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Public Advertiser, June 12.
In concluding this list of over 1,500 names, I desire to express my gratitude for the generous and unsolicited assistance I have received from Mr. W. B. Hextall of the Inner Temple. To Mrs. A. J. Finberg, to Mr. E. E. Newton and to Mr. Andrew Oliver I am also indebted for kind help. J. PAUL DE CASTRO.
Essex Court, Temple.
remarks, There is a Montfort-sur-Risle in the Eure Dept. of France."
THE MONTFORT FAMILIES. ALTHOUGH there are a large number of families in England having such surnames It is advisable to first consider the question as Montfort, Montford, Mountford, Mumford, as regards the village of Montford in Shrop&c., there are few, if any, that can with shire. The general adoption of surnames certainty trace their descent from either of in England began about 1250 and was the two great Montfort families, i.e., fairly complete in 1450. A transcription Montfort-l'Amaury and Montfort-sur-Risle. of the registers of Montford has been made Sir Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, by the Rev. J. E. Auden, and he quotes has loomed so large in the public eye that a document dated 1241 in which it is stated many of the English Montforts who have that "the bridge of Moneford beyond not studied genealogy have taken it for Shrewsbury was the appointed place for granted that, in some way or other, they the meeting of David and Henry III.'s Commust be descended from him. For the missioners. Other documents also show assistance of those who are interested in that during the time surnames were being the matter it may be well to state the facts adopted in England, the parish was not as nearly as they are known. called Montford. Indeed the name of this Bardsley, in his Dictionary of English parish has undergone several changes, and Welsh Surnames,' states that the sur- which point to the fact that it was the sur names Mountford, Montford and Mount-name Montfort that gave the parish its fort are of local origin, and mentions two present name, and not that the name of places in Normandy called Montfort, one the parish originated the surname. A few situated near Argentan and the other abstracts from the registers themselves near Pont-Audemer. He also refers to will indicate this:
the parish of Montford, five miles from 27 June 1613. Roger Campion, of Monford. Shrewsbury, as a locality which may have & Dorothy ap John, of Uppington, at Alberbure given rise to the surname. This latter... mar. supposition seems plausible, especially as the surname is most common in the counties of Warwickshire, Shropshire and Stafford
Harrison, in his 'Surnames of the United Kingdom,' also regards it as local and
May 1741. Memorandum. In the beginning of this month His Majesty was pleased to creat Henry Bromley, Esqr., Lord of this Mannor, # Peer of Great Britain, by the stile & Title Lord Montfort, Baron of Horseheath in the Count of Cambridge; and my Lord at that time word of Mouth, gave me Orders to alter t
Name of the Parish in this Register according to his Title.
16 Jan. 1742. Humphrey, s. of Rowland & Eliz. Morris, of Montfort Bridge (b. 4th); Henry Hanmer, Rich. Illedge, Sarah Gittins, sureties .. bap.
10 June 1799. Elizabeth Roberts, Montford Bridge, aged 54 ... bur.
That the name of the village of Montford is responsible for any of the surnames in Shropshire or Staffordshire is very unlikely.
heir to her brothers, both of whom died without issue.
Alice de Montfort-sur-Risle became the wife of Gilbert de Gant, by many considered to be the son of Baldwin VI., Count of Flanders, and consequently nephew of Queen Matilda. So says J. R. Planché in his book, The Conqueror and his Companions.' From another source we learn that Gilbert de Gant was descended from Ralph de Gand of Alost in Flanders. The As regards the Montfort in Normandy, evidence relied upon to prove that Gilbert near Argentan, mentioned by Bardsley, was a son of Baldwin of Flanders is a there does not seem to be any evidence passage in a charter of somewhat later date that any families taking their surnames than 1274, and Freeman, owing to the absence from this place ever settled in England. any contemporary evidence, regards The family to which Sir Simon de Mont- this as being an amazing bit of genealogy. fort belonged took its surname from Freeman's view, however, is now generally Montfort-l'Amaury, near Versailles. Simon adopted by skilled genealogists. was born about the year 1208, and in 1231 Walter de Gaunt, son of Gilbert de Gaunt did homage to King Henry III. for his and Alice de Montfort-sur-Risle, was created earldom of Leicester, which he inherited Earl of Lincoln. Another son, Hugh de from the Beaumont or Bellomont family, Gaunt, assumed the name of Montfort after and thereby became an Englishman. It his mother, and married Adelina de Bellois unnecessary to follow Earl Simon's career mont, daughter of Robert, Count of Mellent in England, other than to say that he and Earl of Leicester, whilst a daughter eventually allied himself with the English of Gilbert, Emma, married Alan de Percybarons and was killed at Evesham in 1265. the Great Alan, second Lord Percy. He married Eleanor, daughter of King John of England, who bore him several children. However, his sons did not have issue whose descendants can be proved to have settled in England.
ties of Warwickshire' Dugdale remarks:
We have seen that Adelina was a daughter of Robert de Bellomont, Earl of Mellent and first Earl of Leicester, and his wife Isabel, daughter of Hugh, Count of Vermandois. Robert's brother was Henry de Bellomont, The Montforts of England must un-Earl of Warwick, and, therefore, Adelina's doubtedly look to the Montforts of Mont- uncle. By Adelina, Hugh de Montfort had fort-sur-Risle for their origin. A Hollander a son, Thurstan de Montfort. In his 'Antiquicalled Thurstan de Bastenberge followed the Duke of Normandy and settled at Montfort-sur-Risle, where he built a strong castle, and at the time of the invasion of Britain by William the Conqueror his descendant, Hugh de Montfort, one of the most powerful of the Norman barons, supplied 50 ships and 60 knights for the invading army.
For his services Hugh de Montfort received 16 manors in Essex, 51 in Suffolk, 19 in Norfolk, and 28 in Kent, in addition to a large portion of Romney Marsh, and was one of the barons entrusted by the Conqueror with the administration of justice throughout England under Bishop Odo and William FitzOsbern. By Bishop Odo Hugh de Montfort was made Governor of the Castle of Dover, the key of the kingdom. He would appear to have had two wives. By his first wife he had two sons, Hugh and Robert, and by the second a daughter, Alice, eventually
From this Earl of Mellent most sure it is, that the greatest part of what he possest in these parts, came soon after to Henry de Newburgh, his brother the first Earl of Warwick of the Norman line; who thereof, and of divers other fair Lordships enfeoft Thurstan de Montfort his neere kinsman. Which Thurstane, finding it so capable of Fortification, erected thereupon that strong Castle, whereunto, by reason of its pleasant situation, the French name Beldesert was given; which continued; the chief Seat of his Descendants for divers ages.
Perhaps the greatest of all the Montforts of Beldesert was Lord Peter de Montfort, who was killed at Evesham. He was the great-grandson of the Thurstan who built the Castle of Beldesert, the earthworks of which are still to be seen on the hill overlooking Henley-in-Arden. Of him Dugdale says, after referring to the defeat of the King by the barons at Lewes :—
I will now go on with what concerns this Peter de Montfort: and that it may appear, how he was
one of the most considerable persons in that Rebellious pack, shall give several instances from the special trust and employment he then had in the sway of the Realm.
with the barons was undoubtedly, to some extent, a source of weakness to them; for, owing to the fact that the Earl of Leicester was by blood a Frenchman who had married a daughter of King John, many of the of the defeat and death of the King and his English barons were afraid that, in the event
It must be remembered that, although Sir Simon de Montfort sided with the barons of England, he was unwisely regarded with disfavour by many of the barons. They looked upon him as a foreigner who had son, Sir Simon's position might lead to difficulties regarding the succession. obtained lands and titles in England. On After the defeat of the barons at Evesham
one occasion, when Lord Peter de Montfort was charged with being a relative of Sir Simon's, he swore by the soul of the King that he was not related to the Earl. The two families, as we have seen, were quite distinct, the one being largely of French and the other mainly of Norman blood.
Dugdale goes on to say :
Shortly after this victory at Lewes, so obtained, they agreed amongst themselves, that IX Persons should be nominated to exercise Regall power, whereof three, at least, to be constantly resident in Court, for disposing of the custody of all Castles, and other affaires; with the nomination of the Chancelour, Justices, Treasurer, and all other Officers, great and small, tending to the government of the Kingdom; of which number this Peter was one; which persons, so appointed, made use of the great Seal, transacting all things, touching the state of the Realm, in the King's In which Commission, bearing date of Canterbury the Saturday after the Feast of the Nativity of our Lady there was a more especial power given to our Peter, than any of the rest; that is to say, that whatsoever he should swear to do, the King must be bound by it.
For a time he resided at Winchester House,
The association of Sir Simon de Montfort
in 1265, where Sir Simon de Montfort and Lord Peter de Montfort were killed, the King dealt very leniently with the rebellious barons and their families; for, by the dictum of Kenilworth, the sons of Peter had their family possessions restored to them; but the sons of Sir Simon de Montfort refused to make their peace, and remained abroad.
Until the adoption of surnames by the English people, it was only the eldest son of the family who retained the family name. After 1300 the younger sons of the Montforts began to use the name as a surname, and they are now numerous in Warwickshire, Staffordshire and Shropshire. About 1500 they began to adopt Simon as a Christian name, and many of them seem to have forgotten the great Lord Peter from whom they were really descended.
The descendants of the Montforts of Beldesert can be accurately traced down to about 1770; but there do not seem to be any Montforts living who can, with certainty, couple their pedigrees in the male line with the old family.
FEVER IN THE WEST INDIES: EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY.-The following items are taken from Adm. Med. Journals, 98/2, at P.R.O., I have inserted a few personal particu-ing lars in the text of the first.
1. H.M.S. ECHO DEATHS OF FIVE NAVAL SURGEONS.
Messrs. Gordon and Smith* (etat. circ. 22 and 23) Assistant Surgeons were received on board this vessel on the 11th January 1839 at Barbadoes for passage to Jamaica having arrived at the former Island from England two days before. On the afternoon previously to embarkation these gentlemen attended the funeral of Captain [James] Polkinghorne [entered H.M.S. Crocodile
H.M.S. Echo. Adm. Muster Bk., Ser. II. 8950.
R. M. DEELEY,
from half pay, Oct. 20, 1837] who had died of Fever. When the heat of the sun, and walking of attending a funeral immediately on arriv for nearly two hours, and the circumstance in the West Indies appeared to affect them considerably, and on the next day Mr. Gordon was lying on under his bed, labouring considerable excitement. I adopted every measure which my experience suggested. but on the 9th evening Mr. G. died in Port Royal Hospital twelve hours after admissior.
Shortly after the commencement of poor Gordon's illness, his companion Smith also complained of mitigated pyrexial symptoms, when I had recourse to appropriate means, but Dr. S. was evidently under the influence of fear and the very worst anticipations with regard to fever,
12 Jan. 1839 Racer for passage to Robert Smith Asst. Surgn. 23 Jan. 1839 Nimrod
Port Royal Hospital
and even before leaving England had stated his conviction of not surviving the effects of the West Indies. On arriving at Jamaica I placed this patient with the preceding, under the care of Dr. Linton in hospital whither this case also terminated fatally on the 4th evening after admission. Their remains lie beside those of 3 other Naval Medical Officers amid the white sands of the Palisades at Jamaica-viz., Dr. Scott of the "Cornwallis" [entered Feb. 19, 1837, d. Dec. 30, 1838, at Port Royal], Mr. Robertson of the Hospital, and Mr. [Adam] Drysdale Asst. Surgn. of the "Dee [entered Feb. 27, 1838, discharged Dec. 19, 1838, H.M.S. Tartarus, but no date of death found], falling victims within a few weeks of each other.
Some years ago fever was very destructive in
Ye deserved a brighter field
And memory cherish your contemplation
MORRIS PRITCHETT, Asst. Surgn.
2. THE 2ND, OR QUEEN'S ROYAL REGIMENT. According to the Casualty Returns of the 2nd Queen's, between March 25, 1816, and April 24, 1817, they lost 112 men and 10
officers in Barbadoes.
Lieut.-Colonel H. C. E. Vernon Graham was in command. The names of the deceased officers were as follows:
7 Nov. 1816.
Lieut. Wm. Gray
Lieut. Dun. McDougall
Asst. Surg. John Prendergast
Lieut. and Adjt. Jas. Spencer
Ensign And. Richmond
Lieut. Wm. Clutterbuck
Lieut. John Ballan. Norman
Capt. John Gordon
Lieut. Chas. Grant
8 Feb. 1817.
Lieut. Isaac Barrington Perrin
The steam packets have, in the bibliography of London, a literature of their own. One of the earliest, The Steamboat Companion,' published by Thomas Hughes, 1823, had to preface its information with an extract from the "Minutes of Evidence before the Select Committee of the House of Commons respecting the safety and utility of steam packets; taken by Sir Richard Parnall, Bart., March 21st, 1822," to reassure prospective travellers. The reform was successful; the sailing hoy was displaced, as later the steamer drove away the steam packet. But the high-noon of this last-named was not until the forties and fifties, while this hotel came into existence with the neighbouring Adelaide Hotel, and, while long outliving its intended purpose, gained the immortality of being the most lasting memorial of the steam packet. ALECK ABRAHAMS.
THE SOCIAL EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.— Much can be gathered respecting the habits and customs of the London community in the eighteenth century from the first records of the London Hospital, to say nothing of the other charitable and philanthropic agencies which sprang up in the metropolis in this period of the national history. A large proportion of City business, and a still larger proportion of citizen politics and philanthropy, flourished in inns and taverns. It was so with the little assembly- a mere "round table "at The Feathers, Cheapside-which on Sept. 23, 1740, decided to lease the intended (London) Infirmary in Featherstone Street,
near the Dog Bar," for £16 per annum, and to open on the first Monday in November of the same year. By January, 1741, the Infirmary had got well to work, and the House Committee sat weekly at various dining taverns, although Crown Tavern, behind the Royal Exchange," and The Crown Tavern, Whitechapel Bars," were specially favoured houses. By the by, among the first presentation of THE STEAM PACKET HOTEL, LOWER gifts in kind to the London Infirmary was THAMES STREET. This quondam hotel- Mr. Gascoigne's water-butt, but for a cenbut in all the years of living memories public-house-has been recently demolished. Its passing was probably occasioned by subsidences due to excavations on the site opposite, i.e., west of St. Magnus Church and east of London Bridge. But apart from the appearance of the house its passing is worth recording, as its name suggests much of interest.
tury and three-quarters "the Trade" has not taken the hint and has vigorously supported the Charringtons, the Hanburys, the Buxtons, the Paulins, the Wigrams and many other brewers and distillers in their munificent donations to the now great institution which stands in the Whitechapel Road. For, in 1747, the London Infirmary became the London Hospital, and in 1759
the institution was finished, with accom- the Governor of Malta receive the same modation for 161 beds and patients. honour? Has any other Order ever conferred such a temporary rating?'
CUMULATIVE STORIES (see ante, p. 148).Since the appearance of my note as above, I have come across a few lines, which were probably written intentionally after the manner of a cumulative story :
But that which most deserves to be noted in it, is the reason of its Name and Foundation. It is because here is the Earth, that nourished the
Root, that bore the Tree, that yielded the Timber that made the Cross. (A Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem At Easter, A.D. 1697,' by Hen. Maundrell, M.A. late Fellow of Exeter Coll, and Chaplain to the Factory at Aleppo, Fourth edit. 1721 and Seventh edit. 1749, p. 94, under date April 2.)
The above concerns the "convent of the Greeks, taking its Name from the holy Cross.' This convent or monastery is about 1 miles west of Jerusalem.
That Maundrell intended to be sarcastic or jocose may be inferred from what follows,
Under the high Altar you are shewn a hole in the ground where the stump of the Tree stood, and it meets with not a few Visitants so much veryer stocks than itself, as to fall down and worship it.
WE must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest to affix their names and addresses to their queries in order that answers may be sent to them direct.
ORDER OF ST. MICHAEL AND ST. GEORGE. -In the Navy List for January, 1828, appears the following: "The Naval Officer commanding in the Mediterranean is, pro tempore, a Knight Grand Cross of this Order." The Order of St. Michael and St. George was established in 1818 to commemorate the placing of the Ionian Islands under British protection, and was at first limited to natives of those islands and of Malta. The C.-in-C. in the Mediterranean evidently came in under the clause "and to such other subjects of His Majesty as may hold high and confidential situations in the Mediterranean."
The July, 1832, Navy List is the last in which the regulation concerning the C-in.-C. appears, possibly due to the alterations made that year in the statutes of the Order. Did the military G.O.C. or
A. G. KEALY, Maltby, Yorks. Chaplain, R.N., retd. EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY ETONIANS. Any later information about the following Etonians would be welcome :
Acton, Edward Cecil, son of Edward and Susan Acton; bapt. at Ashtead, Surrey, March 5, 1728; matric. at Oxford from Magdalen College, Oct. 11, 1748; B.D. 1762.
Adams, John; born at Donhead, Wilts; ' admitted sizar at Clare College, Cambridge, March 26, 1716.
Aldrich, George Oakley, son of Thomas and Grace Aldrich of Great Kirby Street, Holborn; matric. at Oxford from Merton College, March 26, 1739; M.D. 1755.
Apperley, James, son of Thomas and Elizabeth Apperley; bapt. Nov. 4, 1706, at St. Peter's, Hereford; matric. at Oxford from Jesus College, March 11, 1724/5; M.B. 1734.
Armstrong, Charles, son of Augustin and Mary Armstrong of Covent Garden; bapt. Nov. 11, 1709, at St. Martin-in-the-Fields; matric. at Oxford from Balliol College, June 7, 1729.
Ashenhurst, George, son of James Ashenhurst of Park Hall, Co. Stafford; admitted at Trinity College, Cambridge, Jan. 13, 1742 3, aged 17. R. A. A.-L.
A GUNPOWDER PLOT IN 1615.-Jon Olafsson, Icelandic traveller, who was in England in 1615, gives the following circumstantial account of a plot against the life of King James I. :—
One evening near sunset in October , as King James was coming down from Gravesend in one of the boats called King's boats" (of which there are eighteen, all ten-oared or twelveoared), and about 200 men with him, gunpowder King's boat was to be steered to the shore, and mines had been laid on the quay, where the where he usually landed. But a woman who sold