elizabeth Hawkesworth left stands the Badia of Fiesole, its façade his wife, and by her, who was buried at unfinished as in the fifteenth century. The Lisburn Cathedral, Aug. 16, 1715, had five villa that rises amid tall cypress and olive sons and four daughters (order of trees on the height above the Mugnone uncertain) :— beyond the bridge, is the house of Matteo
age I. George Lambert of Downpatrick and
Dunlady, Co. Down, High Sheriff Co. Down Co. Cavan, by Jane, dau. of Thomas Trotter, 1720, m. Elizabeth, dau. of the Rev. Henry M.P., Judge of the Prerogative Court, and Jenny, D.D., Archdeacon of Dromore, had issue. and d., will dated July 27, 1723; proved Prerog. Feb. 18, 1723-4.
IL RALPH, of whom presently.
IV. William Lambert.
1750; proved of Dunlady, Co. a dau., Mary
I. Elizabeth Lambert, m. William Brabazon of Rath House, Co. Meath, grandson of Sir Anthony Brabazon, son of the first Lord Ardee, and brother of the first Earl of Meath,
and had issue.
II. Alice Lambert, m. Thomas Dawson of Gilford, Co. Down, son of William Dawson of Lisveagh, Co. Armagh, and brother of Ralph Dawson of Dawson's Grove, Co. Armagh. By him, whose will, dated May 5, 1729, was proved Prerog. May 26, 1729, she appears to have left no issue.
III. Mary Lambert, m. at Lisburn Cathedral, Nov. 8, 1696, the Rev. William Skeffington, B.A., son of Richard Skeffington of Co. Armagh, and had at least two sons :
i. George Skeffington, mentioned in will of George Lambert.
ii. Lambert Skeffington, b. Co. Meath; entered T.C.D. June 21, 1728, aged 17.
IV. Anne Lambert, m. May 23, 1710, the Rev. John Vaughan, Rector of Dromore, Co. Down, son of the Rev. George Vaughan, Treasurer of Dromore, and had, with other issue, a son and a daughter :
i. George Vaughan (Rev.), Rector of Dromore, ancestor of Vaughan of Quilly (see Burke's Landed Gentry,' incorrect in its reference to his sister, Mrs. Corry).
i. Alice Vaughan, m. the Rev. John Corry of Rockcorry, Co. Monaghan, son of Isaiah Corry, High Sheriff Co. Monaghan 1712, and died Nov. 23, 1791, having had, with other issue :
(1) John Corry, of Sport Hall, Co. Monaghan, High Sheriff Co. Monaghan, 1759, m. Feb. 26, 1762, Catherine Coote, sister of Charles, 1st Earl of Bellamont, and d.v.p. 1770, 8.p.m.
(2) Thomas Corry, of Rockcorry, High Sheriff Co. Monaghan 1782, m. Nov. 1780, Rebecca, only dau. of William Steuart of Bailieborough Castle, Co. Cavan, M.P.
(3) Isaiah Corry of Ballytrain, Co. Monaghan, m., first, Catherine, widow of George Scott, of Legacorry, Co. Monaghan, and dau. of Lancelot Fisher; and, secondly, Dec. 8, 1778, Barbara, dau. of the Rev. Andrew Nixon of Nixon Lodge, Co. Cavan, and had issue by both marriages. (4) James of Ardee, Co. Louth, M.P., and was ancestor Monaghan, m. Mary, dau. of John Ruxton Corry of Shantonagh, Co. of the Fitzherbert family.
Dublin, June 30, 1750, Robert Lambert
Alice Smyth was:—
of Dromore 1717-26, and of Meath 1726THE MOST REV. RALPH LAMBERT, Bishop Aug. 13, 1681; Scholar 1683; B.A. 1686; 31; born in Co. Louth; entered T.C.D. M.A. 1696; B.D. and D.D. 1701; Rector of Kilskyre, diocese of Meath, 1703-9; Prediocese of Armagh, 1706-9; Dean of Down centor of Down 1703-6; Vicar of Dundalk, aged 40 ; tablet in Dundalk Church. (Burke's 1709-17. His first wife, Sarah, died 1707, of Gaybrook,' says she was the only dau. Landed Gentry,' 1846, sub tit. Smyth of Smythe Kelly, who was son of Capt. Kelly, by Judith, dau. of John Smyth, uncle of William, Bishop of Kilmore.) marriage licence, July 14, 1716, Elizabeth Bishop Lambert m., secondly, Prerogative Rowley of (He is said, Montgomery MSS., to have been a brother erroneously, in the notes to p. 361 of the of Mrs. Ann Hall of Strangford. her brother-in-law, as she had been Ann Rowley.) Ralph Lambert died Feb. 6, 1731-2, and was buried at St. Michan's, Dublin, having had by his first wife two sons and three daughters :
T.C.D. April 24, 1716, aged 16; buried at
II. MONTAGUE, of whom presently.
I. Alice Lambert, m. Dublin, marr. lic. July 2, 1739, Nathaniel Preston of Swainstown, Co. Meath, M.P. for Navan 1713-60.
II. Susanna Lambert, m. first, at St.