Sidor som bilder



(12 S. xi. 171, 214, 238, 273.)

As I was born at Bramshill House (Hampshire) and brought up in the traditions of that place, I may be allowed to know more about it than most people. Certain mistakes have found their way into print ; quite recently a ridiculous account of the story was given at an "outing" of a local Field Club. These sort of errors uttered under the ægis of the Society of Antiquaries do harm by perpetuating mistakes.

Sir Anthony, in the title and estates in 1676, did "spend many years of his life" on the Continent, as family papers preserved at Bramshill show. During the time he was abroad he purchased several pieces of furniture, including a large chest. When his eldest son, Sir John Cope, Bart., bought Bramshill from the trustees of Sir Robert Henley, this chest came thither. Rogers wrote that the picture of Ginevra was painted by Zampieri (also known as Domenico), who was born in 1581 and died in 1641. Sir John Cope was in Italy in the first half of the seventeenth century; he, as already stated, purchased a chest when on his foreign tour. The tradition in the Italian family, as before The question is often asked, Where did mentioned, is that one member found her the incident happen? More than one old death in a chest on the day of her marriage, ancestral mansion in England, as well as one and that the chest was sold to an Englishon the Continent, in Italy, claim to be the man. If Rogers is correct in saying he scene of the tragedy. Amongst our English saw the picture by Zampieri then the rest houses where the tragedy is said to have of the tale pieces together like the parts of a occurred three are in Hampshire, viz., Mar- puzzle. The chest remained at Bramshill well Hall, Malshanger and Bramshill. How until the year 1812, when on the death of the first two are connected with the legend Sir Denzil Cope without issue it passed to I do not know, but of the last-Bramshill- his widow, who removed it to Firgrove I propose to tell.


House, Hampshire. When Lady Cope died in 1840 it became the property of her nephew, in whose family it still remains. Thus we see how the Italian romance travelled to England, and how Bramshill became connected with the story of The Mistletoe Bough.'

This unhappy wedding-day has been described in verse by Haynes Bayly in the ballad The Mistletoe Bough,' set to music by Sir Henry R. Bishop. But Haynes Bayly is not the only person that has related the story of the lady who hid in the old oak chest. Samuel Rogers, banker and Traditions that have centred around a poet-a member of the Holland House set, place seldom, if ever, become divorced from when that place was the rendezvous of men it. In the gallery at Bramshill is another of letters in the first part of the nineteenth large chest that the imagination of visitors century-has, in his Italy,' in the poem has fixed upon as the "Mistletoe Bough Ginevra,' told the same story, the scene Chest." This has been photographed by a being laid in Modena, and the victim- local photographer, and sold on picture the bride a member of the illustrious house postcards under the title The Bridal Chest of Orsini, married to her first love, Francesco at Bramshill.' Doria. Furthermore, Rogers has mentioned | how enraptured he was with her picture by Zampieri. This last is an important point to bear in mind, for it will later enable us to fix the date of the chest being brought to England.

What is, then, the connexion of the tale with England and with an English house, Bramshill? In one of the noble Italian families there is a tradition that a member of the family did perish in the manner described, and that later the chest in which the bride had hidden and in which she had found her death was purchased by an Englishman travelling in Italy.

Sir John Cope, Bart., of Hanwell Castle, Oxon, before he succeeded his elder brother,

A few words are now needed to describe the original chest which was once at Bramshill. It was of Italian workmanship and in Italian is called a cassione. Such were used in former days to carry the bride's trousseau to her husband's home. The chest in question measured about eight feet in length and was three feet in height and the same in breadth; thus it was quite big enough for anybody to hide in. The front was divided into three sections, each separated from the other by panels. The inside of the lid had three hinges, the long straps of which ended in fleurs-de-lis. the upper centre was a globe supported by two amoretti, having arabesques beneath. On one side, in a landscape, were two figures


kneeling in homage to a crowned figure the first of 1844 onwards; the first four ediholding a sceptre and seated on a throne; tions of Joanne' (1841-1865) all the behind the kneeling figures was a man in editions of Murray' from 1838 (the first) armour. On the opposite side were two save the thirteenth, of which I believe armed men with shields meeting a third man. there is no copy either in the British Museum At each end of the lid was a man in armour or at the publisher's. standing on a pavement.

The question may be asked, Why did the bride propose a game of hide-and-seek to celebrate the wedding festivities? In answer it has been said that such a game was a relic of an old custom, when a bride hid after her wedding and had to be caught; it was typical of the ancient custom of marriage by capture.

As the tale of The Mistletoe Bough' still clings to Bramshill, and as tradition asserts that the lost bride was a member of the Cope family, I may here say that no member of my family ever perished on her wedding. day either by hiding in a chest or in any other manner. Bramshill House was built

in the early years of the seventeenth century by Edward, Lord Zouche. John Thorpe was the architect, who also designed Hatfield House for the Earl of Salisbury and Holland House for Sir Walter Cope. In 1699 the Bramshill estate was purchased by Sir John Cope, Bart., the sixth baronet, whose ancestor, Sir Anthony Cope, was created a baronet in 1611. There is no confirmation for the statement sometimes made that Bramshill House was built for the eldest son of James I., viz., Henry, Prince of Wales. JOHN HAUTENVILLE COPE.

Finchampstead Place, Berks.

Among my old maps of Switzerland, Savoy and Piedmont the oldest is that of Switzerland, by Conrad Türst, made 1495-7, but this only in facsimile, as there are only two or three copies of the original known.

I have copies of Münster's (1544 and 1550) Cosmographia Universalis, and of J. Stumpf's Chronik (1548, 1586, and 1606), all of which contain general Swiss maps, and also special maps of various the nine sheets of Thomas Schöpf's map of regions. My oldest separate originals are the Bernese Oberland of 1578, and four of Metellus, dated 1592.

Among my early Savoy maps I have than the Savoy of Bullion (1570), and many photographs or facsimiles of several earlier originals dated after 1600, as well as an Ortelius of 1603. I have also a photograph of the first edition (1680) of Borgonio's the original are known, as well as an original map, of which only some dozen copies of of the edition of 1772. I have also SIR H. G. FORDHAM's useful Studies in CartoBibliography' (1914), and many books in French and German on the general subject of cartography.

I agree with SIR H. G. FORDHAM that it is a most fascinating subject of study, but I have not seen The Times article of July 25 last. W. A. B. COOLIDGE.

Grindelwald, Switzerland.

GUIDE-BOOKS (12 S. xi. 245).-Like SIR H. G. FORDHAM I have a considerable collection of old guide-books (and maps), but almost wholly limited to Switzerland and the chain of the Alps. Many years ago TOAST AND WATER (12 S. x. 230).-Toast (1889) I published in London a book en- and water was made by pouring boiling titled Swiss Travel and Swiss Guide-books,' water upon freshly toasted bread. When but I should now be able to enlarge it enor- cold the liquor was poured off, generally into mously, as I have since then collected many glass jugs or vessels. It was a hay-coloured other examples of old guide-books. My liquid and not unpalatable. When I went earliest is J. J. Wagner's Index Memora- up to Oriel College, Oxford, in 1857, it was bilium Helvetiae' (Zürich, 1684), while I served at dinner as an alternative to beer. also possess the third edition of this book, I am told that in 1864 it was served at Winissued in 1701 under the title of Mercurius chester College to candidates for scholarships Helveticus,' but I have never succeeded in at the lunch provided for them by the College obtaining the second edition dated 1688, during the examination, not in glass jugs. though the engraved title with that date is Its use in Oxford prevailed till the corporain my copy of the 1701 edition. Then I have tion provided drinking water of good quality, all the five early editions of the Délices de la that previously derived from pumps and Suisse (1714-1778); the first edition (1793) wells not being always fit to drink. As the and many subsequent editions of Ebel's water had been boiled, toast and water was Guide'; many editions of Baedeker' from, regarded as quite safe to drink. It must

have gone out of use in Oxford between 1860
and 1870.

Recipes for constructing this nutritious but rather insipid beverage may be found in almost any standard cookery book. The following is given in Mrs. Beeton's book:Ingredients. One crust of bread, one pint of cold water.

Method.-Toast the bread very brown and hard but do not burn it or it will impart a disagreeable flavour to the water. Put it into a jug, pour over it the cold water, let it soak for one hour then strain and use.

Other recipes substitute boiling water for cold water.

My parents always had a jug of it at dinner some sixty years ago, but I think if one asked for it at the Ritz or Carlton nowadays the waiter would have a fit on the spot.



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Mode. Cut a slice from a stale loaf (a piece of hard crust is better than anything else for the purpose). Toast it of a nice brown on every side, but do not allow it to burn, or blacken. Put it into a jug, pour the boiling water over it, cover it closely, and let it remain until cold. When strained, it will be ready for use. Toast and

water should always be made a short time before it is required, to enable it to get cold; if drunk in a tepid or lukewarm state, it is an exceedingly disagreeable beverage. If, as is sometimes the case, this drink is wanted in a hurry, put the toasted bread into a jug and only just cover it with the boiling water; when this is cool, cold water may be added in the proportion required, and the toast and water strained; it will then be ready for use, and is more expeditiously prepared than by the above method. A toasted biscuit, instead of the bread, is a good thing to

I well remember "toast and water as a drink for children (and parents) at the midday meal, about 1840; and I remember our doctor recommending to a tippling patient, Nothing stronger than toast use. and water," about 1850. It was made I well remember my mother, when we in a special jug with a straining provision at the back of the spout, by pouring boiling water on a piece of well-toasted bread, and letting it stand till cold, the toast remaining while the drink lasted. It is still drunk by a few people. J. T. F.

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were children at home, giving us toast and water when we were ill and feverish. It was supposed to be better for us than cold water. It was not used as a general drink, but only made and given to us when we were ill.


Westwood, Clitheroe. Here is recipe from Still Room Cookery: Recipes Old and New,' by Mrs. C. S. Peel (London, Archibald Constable and Co., 1905):

A nicely made piece of toast (stale bread), lightly but crisply browned. Put into a jug, pour over boiling water, cover and when cold strain through a muslin. This must be made quite

two hours before it is wanted and can be iced if liked.

As a child and youth (residing in Norfolk) I drunk nothing else at dinner, and greatly appreciated it when newly made.


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questions can only be given by correspon- number for West of Ireland use. There dents seeking to fix knowledge which has were four varieties or styles. One, a plain come to them through tradition or ex- skirt, supported by fastening around the perience. As regards the Scots kilt, much waist with a band; another, little used, confusion exists by the mixing of names being plainly cut and with open or apron and their very careless use; due in some front after the style of the Scots kilt. A measure to ignorance. The Scots garment third was supported by a bodice, fastening is a kilt, not kilts. It is made of tartan, at the back with buttons and buttonholes. which is the material. The plaid is the The fourth had the front of the supporting check design woven into the tartan. The bodice of similar material to the skirt, only plaid also has another significance, namely, needing sleeves and the back to be of simithe long piece of material used as a shawl. lar material to be a frock. They were all In former days the plaid was long, and the worn with short jackets. One of the most method of folding it around the loins to beautiful and artistic skirt costumes ever form a skirt gave rise to the pleats from worn by young gentlemen is one founded which the modern kilt is developed. In the upon an Albanian style. The Greek skirt Scots kilt the pleatings are all to the left, costume is too well known by photographs each pleat extending sufficiently beyond the of Greek soldiers to need discription. preceding one to exhibit the downward line of the chief band of colour forming the centre of that which, when crossed, forms the check. The pleated part is sufficient to reach to midway of each hip, the other parts being plain. To put the Scots kilt on it is drawn a little above the waist, the right hand carries the underfold of the apron over to the left-hand side of the waist. Being thus in position, the left-hand part is drawn over to the right hip, where it is secured by two straps and buckles. The front apron then shows the whole design of the check. The checks of course have their Clan significance. The revival of the Irish kilt shows a departure from the Scots garment, the pleats mostly being right and left in form of what is known as the box pleat. Of these box pleats I have seen three, five, seven, and nine in number, though there may be many variations. In many cases the apron front is closed, turning the kilt into a skirt. It also has been made attached to a bodice for support. Checks have no significance as in the Scots kilt. Where mentioned at all historically the colour is saffron; very rarely a light mauve is used and still more rarely green. The material is a native homespun. Both Scots and Irish kilt are necessarily without pockets. Whilst the Scots kilt has the addition of the sporan in full dress, the Irish kilt is without this decoration, which sometimes in the Scots kilt also serves as a pouch.

As regards the petticoats worn by boys in the West, I have seen them in various forms. They are generally made of homespun, thick and coarse, and consequently warm to the wearer, whose ages ranged from infants to 14 or 15 years. In the early seventies my mother made a large

In The Times of Aug. 31 (p. 12) is a fulllength portrait of Lord Ashbourne "in Irish costume," in which strange dress he attended the Memorial Service for Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith" in Paris. The costume much resembles the accepted Highland dress. The main differences are that the cap is apparently a round soft woollen thing, much like the old "Tam o' Shanter," and the kilt-if kilt it be is very short, shorter than that of "the old Highlander in Tottenham Court Road, formerly outside a tobacco shop, now (or recently) taking snuff at the door of a linoleum shop. Lord Ashbourne's skirt, though probably a kilt, may be merely part of a long coat divided by a belt. The photograph is not clear.


WIFE IMPALING HUSBAND'S COAT (12 S. xi. 249).-That ladies impaled their paternal arms on the dexter side of their own seals is a fact well known (MR. WALTER RYE will find some remarks on that subject in The Genealogist, N.S., vol. xxxi., 1914, p. 7), but whether only in pura viduitate is uncertain. A notable example is the seal of Joan de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln and Lady of Audley, who has the coat of her last husband, Nicholas de Audley, impaled on the sinister side. See Additional Charters,' B.M., No. 53588, A.D. 1369.


It is held by some that this custom was observed only when the family of the femme was of higher rank than that of the baron. But I greatly doubt it.

The beautiful seal of Ela, dau. of Wm. Longspee and widow of James de Audley (A.D. 1272) also displays her family arms

to the right of her, on a separate shield it is true, while her late husband's arms are seen on a separate shield to her left (sinister side) (Add. Ch.,' B.M.). But as regards mere impaling, MR. RYE will find Royal examples in Planché's 'Pursuivant of Arms,' pp. 203, 204. CHARLES SWYNNERTON.

The following may bear upon MR. RYE's question. There was an old occasional custom of placing the wife's arms first, if she were of higher rank or greater estate (see, t.g., Nisbet's System of Heraldry,' 1722, vol. ii., p. 52: an author by no means out of date). This is on all fours with the practice of putting official arms to the dexter, and those of the holder of the office to the sinister, as in the case of a bishop or an officer of arms. F. P. BARNARD.

I have read MR. RYE'S query with great interest, and beg to submit the following:

1. If you sketch the arms as described in the porch, and then turn the paper round and hold it up to the light, the result is not a normal arrangement. True, it would give you the husband's coat on the dexter and the wife's on the sinister, but the marshalling of each coat would be incorrect, as it would make England 1 and 4, France 2 and 3, and on the other side 1 and 4 a lion rampant (to the sinister) and 2 and 3 a double-headed eagle. In addition, the lions of England would be passant towards the sinister instead of towards the dexter as normally; only such charges as the fleur-de-lis and other symmetrical figures would remain possible in a reverse.

2. If you sketch the normal, and then hold it reversed up to the light, the result is not what appears on the porch, because, again, the lions are facing the wrong way. 3. Though there probably are instances of a seal-engraver or mason making a mistake by copying a reverse, this would not appear to be a case in point. In early days great latitude was allowed when conjoining husband's and wife's achievements, and it is only since the decline of the martial use of heraldic insignia that fixed rules have developed or been laid down.

The following from 'The Law and Practice of Heraldry in Scotland,' by George Seton, M.A., F.S.A., Advocate (1863), may be of interest :

As early examples of entire impalement we have that of Margareta, dau. and heiress of John Cragy of that Ilk (1377), Marian, wife of Sir William Dalziel (1392), and Mariota, dau. and heiress of Reginald Cheyne of Inverugie, and wife

of John, second son of Sir Edward Keith, Marischal of Scotland (c. 1360). The peculiar thing but her arms are on the dexter side and the in the second case is that the lady is unknown, husband's on the sinister [dexter, a saltire cantoned in chief with a cinquefoil]. The husband's are also on a separate seal attached to the same charter.

Even in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries very few examples of impaling on seals of Scotch ladies are to be found, the only instances in Laing's work being :

of Albany (1445). 1. Isabella, Countess of Lennox and Duchess

2. Elizabeth Ogston, wife of Adam Hepburn of Craigie (1503).

3. Alison Douglas, widow of David Hume of Wedderburn (1535).

4. Margaret, Duchess of Châtelherault (1560). 5. Margaret Home, wife of Alexander Erskine (1563). In all of these but the first one, an ordinary impalement is carried out, husband's arms on the dexter, and wife's to the sinister." CHARLES A. H. FRANKLIN.

St. Thomas's Hospital, S.E.1.

COMMONWEALTH MARRIAGES AND BURIALS (12 S. x. 81, 104, 124, 142, 175).-In Scobel's Acts and Ordinances of Parliament,' cap. vi. of 1653, the manner in which marriages are to take place is plainly given, and it is interesting, in these days, when so much objection is made to the word "obey," to note the simple form by which a couple were united. I do not know if the marriage vows, as here given, are retained by any of the Nonconformist sects.

The Act directs how marriages should be solemnized and registered after Sept. 29, 1653.

Henry Scobel was Clerk of the Parliament, and the Acts were printed in 1658. There are also instructions for registration of births and burials.

The party to be married shall deliver in writing at least twenty-one days before the intended marriage or cause to be delivered to the Register appointed by this Act for the respective parish in which each party to be married liveth, the names, surnames, additions and places of abode of the parties to be married, and of their parents, guardians,

or overseers.

All of which the said Register shall publish or cause to be published 3 several Lords-days then next following at the close of the morning Exercise in the publique Meeting place called Church or Chappel, or (if the parties to be married desire it) in the Market-place next to the said Church or Chappel on three Market-days in three several weeks next following, between the hours of eleven and two. [The Register then makes a true certificate (upon request of parties concerned) of

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