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SAMUEL MAUNDER (12 S. x. 94).-He was born in 1785 in Devonshire, and died at his house in Islington on April 30, 1849. JAMES SETON-ANDERSON.
UNIDENTIFIED ARMS (12 S. x. 130). Will it assist your correspondent to know that at Ewell there is a brass shield, the last remnant of the brass to Richard Bray and wife Joan, 1559, upon which the Bray arms impale those of Saunders, the latter being Sable, a chevron ermine between three bulls' heads cabossed, argent ? this shield was removed from the ruined In 1913 tower of the old church, where it lay alone, and was fixed to a slab of stone together with an inscription plate recording the removal, which stone was then fixed to the wall of the new church. See also Burke's 'Armory under 'Saunders of Surrey, Pembroke and Derby.'
WALTER E. GAWTHORP.
16, Long Acre, W.C.
GEZREEL'S TOWER (11 S. viii. 404).White's successor, "Prince" Michael Keyfor Mills, leader for many years of the Gezreelite sect, has recently died at Gillingham aged 65. Since May last the building has been occupied by the Gillingham Co-operative Society.
Notes on Books.
The General Eyre. Lectures delivered in the University of London by William Craddock REMEMBERING Mr. Bolland's recent lectures on Bolland. (Cambridge University Press. the Year Books we opened his net.) with no little pleasure, and now, having ourselves greatly enjoyed it, recommend it heartily new volume not only to students of law and history, but also to students of literature. may well consider themselves obliged to make The former, indeed, acquaintance with this study, for it presents the interest, brought to light by Mr. Bolland's repith of much unpublished material, of the highest searches.
history needs, of course, no pointing out. full significance can hardly be seen without a The importance of the Eyres in medieval clear understanding of the working of the ordinary courts. Mr. Bolland, therefore, supplies first a delightful and vivid picture of the assembly of the freeholders at the county court held by the Sheriff, sketching the competence of that court, as also of the hundred and manor courts, and outlining the procedure. Then, upon this itinerant Justices, whose powers were in effect background, he draws out for us the intrusive and terrible action of the Commission of the King's royal and superseded all other jurisdiction. So deeply did men hate these courts and such confusion and suffering did they cause that an Eyre could be held in the same locality only once in and a reeve and four men from every town within seven years. Twelve men from every hundred the county were summoned under severe penalties was compelled to give attendance. The Justices to the Eyre, where also the county court in Eyre had before them particulars of all cases and causes requiring investigation down to the remotest detail of each. They could enforce the most rigorous exactness and fullness in all reports; and the closest compliance with the most preposterous demands for the execution of involuntary, was of a harshness wellnigh increwhich often an impossibly brief allowed. The penalty for failure, voluntary or time was might follow what was rather a mistake or misdible; the ejection of a family from its home fortune than an offence. according to official proclamations, was paternally The theory of the Eyres, benevolent : the vast discrepancy theory and practice is, however, not difficult between to account for. their real task the collecting of money for the The Justices in Eyre had for of their searching inquiry into the rights and King. Pretexts for fines, pretexts for seizure of men's lands and goods, were the true objects wrongs of great and small. They descended No authority, upon the terrified and afflicted county like a press to wring wealth out of it; and the two must, at these recurrent visitations, have been centuries during which this institution flourished of a Verres. little less fruitful in misery than the administration
AUTHORS WANTED. (12 S. x. 152).-1. The French saying usually quoted in the form "Tout homme a deux patries," &c., was discussed in L'Intermédiaire, vol. lxv. (Jan.-June, 1912). The passage from Act. III., scene ii., of Henri de Bornier's La Fille de Roland' (acted in February, 1875), was given as loquitur) :follows (Charlemagne
"Dans le livre des temps pour mon regard ouverts O France! je lirai ta gloire ou tes revers! Ta gloire! oh! puisse-t-elle, aux époques proCroftre en s'affermissant comme croissent les chênes,
Offrir l'abri superbe et l'ombre de son front, Nation maternelle, aux peuples qui naîtront, Afin qu'on dise un jour, selon mon espérance: Tout homme a deux pays, le sien et puis la
It was asserted by more than one correspondent that the thought expressed by Bornier was originated by President Jefferson.
Lowever, was given for this statement.
* On ne saurait guère dire dans quelle circontance il émit son célèbre aphorisme, car il simait à le répéter à tout propos.'
One would like to have a reference for at least ne of these occasions. EDWARD BENSLY.
All this is best understood by a consideration of tion some view of the actual definite instances, and by having in the imaginaceedings. Mr. Bolland supplies these admirably, scenes and pro
making this long-past oppression as vivid to us as an event of yesterday related in the newspaper. The more technical aspects of the subject gain greatly by this-for example, the explanations of the deodand, of sanctuary, and of the proof of Englishry; the survey of the position and duties of the Sheriff; the account of the functions of the unfortunate dozens, and that of the relation of these roving Commissions to the private jurisdictions of the lords of land.
On Bills of Eyre Mr. Bolland gives us some most interesting pages, in which the threatening and thunder of the Court are somewhat mitigated. It is pleasant that he should have invented this name, and then found that it was the very name by which medieval lawyers knew them.
Outside the scope of these lectures are wider fields of study connected with the Eyres which do not, perhaps, compare in profound human interest with this of their actual functioning, but are important as setting them in their place in the history of the development of administration in Europe. Such are their relation to similar commissions of itinerant justices on the Continent, and their relation to other methods of providing revenue for the Government. For any work on these and like subjects, which Mr. Bolland has very reasonably not touched on, these lectures form an excellent introduction.
The Eyres disappear in the first half of Edward III.'s reign, their judicial functions being taken over mainly by the Justices of Assize. A Volume of Oriental Studies. Presented to Professor Edward G. Browne on his 60th Birthday. Edited by T. W. Arnold and Reynold A. Nicholson. (Cambridge University Press.) ORIENTAL studies have made great progress during the last generation. The culture of Islam has always fascinated some small number of minds in the West; its literature and art have been explored by the curious; its ethos savoured by the hardier and more adventurous students. But the rather sporadic interest of old days has long since developed into systematic study, and this again into the formation of a body of learning, ripe now for utilization among lovers of learning in general.
To no single scholar of our own day can more of this last advance be imputed than to the Professor of Arabic at Cambridge. To knowledge he adds enthusiasm and to enthusiasm the power of directing and inspiring other minds to a singular degree. The peculiarly graceful tribute of a collection of essays by distinguished fellowworkers in his own subject is thus most appropriately offered to him, and the response to the suggestion has come from a very wide circle, The forty-three papers composing the book were contributed by Orientalists of no fewer than eleven nationalities. We believe this to be the first English work since the war in which German savants have collaborated.
The topics dealt with present an abundant variety-lexicography and bibliography; exegesis and grammar; the relations between Christianity and Islam; ethical and religious conceptions in Islam and in Zoroastrianism; accounts of Arabic and Persian MSS.; folk-lore and survivals of ancient customs and ideas; literary criticism; architecture; genealogy; the discussion of
historical problems-these by no means exhaust the aspects under which Oriental thought, life and art are here presented.
For more definite indication of the diversity in the contents of this rich collection of treasure we may mention Dr. Palacios Asin's Influencias evangélicas en la Literatura religiosa del Islam'; Dr. E. Edwards's list of rare and important Arabic and Persian MSS. from the collections of Hājji 'Abdu'l-Majid Belshāh; Dr. Carra de Vaux's Notice sur un Calendrier Turc'; Dr. Horten's Die Entwicklungsfähigkeit des Islam auf ethischem Gebiete': Dr. Jackson's Visit to the Tomb of Bābā Tāhir at Hamadān' and Dr. Margoliouth's The Sense of the Title Khalifah.' Dr. Muhammad Shafi of Lahore contributes A Description of the Two Sanctuaries of Islam,' by Ibn 'Abd Rabbihi. Dr. Nallino discusses Tracce di opere greche giunte agli Arabi per trafila Pehlevica." Mr. Nicholson's contribution is an essay on Pir Jamál illuminated by several of those graceful translations which he has taught admirers of his work to expect from him.
WE are glad to call our readers' attention to the appearance of the new centenary edition of the Mémoires de Jacques Casanova de Seingalt of which the first volume was published on March 1. It is a reproduction of the editio princeps of 1826-1838-the text of Laforgueto which are added the variants in the von Schütz (1822-1828) and Rozez (1860) editions. It contains introductions, notes, both critical and historical, unpublished papers from the MSS. of Casanova and numerous illustrations. M. Raoul Vèze is the editor; and he here draws together the work of numerous collaborators. among them our valued contributors Mr. Horace Bleackley, Dr. Tage Bull and Mr. Francis Steuart. Casanovists among our readers will hardly need to be told that to Mr. Bleackley in particular the new edition acknowledges great indebtedness. It is proposed to issue the whole in twelve volumes, of which from four to six will appear each year. Particulars may be obtained from La Sirène, 29, Boulevard Malesherbes, Paris (*).
LONDON, MARCH 18, 1922.
story and song after song, arising out of the war, in the actual language of the tellers. Such stories and songs have a long life in the tenacious memories of the Indian folk everywhere, and no doubt long after the
NOTES:-English Army Slang as used in the Great War, 201-present generation of soldiers who have Principal London Coffee-houses and Taverns in the Eighteenth Century, 202-The Montfort Families, 204-Fever in the West Indies: Early Nineteenth Century, 206-The Steam Packet Hotel, Lower Thames Street The Social Eighteenth Century, 207-Cumulative Stories, 208. QUERIES:--Order of St. Michael and St. George Eighteenth
century Etonians A Portrait of Mme. Cornelys-A Gunpowder Plot in 1615, 208-Herebertus de Middlesex
"Dowle "-Barrel Organs in Churches-Thomas Scot, Mayor of Dover 1690- Historia Oppidi Hatfleldiensis Brighton: "The Chalybeate," Mrs Bushman's SchoolGraham of Mackinston-Williams: Shaw, 209-A Lady In Waiting to Queen Adelaide-Pirated Barrie Heraldry: Yatton Church, Somerset-Portrait of Stephen Theodore Janssen-Early Victorian Literature-Heraldic:
Arms of Mill Hill School-George Graham BlackwellAuthors wanted-Song wanted, 210.
served in the Great War has passed away, they will still be told and sung literatim et verbatim in many a secluded Indian village. And no villages can be more remote and secluded than those of the Himalayan highlands whence the Gurkhas come, whither they return on the conclusion of their military service.
In the forthcoming April issue of The Indian Antiquary will appear an instalment of Mr. Turner's researches, and it will include a Song of France, 1914-1915,' sung by a soldier of the Third Gurkha Regiment, of
REPLIES: General Clement Edwards, 211-Tercentenary which the First-Third and the Second-
Mayor: Place of Worship, 215-The "Hand and Pen ""Sowmoys "-Pseudo-titles for Dummy BooksPilate's Wife, 216-Pictures in the Hermitage at PetrogradNigger Minstrelsy, 217-Ewen: Coat of Arms, 218-CadbyAmerican Humorists: Capt. G. H. Derby-Colonel Gordon, E.E., in the Crimea-English Writers-Savery Family Book
plates-"Time with a gift of tears," 219.
NOTES ON BOOKS:-'An Introduction to Ecclesiastical Latin-Archaeologia Aeliana-The Print-Collector's Quarterly.
Notices to Correspondents.
ENGLISH ARMY SLANG AS USED
(See 12 S. ix. 341, 378, 383, 415, 423, 455,
THE war is going to affect the languages of India to an extent that is not at present recognized, through the return to their homes, often in very remote regions, of soldiers used by the British Government in many parts of the West. Corruptions of English, French and other European languages are likely to find their way into the
speech of many remote peoples in forms that will puzzle philologists of the future unless brought to notice now.
Third Battalions served in France and Egypt. This song is filled with English words occurring in most of the lines. From it I have picked out the following specimens of English in Nepali (Gorkhali) form, some of them of course used in the inflexions of the language.
ANGRĒJI. English. This is an old corruption.
BIRAI. Beer. The singer says that the beers of France (Phrānsi kā bīrai) cooled their bodies!
Bisi. V.C. (Kulbir Thāpā le pāyōni bīsi ghaile liaundā mān: Kulbir Thapa won the V.C. by bringing in wounded.)
DISHAMBAR. December. DISHAMBAR
Month of December.
JARMAN, JARMANI. German, Germany.
LESTARI (THE). Leicester (Regiment). LESTARI
TOPAI KO PHAIRA. Fire of
the guns. PHARST TARD. First-Third, i.e., First Battalion of the Third Gurkhas (pre-war). PHRANSI. France, French. This is new: the time-honoured corruption is Farangi, Feringhee.
SEKSIN. Section of a company (pre-war).
The safest rule to follow in pronouncin the romanized Nepali words is to pronounce the vowels as in Italian: ai being pronounced
as in aisle.
R. C. TEMPLE.
As an old Gurkha (should be Gorkha) officer, I have been especially interested in specimens of the Nepali language being published by Mr. R. L. Turner in The So far, among the lists of Army slang used Indian Antiquary, as he gives story after in the Great War, the words for which the
BISCUITS. Small, square, very hard mattresses, 2ft. 6in. square, three to one bed. BOLO. A derisive nickname which came into use when Bolo Pasha was being tried for espionage or something in France. Also used to denote spies or the " Hidden Hand," but soon died out. (pp. 343, 378, 459, 499, 502.) BOMBARDIER FRITZ. Pommes de terre frites-a favourite estaminet dish (see Punch some time in 1916).
CAT-WALK. Pathway paved with bricks (one brick, or 9in., wide) between fields on a Belgian farm. CLOBBER. Old Army for equipment., (p. 384.) DUCKBOARD. Originally "corduroy." Possibly duck" board was derived from the Flanders winter weather, which was fine weather for the ducks." They say men who survived the 1914-15 winter can always be recognized as they have webbed feet. (p. 384.) DUSTY. Usually the nickname for Miller, not Smith. Why should Clarke always Nobby" and Wilson "Tug"? (p. 424.) EYEWASH. Camouflage. Blarney is rather inadequate. Eyewash parade" is a G.O.C.'s inspection or similar affair. To clean a dirty camp with whitewash (à la Guards) |
instead of elbow grease (infantry style) is eyewash." (p. 346.)
GLASSHOUSE (THE) is the Aldershot Command Military Prison at Woking. (pp. 346, 384.) GORBLIMEY. The first soft caps issued in 1914 without a wire. These had no waterproof lining, but had a broad cloth chin-strap attachment (to cover the ears and back of the neck), which folded over the crown of the cap when not in use. The name was well deserved. Later applied to any soft cap with no wire. (At p. 425 mistakenly " Gorbling.")
HATE (MORNING AND EVENING). Originated with Frank Reynolds's (?) priceless cartoon in Punch, Study of a Prussian Family indulging in their Morning Hate.' (p. 384.) JOYBAG. A sandbag, containing souvenirs, rations or " winnings," carried over and above one's regulation equipment.
LOUSE (TO). To clean or wash. Usually to take a bath in difficulties and half a mess-tinful of water.
MUCKIN. Old Army for butter. Hindustani, "Makhan." (p. 347.)
MUTTON LANCERS. Another name for the Queen's R.W. Surreys (who, believe, are Kirke's Lambs of Charles II.'s time), (pp. 383, 459.)
NAPOOH. The best derivation is given in one of (I think)" Sapper's books. It goes some
thing like this:
(i.) Il n'y en a plus: French phrase signifying complete absence of. Largely heard in estaminets about closing time.
(ii.) Naploo: Original pure English phrase, signifying "The perisher has run out of
(iii.) Napooh: Vulgarized version of old English phrase finished, &c., &c. (p. 347.) QUIFF. Trick or local reading of the drill book. Where the book is vague (nothing unusual), different units read various meanings into it and so invent their own quiffs." (p. 425.) is not for a slang word bayonet. Evidently your correspondent is a ruddy Fusilier." Rifle regiments always speak of swords and use the command" Fix swords! &c., never Fix bayonets!" Originally they were armed with swords, though whether these could be fixed on to the rifle I do not know-probably not. (p. 384.) E. B. H.
PRINCIPAL LONDON COFFEE-HOUSES, TAVERNS, AND INNS IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.
(See 12 S. vi. and vii. passim; ix. 85, 105, 143, 186, 226, 286, 306, 385, 426, 504, 525; x. 26, 66, 102, 164.)
(An asterisk denotes that the house still exists as a tavern, inn or public-house
-in many cases rebuilt.)
General Advertiser, April 9. 1745 Rocque's 'Survey.'
Sadler's Masonic Facts and Fictions,
1887, p. 57.
Midd. and Herts Notes and Queries,
1898, iv. 128.
King Street, Guildhall
"At the corner of Scotland
Serle Street, Lincoln's Inn Gate
London Chronicle, May 5.
1765 Nightingale's Beauties of England and Wales,' 1815, vol. x., part iii., p. 203.
Public Advertiser, Jan. 19.
1720 Daily Courant, Oct. 3.
Great Earle Street, Soho
Westminster, Peter Street, north
By Hick's Hall, Clerkenwell, 1677 Ogilvy and Morgan's 'London Sur-