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kneeling in homage to a crowned figure the first of 1844 onwards ; the first four edi. holding a sceptre and seated on a throne ;tions of Joanne' (1841-1865); all the behind the kneeling figures was a man in editions of Murray from 1838 (the first) armour. On the opposite side were two save the thirteenth, of which I believe armed men with shields meeting a third man. there is no copy either in the British Museum At each end of the lid was a man in armour or at the publisher's. standing on a pavement.

Among my old maps of Switzerland, The question may be asked, Why did Savoy and Piedmont the oldest is that of the bride propose a game of hide-and-seek Switzerland, by Conrad Türst, made 1495-7, to celebrate the wedding festivities? In but this only in facsimile, as there are only answer it has been said that such a game two or three copies of the original known. was a relic of an old custom, when a bride

I have copies of Münster's (1544 and hid after her wedding and had to be caught ; 1550) « Cosmographia Universalis," and of it was typical of the ancient custom of mar. J. Stumpf's Chronik (1548, 1586, and riage by capture.

1606), all of which contain general Swiss As the tale of “The Mistletoe Bough 'still clings to Bramshill, and as tradition asserts regions. My oldest separate originals are

and also special maps of various

maps, that the lost bride was a member of the Cope the nine sheets of Thomas Schöpf's map of family, I may here say that no member the Bernese Oberland of 1578, and four of my family ever perished on her wedding. of Metellus, dated 1592. day either by hiding in a chest or in any other manner. Bramshill House was built

Among my early Savoy maps I have in the early years of the seventeenth cen- than the Savoy of Bullion (1570), and many

photographs or facsimiles of several earlier tury by Edward, Lord Zouche. John Thorpe originals dated after 1600, as well as an was the architect, who also designed Hatfield House for the Earl of Salisbury and Ortelius of 1603. I have also a photograph Holland House for Sir Walter Cope. In

of the first edition (1680) of Borgonio's 1699 the Bramshill estate was purchased by the original are known, as well as an original

map, of which only some dozen copies of Sir John Cope, Bart., the sixth baronet, of the edition of 1772. I have also SIR whose ancestor, Sir Anthony Cope, was H. G. FORDHAM's useful Studies in Cartocreated a baronet in 1611. There is no confirmation for the statement sometimes made Bibliography: (1914), and many books in

French and German on the general subject that Bramshill House was built for the eldest

of cartography. son of James I., viz., Henry, Prince of Wales. JOHN HAUTENVILLE COPE.

I agree with SIR H. G. FORDHAM that it Finchampstead Place, Berks.

is a most fascinating subject of study, but

I have not seen The Times article of July 25 GUIDE-BOOKS (12 S. xi. 245). — Like SIR' last.

W. A. B. COOLIDGE. H. G. FORDHAM I have a considerable collection of old guide-books (and maps), Grindelwald, Switzerland. but almost wholly limited to Switzerland and the chain of the Alps. Many years ago TOAST AND WATER (12 S. x. 230).-- Toast (1889) I published in London a book en- and water was made by pouring boiling titled · Swiss Travel and Swiss Guide-books,’ | water upon freshly toasted bread. When but I should now be able to enlarge it enor- cold the liquor was poured off, generally into mously, as I have since then collected many glass jugs or vessels. It was a hay-coloured other examples of old guide-books. My liquid and not unpalatable. When I went earliest is J. J. Wagner's Index Memora- up to Oriel College, Oxford, in 1857, it was bilium Helvetiae' (Zürich, 1684), while I served at dinner as an alternative to beer. also possess the third edition of this book, I am told that in 1864 it was served at Winissued in 1701 under the title of “Mercurius chester College to candidates for scholarships Helveticus, but I have never succeeded in at the lunch provided for them by the College obtaining the second edition dated 1688, during the examination, not in glass jugs. though the engraved title with that date is Its use in Oxford prevailed till the corporain my copy of the 1701 edition. Then I have tion provided drinking water of good quality, all the five early editions of the ' Délices de la that previously derived from pumps and Suisse' (1714-1778); the first edition (1793) wells not being always fit to drink. As the and many subsequent editions of 'Ebel's water had been boiled, toast and water was Guide’; many editions of · Baedeker' from, regarded as quite safe to drink. It must

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have gone out of use in Oxford between 1860 To the best of my recollection my mother and 1870. John R. MAGRATH. used to make this beverage by toasting

a slice of bread and then putting it in a Recipes for constructing this nutritious but jug and pouring boiling water over it. This rather insipid beverage may be found in is substantially the method recommended almost any standard cookery book. The by Mrs. Beeton, whose recipe for making following is given in Mrs. Beeton's book :

it is as follows :Ingredients.-One crust of bread, one pint of

Ingredients.—A slice of bread, 1 quart of boiling cold water.

water. Method.-Toast the bread very brown and

Mode.-Cut a slice from a stale loaf (a piece of hard but do not burn it or it will impart a dis

hard crust is better than anything else for the agreeable flavour to the water. Put it into a jug, purpose). Toast it of a nice brown on every side, pour over it the cold water, let it soak for one but do not allow it to burn, or blacken. Put it into hour then strain and use.

a jug, pour the boiling water over it, cover it Other recipes substitute boiling water closely, and let it remain until cold. When for cold water.

strained, it will be ready for use. Toast and My parents always had a jug of it at water should always be made a short time before dinner some sixty years ago, but I think it is required, to enable it to get cold ; if drunk

in a tepid or lukewarm state, it is an exceedingly if one asked for it at the Ritz or Carlton disagreeable beverage. If, as is sometimes the nowadays the waiter would have a fit on case, this drink is wanted in a hurry, put the the spot. WILLOUGHBY MAYCOCK. toasted bread into a jug and only just cover it

with the boiling water ; when this is cool, cold I well remember toast and water water may be added in the proportion required, as a drink for children (and parents) at the and the toast and water strained; it will then

be ready for use, and is more expeditiously premidday meal, about 1840; and I remember pared than by the above method. A toasted our doctor recommending to a tippling biscuit, instead of the bread, is a good thing to patient, Nothing stronger than toast use. and water," about 1850. It was made I well remember my mother, when we in a special jug with a straining provision were children at home, giving us toast and at the back of the spout, by pouring boiling water when we were ill and feverish.,

It was water on a piece of well-toasted bread, and supposed to be better for us than cold water. letting it stand till cold, the toast remaining It was not used as a general drink, but only while the drink lasted. It is still drunk made and given to us when we were ill. by a few people. J. T. F.

WM. SELF-WEEKS. Winterton, Lincs.

Westwood, Clitheroe. In A Manual of Nursing, Medical and Here is recipe from “ Still Room Cookery : Surgical, by Lawrence Humphrey, at Recipes Old and New,' by Mrs. C. S. Peel Appendix A is :-

(London, Archibald Constable and Co., Toast and Water.-One quart of toast and 1905):water may be made by browning a crust of

A nicely made piece of toast (stale bread), bread before the fire, and placing it in a jug, after

lightly but crisply browned. Put into a jug, which one quart of cold water is poured over it. The jug should then be covered and allowed to through a muslin. This must be made quite

pour over boiling water, cover and when cold strain stand aside for half an hour.

two hours before it is wanted and can be iced H. ST. J. M.

if liked.

November 11th. As a child and youth (residing in Norfolk) The late Mr. Dowsing was 80 years of age when I drunk nothing else at dinner, and greatly he died, and had been of a tender constitution all his life. He was very regular and temperate. appreciated it when newly made. Rose about half-past 8, dined at 2, drank tea at 5,

J. CLARE HUDSON. supped at 9, and went to bed at 10. He drank Woodhall Spa. little wine-two or three glasses mixed with water -no malt liquor. Toast and water was his sub

[Several other correspondents thanked for restitute. (From the · Farington Diary, Nov. 11, plies and recipes to the same effect.] 1805.) E. C. WIENHOLT.

THE IRISH KILT (12 S. xi. 231).--The 3, Ellachie Road, Alverstoke, Hants.

inquiry of your correspondent regarding

the Irish kilt is one of those concerning dress [Our correspondent also sends us receipes from difficult to answer from authentic records, • The Dictionary of Daily Wants' (1841); The for unfortunately there is no encyclopædia of Cook and Housekeeper's Manual, by Mistress Margaret Dods of the Clinkum Inn, Sť. Ronans' dress which gives details enabling exact (1842); and Francatelli's 'Cookery Book' (1860).) reproduction to be in Answers to such

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questions can only be given by correspon- number for West of Ireland use. There dents seeking to fix knowledge which has were four varieties or styles. One, a plain come to them through tradition or ex- skirt, supported by fastening around the perience. As regards the Scots kilt, much waist with a band ; another, little used, confusion exists by the mixing of names being plainly cut and with open or apron and their very careless use; due in some front after the style of the Scots kilt. A measure to ignorance. The Scots garment third was supported by a bodice, fastening is a kilt, not kilts. It is made of tartan, at the back with buttons and buttonholes. which is the material. The plaid is the The fourth had the front of the supporting check design woven into the tartan. The bodice of similar material to the skirt, only plaid also has another significance, namely, needing sleeves and the back to be of simithe long piece of material used as a shawl. lar material to be a frock. They were all In former days the plaid was long, and the worn with short jackets. One of the most method of folding it around the loins to beautiful and artistic skirt costumes ever form a skirt gave rise to the pleats from worn by young gentlemen is one founded which the modern kilt is developed. In the upon an Albanian style. The Greek skirt Scots kilt the pleatings are all to the left, costume is too well known by photographs each pleat extending sufficiently beyond the of Greek soldiers to need discription. preceding one to exhibit the downward line

BARRADEL. of the chief band of colour forming the centre of that which, when crossed, forms the check.

In The Times of Aug. 31 (p. 12) is a fullThe pleated part is sufficient to reach to length portrait of Lord Ashbourne “in Irish midway of each hip, the other parts being costume,” in which strange dress he attended plain. To put the Scots kilt on it is drawn

the Memorial Service for Michael Collins a little above the waist, the right hand and Arthur Griffith' in Paris. The cos. carries the underfold of the apron over to tume much resembles the accepted Highthe left-hand side of the waist. Being thus land dress. The main differences are that in position, the left-hand part is drawn over the cap is apparently a round soft woollen to the right hip, where it is secured by two thing, much like the old “Tam o' Shanter," straps and buckles. The front apron then and the kilt-if kilt it be-is very short, shows the whole design of the check. The shorter than that of “the old Highlander checks of course have their significance.

in Tottenham Court Road, formerly outside The revival of the Irish kilt shows a de- a tobacco shop, now (or recently) taking parture from the Scots garment, the pleats snuff at the door of a linoleum shop. Lord mostly being right and left in form of what is Ashbourne's skirt, though probably a kilt, known as the box pleat. Of these box may be merely part of a long coat divided pleats I have seen three, five, seven, and nine by a belt. The photograph is not clear. in number, though there may be

many

ROBERT PIERPOINT. variations. In many cases the apron front is closed, turning the kilt into a skirt. It WIFE IMPALING HUSBAND's Coat (12 S. also has been made attached to a bodice xi. 249).—That ladies impaled their paternal for support.

Checks have no significance arms on the dexter side of their own seals as in the Scots kilt. Where mentioned at is a fact well known (MR. WALTER RYE will all historically the colour is saffron ; very find some remarks on that subject in The rarely a light mauve is used and still more Genealogist, N.S., vol. xxxi., 1914, p. 7), but rarely green, The material is a native whether only in pura viduitate is uncertain. homespun. Both Scots and Irish kilt are A notable example is the seal of Joan de necessarily without pockets. Whilst the Lacy, Countess of Lincoln and Lady of Scots kilt has the addition of the sporan in Audley, who has the coat of her last husband, full dress, the Irish kilt is without this Nicholas de Audley, impaled on the sinister decoration, which sometimes in the Scots side. See “Additional Charters,' B.M., kilt also serves as a pouch.

No. 53588, A.D. 1369. As regards the petticoats worn by boys It is held by some that this custom was in the West, I have seen them in various observed only when the family of the femme forms. They are generally made of home was of higher rank than that of the baron. spun, thick and coarse, and consequently But I greatly doubt it. warm to the wearer, whose ages ranged The beautiful seal of Ela, dau. of Wm. from infants to 14 or 15 years. In the Longspee and widow of James de Audley early seventies my mother made a large ! (A.D. 1272) also displays her family arms to the right of her, on a separate shield it of John, second son of Sir Edward Keith, Mariis true, while her late husband's arms are schal of Scotland (c. 1380). The peculiar thing seen on a separate shield to her left (sinister but her arms are on the dexter side and the

in the second case is that the lady is unknown, side) (* Add. Ch.,' B.M.). But as regards husband's on the sinister (dexter, a saltire mere impaling, MR. RYE will find Royal ex: cantoned in chief with a cinquefoil). The husamples in Planche’s ‘Pursuivant of Arms, band's are also on a separate seal attached to pp. 203, 204, CHARLES SWYNNERTON.

the same charter.

Even in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries The following may bear upon MR. RYE's very few examples of impaling on seals of Scotch question. There was an old occasional cus- ladies are to bo found, the only instances in tom of placing the wife's arms first, if she Laing's work being :

1. Isabella, Countess of Lennox and Duchess were of higher rank or greater estate (see, t.g., of Albany (1445). Nisbet's System of Heraldry,' 1722, vol. ii., 2. Elizabeth Ogston, wife of Adam Hepburn of p. 52: an author by no means out of date). Craigie (1503). This is on all fours with the practice of put

3. Alison Douglas, widow of David Hume of

Wedderburn (1535). ting official arms to the dexter, and those of

4. Margaret, Duchess of Châtelherault (1560). the holder of the office to the sinister, as

5. Margaret Home, wife of Alexander Erskine in the case of a bishop oi an officer of arms. (1563).

F. P. BARNARD. In all of these but the first one, an ordinary

impalement is carried out, husband's arms on I have read MR. RYE's query with great the dexter, and wife's to the sinister.” interest, and beg to submit the following:

CHARLES A. H. FRANKLIN. 1. If you sketch the arms as described in St. Thomas's Hospital, S.E.1. the porch, and then turn the paper round and hold it up to the light, the result is

COMMONWEALTH MARRIAGES AND BURIALS not a normal arrangement. True, it would (12 S. x. 81, 104, 124, 142, 175).-In Scobel's give you the husband's coat on the dexter Acts and Ordinances of Parliament,' and the wife's on the sinister, but the cap. vi. of 1653, the manner in which marshalling of each coat would be incorrect, marriages are to take place is plainly given, as it would make England 1 and 4, France and it is interesting, in these days, when so 2 and 3, and on the other side 1 and 4 a much objection is made to the word “ obey,” lion rampant (to the sinister) and 2 and 3 to note the simple form by which a couple a double-headed eagle. In addition, the were united. I do not know if the marriage lions of England would be passant towards vows, as here given, are retained by any of the sinister instead of towards the dexter as the Nonconformist sects. normally; only such charges as the fleur-de-lis The Act directs how marriages should be and other symmetrical figures would re- solemnized and registered after Sept. 29, main possible in a reverse.

1653. 2. If you sketch the normal, and then Henry Scobel was Clerk of the Parliament, hold it reversed up to the light, the result and the Acts were printed in 1658. There is not what appears on the porch, because, are also instructions for registration of births again, the lions are facing the wrong way. and burials.

3. Though there probably are instances The party to be married shall deliver in of a seal-engraver

making a writing at least twenty-one days before the mistake by copying a reverse, this would intended marriage or cause to be delivered to not appear to be a case in point. In early the Register appointed by this Act for the days great latitude was allowed when con- I respective parish in which each party to be joining husband's and wife's achievements, married liveth, the names, surnames, addiand it is only since the decline of the martial tions and places of abode of the parties to use of heraldic insignia that fixed rules be married, and of their parents, guardians, have developed or been laid down.

The following from 'The Law and All of which the said Register shall publish or Practice of Heraldry in Scotland,' by cause to be published 3 several Lords-days then George Seton, M.A., F.S.A., Advocate

or

mason

or overseers.

next following at the close of the morning Exercise

in the publique Meeting place called Church or (1863), may be of interest :

Chappel, or (if the parties to be married desire it) As early examples of entire impalement we in the Market-place next to the said Church or have that of Margareta, dau. and heiress of John Chappel on three Market-days in three several Cragy of that Ilk (1377), Marian, wife of Sir weeks next following, between the hours of eleven William Dalziel (1392), and Mariota, dau. and and two. [The Register then makes a heiress of Reginald Cheyne of Inverugie, and wife | certificate (upon request of parties concerned) of

true

THE

the due performance thereof.] Without which

There was

no charge in connexion with Certificate the persons hereinafter authorized shall

people living upon alms. not proceed in such marriage. If there be any exception to the marriage the

The Justice, if it was desired, had to give Register shall insert the same, with name of to the parties so married person making the exception, &c.

a Certificate in Parchement under his hand and Then the parties to be married had to go seal, of such marriage, and of the day of the before a Justice of the Peace“ within and solemnization thereof, and of two or more of

witnesses then present. of the same County, City or Town Corporate

The Justice's clerk could receive “ 12d. where publication shall be made as afore

and no more. said," the certificate and the consent of the parents, guardians, or overseers being pro- married were, man, 16 years ; woman, 14

The ages of the parties consenting to be duced. the Justice had to examine witnesses, on confirmed in Parl. 1656, cap. 10. If either party was under the age of 21, years.

The above Act was passed Aug. 24, and oath or otherwise, concerning the truth of the certificate, and if no reason appeared to

The Times of Aug. 14 had the following the contrary the marriage was proceeded very interesting information :

BISHOPS AGAINST

• OBEY.”—Portland with.

(Oregon), Sept. 12.-The House of Bishops of The Man to be married, taking the Woman to the Episcopal Church has voted by thirty-six to be married by the hand, shall plainly and dis - twenty-seve in favour of removing the word tinctly pronounce these words, I, A.B., here in the

obey" from the marriage ritual. If the House presence of God the searcher of all hearts, take of Deputies concurs, the proposal will be subject thee, C.D., for my wedded Wife ; and do also in to the approval of the General Convention to be the presence of God, and before these witnesses, held in 1925.--Reuter. promise to be unto thee a loving and faithful

HERBERT SOUTHAM. husband.

And then the Woman, taking the Man by the hand, shall plainly and distinctly pronounce

EDMUND HALLEY (12 S. xi. 149).—Let these words : 1, C.Þ., do here in the presence of me first point out that the correct spelling God the searcher of all hearts, take thee, A.B., for of the astronomer's Christian name is " Ed. my wedded Husband, and do also in the presence mond ” (see 9 S. x. 361, col. 1, note). of God, before these witnesses, promise to be unto

My rather extensive notes on Halley conthee a loving, faithful and obedient wife.

tain this item :The Ji tice then declared them husband

He was of a happy constitution and preserved and wife.

his memory and judgment to the last, as he did (No other form of Marriage to be lawful in the also that particular cheerfulness of spirit for which Commonwealth of England after 29th Sept. 1653.) he was remarkable.

In his person, he was Every parish had to provide a book of of a middle stature inclining to tallness, of a thin good Vellum or Parchement in which the habit of body and a fair complexion, and always marriages were registered, as were also all spoke as well as acted with an uncommon degree

of spritliness and vivacity. (* Biog., Brit.,' iv. births of children, and all burials, of all 2516-2517; London, 1757.) sorts of people within every Parish.”

The above was quoted in my article enA person was to be selected to keep the titled “Some Material for a Pedigree of Dr. book, who should enter in writing

Edmond Halley,” in The Genealogist, xxv. all such Publications, Marriages, Births of Chil- (London, July, 1908), in which mention was dren, and Burials of all sorts of persons, and the made of several original portraits of Halley Names of every of them, and the days of the moneth and year of Publications, Marriages, Births and their respective locations. and Burials, and the Parents, Guardians or Over- It may be of interest to add that the set seers names.

of beautiful Latin hexameter verses prefixed The Justice of the Peace had to subscribe by Halley to the first edition of Newton's the entry of every such marriage, publica- Principia' (1687) have recently been tions and certificate.

translated from a Latin text into the auxiliary The following

the authorized | language Ido, in hexameter verse, by Mr. charges :

Gilbert H. Richardson, 164, Ryehill, New. Entry of marriage, publications and castle-on-Tyne. A rather free translation certificate, 12d. and no more.

in English verse appeared in The General Entry of every marriage, 12d. and no Magazine of Arts and Sciences, edited by more.”

B. Martin (London, January, 1755). Entry of birth and of death, 4d. and

EUGENE F. McPIKE. no more."

4450, Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, U.S.A.

were

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