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The Man to be married, taking the Woman to be married by the hand, shall plainly and distinctly pronounce these words, I, A.B., here in the presence of God the searcher of all hearts, take thee, C.D., for my wedded Wife; and do also in the presence of God, and before these witnesses, promise to be unto thee a loving and faithful husband.

And then the Woman, taking the Man by the hand, shall plainly and distinctly pronounce these words: I, C.D., do here in the presence of God the searcher of all hearts, take thee, A.B., for my wedded Husband, and do also in the presence of God, before these witnesses, promise to be unto thee a loving, faithful and obedient wife.

The Justice then declared them husband and wife.

(No other form of Marriage to be lawful in the Commonwealth of England after 29th Sept. 1653.) Every parish had to provide a book "of good Vellum or Parchement " in which the marriages were registered, as were also all births of children, and all burials, of all sorts of people "within every Parish."

A person was to be selected to keep the book, who should enter in writing

all such Publications, Marriages, Births of Children, and Burials of all sorts of persons, and the Names of every of them, and the days of the moneth and year of Publications, Marriages, Births

and Burials, and the Parents, Guardians or Over

seers names.

There was no charge in connexion with people living upon alms.

The Justice, if it was desired, had to give to the parties so married

a Certificate in Parchement under his hand and

seal, of such marriage, and of the day of the solemnization thereof, and of two or more of witnesses then present.

The Justice's clerk could receive "12d. and no more."

married were, man, 16 years; woman, 14 The ages of the parties consenting to be


confirmed in Parl. 1656, cap. 10. The above Act was passed Aug. 24, and

The Times of Aug. 14 had the following very interesting information :—

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BISHOPS AGAINST THE "OBEY."-Portland (Oregon), Sept. 12.-The House of Bishops of the Episcopal Church has voted by thirty-six to twenty-seven in favour of removing the word obey from the marriage ritual. If the House of Deputies concurs, the proposal will be subject to the approval of the General Convention to be held in 1925.-Reuter. HERBERT SOUTHAM.

EDMUND HALLEY (12 S. xi. 149).-Let me first point out that the correct spelling of the astronomer's Christian name is Edmond" (see 9 S. x. 361, col. 1, note).

My rather extensive notes on Halley contain this item :

He was of a happy constitution and preserved his memory and judgment to the last, as he did also that particular cheerfulness of spirit for which he was remarkable. In his person, he was of a middle stature inclining to tallness, of a thin habit of body and a fair complexion, and always spoke as well as acted with an uncommon degree of spritliness and vivacity. ('Biog., Brit., iv. 2516-2517; London, 1757.)

The above was quoted in my article entitled Some Material for a Pedigree of Dr. Edmond Halley," in The Genealogist, xxv. (London, July, 1908), in which mention was made of several original portraits of Halley and their respective locations.

It may be of interest to add that the set of beautiful Latin hexameter verses prefixed The Justice of the Peace had to subscribe by Halley to the first edition of Newton's the entry of every such marriage, publica-Principia' (1687) have recently been tions and certificate. translated from a Latin text into the auxiliary

The following were the authorized language Ido, in hexameter verse, by Mr. charges:Gilbert H. Richardson, 164, Ryehill, NewEntry of marriage, publications and castle-on-Tyne. A rather free translation certificate, 12d. and no more." in English verse appeared in The General Entry of every marriage," 12d. and no Magazine of Arts and Sciences, edited by more." B. Martin (London, January, 1755).


Entry of birth and of death, '4d. and no more."

EUGENE F. McPIKE. 4450, Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, U.S.A.

akers, died the 28th day of May and was buried upon the 30th day of May, 1671.

AN EARLY ARMY LIST (12 S. xi. 104, 122, 1671, ffrances Oldakers, the wife of Richard Old207, 239). The first six and a half lines of the note to the above Army List were copied verbatim, and give its official description.

It is generally understood that all calendared documents are in manuscript, except where it is specifically stated that they are printed.

"When she liued here she liued to die

But now to liue eternally."

1691, June 25, hestter old Akers vid."
1697, May 25, Anne, wife of Thomas Oldacres.

1698/9, March 17, Richard Oldacres.
1701, Oct. 1, Richard Oldacres.
1706/7, Jan. 20, Mary, d. widdow Oldacres.
1709, Oct. 24, Thomas Oldacre.
1716, Aug. 17. Richard Oldacre.
1744/5, Feb. 6, Anne Oldacres.
1716, Sep. 2, Mary Oldacre.
1748, July 13, Nanny, d. Thos. and Mary Oldaker.
1755, May 13, Hester Oldakre.
1768, March 30, Thomas Oldacre.
MARRIAGES. 1556-1784.

In the original, the writer has two different styles of forming his "B's" and " P's," but as a rule the former are distinctly formed, whilst occasionally they resemble the manner in which he very often forms his "P's," i.e., with an inward curl to the end like an "o," so that his second way of writing a capital "B" in certain 1639, Nov. 30, John Oldakers and Dorothy extreme cases can barely, if at all, be distinguished from "Po."

First Regt. of Foot Guards.-The third line (which was inadvertently omitted) should contain the names of

John Strode.

Lt Colonell

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John Heily Peter Crown


1641, Nov. 14, Richd. Oldakers and Frances
1684, May 19, Henery Willmott and Mary Old


1700, July 10, Robt. Mason, Jun. and Frances Oldacres, B.


For "Boutton " (not Bourton) read 1729, Boulton.

All the numbers in the last column, upper table, ante, p. 123, are consistently one line too high, owing to a slight error in printing. I am very much obliged to COLONEL LESLIE for so kindly and politely correcting the errors, which I regret appeared, but it was consoling to find that he, too, was human, and erred. E. H. FAIRBROTHER.

[We regret that in slightly extending the table to make it fit the page, a white space was inserted at the bottom instead of the top of the column of figures and the consequent dislocation missed in revising.]

OLDACRE FAMILY (12 S. xi. 211).-If inquirer would accept a slight deviation in the spelling of the surname he should, perhaps, make a note of a turf celebrity named William Fitzhardinge Oldaker, born at Gerrards Cross in 1810, and died at Chester in 1884.

The pluralized form of the surname,
Oldacres, is found in Leicestershire and
Rutlandshire. Some years ago there was
a clergyman named Öldacres beneficed in

The following notes are from the Registers of Wickhamford, Co. Worcester :

BURIALS. 1538-1784.

1642, April 5, Richard Oldakers.
1654/5, Feb. 4, Elizabeth Oldakers, widow.

Oct. 7, Willm. Oldacre and Hester Lewis,

Jan. 31, Thos. Oldacre and Mary Widows
of ye parish.

BAPTISMS. 1338-1784.

1643, Oct, 22, Mary, d. Richd. Oldakers.
1646/7, March 14, Richd., s. Richd. Oldakers.
1663, Aug. 23, Richd., s. Thomas Oldakers.
1665, Sep. 2, Mary, d. Thomas Oldacres.
1667, Nov. 12, Anne, d. Thomas Old: akers Senr.
1669/70, Feb. 10, Willm., s. Thomas Oldacres.

1645, Sept. 8, Anne, d. Richd. Oldakers.

1673, Aug. 10, Frances, d. Thomas Acres.

1684, Oct. 22, Willm., s. Thomas old Akers.
1686, Sep. 30, James, s. Thomas old Akers.
1688, Dec. 15, John, s. Thomas old Akers.
1688.9, March 21, Mary, d. Richd. Oldackers.
1690, Oct. 29, Richd., s. Richd. old Akers.
1690 1, Feb. 16, Elizh., d. Thos. old Akers,
1692, Dec. 21, Frances, d. Richd. old Akers.
1692/3, Feb. 12, Richd.. s. Thos. ould Akers.
1694 5. Jan. 30. Mary, d. Thos, old Akers.
1695, Aug. 18, Elizh., d. Richd. Old Aker.
1730/1, Jan. 14, Mary, d. Thos. and Mary Oldacker.
1732, Dec. 27. Thos., s. Thos. and Mary Oldacre.
1735, April 24, Willm., s. Thos. and Mary Old-
1737, Nov. 10, Richd., s. Thos. and Mary Old-



1739, Jan. 30, Sarah, d. Thos. and Mary Oldacre. 1742, July 24, Elizh., d. Thos. and Mary Oldacres. 1743, Oct. 24, Francis, s. Thos. and Mary Old1748, July 9, Nanny, d. Thos. and Mary Oldaker. RICHARD SAVAGE.



SUCKLING FAMILY (12 S. xi. 231).— Captain Horatio John Suckling, who died at Mortlake, Sept. 4, 1905, aged 82, was a son of Captain Horatio Suckling of the

Light Infantry, who died at Colombo, ham, deceased 1568.

The effigy is illustrated Ceylon, on Aug. 21, 1841, and was buried in both Cotman and Haines, clad in armour in the Galle Face Cemetery there, a tomb- of at least a century before his own times. stone marking his grave. He, Mrs. Suckling It might be supposed that the brass had and two sons arrived at Colombo on March been appropriated from an earlier memorial, 7, 1836, his regiment having been sent to but both effigy and inscription plates are Ceylon for a tour of service in the island. palimpsest, having been cut from one and He was Commandant of Kotmale in 1839, the same Flemish brass, proving they were with his headquarters at Nuwara Eliya, engraved at one time, after his decease. the hill station of Ceylon. According to He married Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas my information, his father or grandfather Blennerhayset, and widow of George Duke of was Captain Maurice Suckling, R.N., who Brampton, who was commemorated on a was a brother of Mrs. Nelson, mother of the brass at Frenze, Norfolk, together with her Admiral. Captain Horatio John Suckling first husband. She died in 1577, and was the author of a book, Ceylon, by an has a brass to herself at St. Margaret`s, Officer late of the Ceylon Rifle Regiment,' Norwich. Both her effigies, in costumes of published in 1876. Did he write anything each period, are illustrated by Cotman, else? Any further particulars about him Haines and Boutell. Peter Rede received would be appreciated, or correction of any honourable addition to his arms from the error in the above statement. Emperor Charles V. for assistance at the conquest of Barbaria and the siege of Tunis, as stated on his inscription plate.


Major Horace Suckling (1794-1841), of the 1st Royal Scots and 90th Foot, was a grandson of William Suckling of Banham Haugh, Co. Norfolk, and Kentish Town, who was a brother of Maurice Suckling, the uncle of Lord Nelson. See Crisp's Visitation of England and Wales,' Notes, vol. xiv., pp. 113, 114. J. B. WHITMORE.


At Checkendon, Oxford, are brasses to Cecilia his wife (1428), and Edmund Rede John Rede (1404) servant to the King." and wife Christine (1435). There are several Blennerhassett brasses at Frenze and one of the shields of arms bears, on its reverse

side, the family arms quartering Orton.

A shield from a lost brass (St. Martin's, arms (12 S. xi. 231).-The Norwich) bears the of Calthorpe earliest paper-knife I have seen bore the impaling Blennerhayset, quartering LowdLondon hall-mark for 1831. Old silver ones ham, Orton and Keldon. seem very scarce. What was the chief material used at first ? A. W. O.


Though the N. E. D.' has no example of “paper-knife before the nineteenth century, the instrument was at least as early as the reign of Queen Anne, as is shown by one of Swift's Thoughts on Various Subjects":

Men of great Parts are often unfortunate in the Management of publick Business, because they are apt to go out of the common Road, by the

Quickness of their Imagination. This I once said, to my Lord Bolingbroke, and desired he would observe, that the Clerks in his Office used a sort of Ivory Knife with a blunt Edge, to divide a Sheet of Paper, which never failed to cut it even, only requiring a strong Hand, whereas if they should make use of a sharp Pen-knife, the Sharpness would make it go often out of the Crease and disfigure the Paper.



Possibly some of these family connexions may be of service to MR. READ.


BADGE OF RANK: WING (12 S. xi. 250).— Perhaps LIEUT.-COL. LESLIE will find an answer to his question in the uniform of the Royal Company of Archers of Scotland. The Court uniform has epaulettes; in the "field" dress the epaulettes are replaced by 'shoulder-wings." As far as I remember, they are much the same in shape as worn by bandsmen of the line.



(Chaplain, R. Navy, ret.).

The Century Dictionary' defines a wing a shoulder-knot, or small epaulet; specifically, a projecting piece of stuff, perhaps only a raised seam or welt, worn in the sixteenth century on the shoulder, at or near the insertion of the sleeve,

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and quotes Ben Jonson, Every Man out of his Humour,' III. i. :

REDE (v.8. Oatlands Palace, Weybridge,' 12 S. xi. 161, 235).-It may interest MR. W. D. READ to know that in the Church of St. Peter Mancroft, at Norwich, there is a I would have mine such a suit without differpeculiar brass to Peter Rede of Gynnyng-ence, such stuff, such a wing, such a sleeve.

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IDENTIFICATION OF ARMS (12 S. xi. 171, 215). I find these (Gules, a stag (?) between three pheons within a bordure engrailed charged with roundels) are undoubtedly the arms of Linwood, viz., Gules, a hind between three pheons or in border engrailed pellettee. When I gave the name of Parker I forgot to take into account the border. E. E. COPE.

Finchampstead Place, Berks.

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All of a row
Bend the bow;
Shot at a pigeon
And killed a crow,


stands on p. 258 of the sixth edition of James O. Halliwell's The Nursery Rhymes COBBOLD: THE SENSITIVE PLANT (12 S. of England,' published about 1853. I used xi. 249).--The Rev. John Spencer Cobbold to think that the name “Bendigo was born in 1768 and died in 1837. About "Bendibo" formed the second line of the the year 1794 he accepted the mastership song. Bend-the-Bow, according to Dr. of the Free School at Nuneaton, so pre- Brewer, is one of the characters in Scott's sumably it was about that time that he Castle Dangerous.' ST. SWITHIN. wrote the poem. He was only there for a few years.

I am merely assuming from the terms of MR. KAUFMAN'S inquiry that there is in fact a poem by J. S. Cobbold entitled 'The Sensitive Plant,' though I cannot say I am familiar with it or even heard of it. Of course the well-known poem commencing A sensitive plant in a garden grow And the young wind fed it with silver dew was written by Shelley in 1820.


The account of John Spencer Cobbold (1768-1837) does not mention The Sensitive Plant,' but says that "about 1794 he accepted the mastership of the free school at Nuneaton, Warwickshire." It does not say when he resigned this post, but it must have been before 1805. He was Fellow of Caius College, Cambridge, and took the degree of M.A. in 1793. Beside some sermons he published two essays, which had gained the Norrisian prize, the first being published at Ipswich in 1793, and the other at Coventry

in 1797.


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Notes on Books.

The French Tradition in Education: Ramus to Mme. Necker de Saussure. By H. C. Barnard. (Cambridge University Press. 108. 6d. net.) THE intention of this book is, as the Preface tells us, to picture certain aspects of education in France during the centuries which succeeded the Renaissance, and to sketch the career of certain educationists or educational institutions which have hitherto received far less attention than they would seem to deserve." Such a scheme springs from the researches of a student; it would not

appeal to the book-maker in quest of a subject. Already, in his volume on The Little Schools of Port Royal,' Mr. Barnard has shown his appreciation of those intellectual and spiritual developments which lie outside the record of conspicuous events.

The fascination that the story to its psychological or to its dramatic interest, of Port Royal possesses for English readers is due but the main purpose of his study of Port Royal has been to fix the degree of its influence on education in France and through France on other civilized nations. This question has small place in the sensa theless it must be taken into account by any who tional and tragic history of the Jansenists, neveraspire to real understanding of French thought. And the book before us, by showing the diversity and the strength of other movements in the same that little band of solitary thinkers, the followers direction, serves to emphasize the achievement of of the Abbé de Saint-Cyran.

It is inevitable that a picture of education in France in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries should have as its background an impression of Jesuit dominion; and indeed the Jesuit scheme of free education was so well organized for purposes of propaganda that it is hard to understand how any opposition endeavour could have been sustained. Nevertheless, despite their wealth, the

Court favour they ordinarily enjoyed, and the immense advantage derived from the position of the Society in Rome, they had various rivals of whom the Oratorians were the most formidable and the followers of Calvin the most conspicuous. In the chapter on La Chalotais we have a description of the system followed by the Society in 1773, the date of their suppression. At that time they were responsible for 150 educational establishments in France and had held their ground with very brief intermission for nearly two centuries. The offence which was the basis of La Chalotais' denunciation of their system was its immobility. Between 1599 and 1773 it had not altered. From these facts we can estimate the importance of the place that must be accorded to the Jesuits in a history of tradition in education.


It is an ungrateful task, however, to dwell on the blemish in work that reaches so high a standard. Nothing is lacking to the accessories which make a book of real value; there is an admirable bibliography, and maps and appendices that are an addition to its usefulness.

The Tale of

66 quaint

Chaucer: The Prioress's Tale. Sir Thopas. Edited by Lilian Winstanley. (Cambridge University Press. 38. 6d.) MISS WINSTANLEY brings to her elucidation of the English classics both a good theory and lively perceptions. As her readers know, she is greatly occupied with the relation of contem porary events and characters to poets and poetry. No doubt this line of criticism deserves mor attention than it has usually obtained, but The most attractive portion of the book, how- also no doubt it requires as much tact as enever, is that which concerns the work of women. thusiasm and knowledge and it is tact that. The account of Anne de Xaintonge and her posi- in Miss Winstanley's handling of her subject, Thus it seems to E tion as a pioneer in the education of girls is par- sometimes comes short. ticularly valuable because it breaks new ground. | a real error to suggest that Chaucer saw anything It has been drawn from sources not accessible to corresponding to what we mean by ordinary readers, and the twenty pages that de- in certain old authors whom she mentions a scribe the career of the Venerable Ursuline leave, "curious and out-of-the-way"; and we are not us with a picture of a figure, hitherto unfamiliar, sure whether it is tact or knowledge which has that it is not easy to forget. And if here Mr. failed her when among them, between Nigell Barnard is at his best as a historian, it is in his, Wereker and Dionysius Cato, she puts St. Jeron chapter on Mme. Necker de Saussure that as an However, this very rashness prepares the real educationist he is most impressive. For in his for what he will find-freshness and a certain consideration of the maxims of that wise and original turn in dealing with well-worn thems thoughtful lady he goes to the root and centre of so that even where prompted to disagree he wi his subject; he shows that a true system of educa- cull interesting suggestion, and where he feels s tion begins with cradle training, and displays, clined to smile will acknowledge the pleasarMiss Winstanl incidentally, a familiarity with infant nature ness of this eager discussion. which adds considerable weight to his opinion on calls special attention to her introductory essa the methods to be pursued. And it is particularly on 'Sir Thopas'; and the essay justifies he Its main purport is to show tha apt, when (from widely divergent points of view) doing so. M. Marcel Proust and Mme. Léon Daudet are 'Sir Thopas' is more than a satire on the forr demonstrating the tendency of French thought and matter of the popular rhymed romances. to fix itself on child psychology, that the writer is intended also to satirize Philip van Arteveld. of a study on education in France should have The contention is very plausibly maintaine such deep reflective understanding of this branch and gives occasion for many excellent remarks of his subject. and a few fanciful ones-on the precise point the various details inserted in the description of that good knight. One could not, after a single reading and consideration of the argument, profess to be finally convinced; but we think Miss Winstanley has here a good case, and states

The one flaw in the excellence of Mr. Barnard's achievement is the chapter on Bossuet and the Dauphin. We are not convinced that the contribution made by the great ecclesiastic to the science of instruction would in any case have justified its inclusion. And the essential points of that dismal history of mismanagement are absent. The characters of M. de Montausier and his lady seem to be estimated by the qualities attributed to them in Oraisons Funebres' rather than by the testimony of contemporary chronicles. The tutor himself, when he received his appointment, so far from being "the most illustrious prelate in France," was merely the titular bishop of a remote diocese which he was destined never to visit. A further misconception is suggested by the use of Bossuet's failure to educate the Dauphin as evidence that "something should be done promptly and in every school for those abnormal children who do not fit into the ordinary grooves," when the real tragedy of the situation lay in the fact that the Dauphin himself was an ordinary child of average ability, and it was the abnormal method to which his guardians resorted to fashion an infant prodigy from such material which ruined him in mind and disposition.


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it well.


At ante, p. 275, in second communication e The Mistletos Bough,' for Sir John Cop passim read Sir William Cope.

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