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the better security of the old men, women and children of the aforesaid nation, whilst their warriors are engaged against the common enemy, it is agreed on the part of the United States, that a fort of sufficient strength and capacity be built at the expense of the said States, with such assistance as it may be in the power of the said Delaware Nation to give, in the most convenient place, and advantageous situation, as shall be agreed on by the commanding officer of the troops aforesaid, with the advice and concurrence of the deputies of the aforesaid Delaware Nation, which fort shall be garrisoned by such a number of the troops of the United States, as the commanding officer can spare for the present, and hereafter by such numbers, as the wise men of the United States in council, shall think most conducive to the common good.
flict punishment with
Neither party to in. For the better security of the peace and friendship now entered into out an impartial trial. by the contracting parties, against all infractions of the same by the
citizens of either party, to the prejudice of the other, neither party shall proceed to the infliction of punishments on the citizens of the other, otherwise than by securing the offender or offenders by imprisonment, or any other competent means, till a fair and impartial trial can be had by judges or juries of both parties, as near as can be to the laws, customs and usages of the contracting parties and natural justice: The mode of such trials to be hereafter fixed by the wise men of the 'United States in Congress assembled, with the assistance of such depu
ties of the Delaware nation, as may be appointed to act in concert Nor protect crimi- with them in adjusting this matter to their mutual liking. And it is
further agreed between the parties aforesaid, that neither shall entertain or give countenance to the enemies of the other, or protect in their respective states, criminal fugitives, servants or slaves, but the same to apprehend, and secure and deliver to the State or States, to which such enemies, criminals, servants or slaves respectively belong.
nal fugitives, etc.
pointed by the United
Agent to be ap: Whereas the confederation entered into by the Delaware nation and States to trade with the United States, renders the first dependent on the latter for all the the Delaware Nation, articles of clothing, utensils and implements of war, and it is judged
not only reasonable, but indispensably necessary, that the aforesaid Nation be supplied with such articles from time to time, as far as the United States may have it in their power, by a well-regulated trade, under the conduct of an intelligent, candid agent, with an adequate salary, one more influenced by the love of his country, and a constant attention to the duties of his department by promoting the common interest, than the sinister purposes of converting and binding all the duties of his office to his private emolument: Convinced of the necessity of such measures, the Commissioners of the United States, at the earnest solicitation of the deputies aforesaid, have engaged in behalf of the United States, that such a trade shall be afforded said nation, conducted on such principles of mutual interest as the wisdom of the United States in Congress assembled sball think most conducive to adopt for their mutual convenience.
United States guar. Whereas the enemies of the United States have endeavored, by territorial rights as every artifice in their power, to possess the Indians in general with bounded by former an opinion, that it is the design of the States aforesaid, to extirpate nation of Delawares, and their heirs, all their territorial rights in the fullest and most ample manner, as it hath been bounded by former treaties, as long as they the said Delaware nation shall abide by, and hold fast the chain of friendship now entered into. And it is further agreed on between the contracting parties should it for the future be found conducive for the mutual interest of both parties to invite any other tribes who have been friends to the interest of the Unit: d States, to join the present confederation, and to form a state whereof the Delaware nation shall be the head, and have a representation in Con- To have a repre
United States guarantee to them all
the Indians and take possession of their country: to obviate such false suggestion, the United States do engage to guarantee to the aforesaid
sentation in Congrese gress: Provided, nothing contained in this article to be considered as on certain conditions. conclusive until it meets with the approbation of Congress. And it is also the intent and meaning of this article, that no protection or countenance shall be afforded to any who are at present our enemies, by which they might escape the punishment they deserve.
TREATY WITH THE SIX NATIONS, 1784.
Articles concluded at Fort Stanwix, on the twenty-second day of October, Oct. 22, 1784.
one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four, between Oliver Wolcott, 7 Stat., 15.
The United States of America give peace to the Senecas, Mohawks, Onondagas and Cayugas, and receive them into their protection upon the following conditions:
Six hostages shall be immediately delivered to the commissioners by Hostages to be given the said nations, to remain in possession of the United States, till all ered up. the prisoners, white and black, which were taken by the said Senecas, Mohawks, Onondagas and Cayugas, or by any of them, in the late war, from among the people of the United States, shall be delivered up.
Possession of lands
The Oneida and Tuscarora nations shall be secured in the possession of the lands on which they are settled.
A line shall be drawn, beginning at the mouth of a creek about four Boundaries. miles east of Niagara, called Oyonwayea, or Johnston's Landing-Place, upon the lake named by the Indians Oswego, and hy us Ontario; from thence southerly in a direction always four miles east of the carryingpath, between Lake Erie and Ontario, to the mouth of Tehoseroron or Buffaloe Creek on Lake Erie; thence south to the north boundary of the state of Pennsylvania; thence west to the end of the said north boundary; thence south along the west boundary of the said state, to the river Ohio; the said line from the mouth of the Ovonwayea to the Ohio, shall be the western boundary of the lands of the Six Nations, so that the Six Nations shall and do yield to the United States, all claims to the country west of the said boundary, and then they shall be secured in the peaceful possession of the lands they inbabit east and north of the same, reserving only six miles square round the fort of Oswego, to the United States, for the support of the same.
Goods given to the The Commissioners of the United States, in consideration of the
present circumstances of the Six Nations, and in execution of the humane and liberal views of the United States upon the signing of the above articles, will order goods to be delivered to the said Six Nations for their use and comfort.
TREATY WITH THE WYANDOTS, ETC., 1785.
Articles of a treaty concluded at Fort M’Intosh, the twenty-first day of January, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-five, between the Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, of the one Part, and the Sachems and Warriors of the Wiandot, Delaware, Chippawa and Ottawa Nations of the other.
The Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States in Congress assembled, give peace to the Wiandot, Delaware, Chippewa, and Ottawa nations of Indians, on the following conditions:
till prisoners are restored.
Hostages to be given Three chiefs, one from among the Wiandot, and two from among
the Delaware nations, shall be delivered up to the Commissioners of the United States, to be by them retained till all the prisoners, white and black, taken by the said nations, or any of them, shall be restored.
Indians acknowl; The said Indian nations do acknowledge themselves and all their edge protection of United States. tribes to be under the protection of the United States and of no other sovereign whatsoever.
The boundary line between the United States and the Wiandot and Delaware nations, shall begin at the mouth of the river Cavahoga, and run thence up the said river to the portage between that and the Tuscarawas branch of Meskingum; then down the said branch to the forks at the crossing place above Fort Lawrence; then westerly to the portage of the Big Miami, which runs into the Ohio, at the mouth of which branch the fort stood which was taken by the French in one thousand seven hundred and fifty-two; then along the said portage to the Great Miami or Ome river, and down the south-east side of the same to its mouth; thence along the south shore of lake Erie, to the mouth of Cayahoga where it began.
The United States allot all the lands contained witbin the said lines to the Wiandot and Delaware nations, to live and to hunt on, and to such of the Ottawa nation as now live thereon; saving and reserving for the establishment of trading posts, six miles square at the mouth of Miami or Ome river, and the same at the portage on that branch of the Big Miami which runs into the Ohio, and the same on the lake of Sanduske where the fort formerly stood, and also two miles square on each side of the lower rapids of Sanduske river, which posts and the lands annexed to them, shall be to the use and under the government of the United States.
If any citizen of the United States, or other person not being an
No citizen of United
States to settle on InIndian, shall attempt to settle on any of the lands allotted to the dian lands. Wiandot and Delaware nations in this treaty, except on the lands reserved to the United States in the preceding article, such person shall forfeit the protection of the United States, and the Indians may punish him as they please.
title of United States
The Indians who sign this treaty, as well in behalf of all their tribes .. Indians recognize as of themselves, do acknowledge the lands east, south and west of the to certain described lines described in the third article, so far as the said Indians formerly claimed the same, to belong to the United States; and none of their tribes shall presume to settle upon the same, or any part of it.
The post of Detroit, with a district beginning at the mouth of the Post at Detroit reriver Rosine, on the west end of lake Erie, and running west six miles up the southern bank of the said river, thence northerly and always six miles west of the strait, till it strikes the lake St. Clair, shall be also reserved to the sole use of the United States.
In the same manner the post of Michillimachenac with its dependen- Post at Michillicies, and twelve miles square about the same, shall be reserved to the use of the United States.
derers to be delivered
If any Indian or Indians shall commit a robbery or murder on any Robbers and murcitizen of the United States, the tribe to which such offenders may to United States. belong, shall be bound to deliver them up at the nearest post, to be punished according to the ordinances of the United States.
The Commissioners of the United States, in pursuance of the humane Goods to be disand liberal views of Congress, upon this treaty's being signed, will " direct goods to be distributed among the different tribes for their use and comfort.
It is agreed that the Delaware chiefs, Kelelamand or lieutenant- Provision for cer
tain Indians. colonel Henry, Hengue Pushees or the Big Cat, Wicocalind or Captain White Eyes, who took up the hatchet for the United States, and their families, shall be received into the Delaware nation, in the same situation and rank as before the war, and enjoy their due portions of the lands given to the Wiandot and Delaware nations in this treaty, as fully as if they had not taken part with America, or as any other person or persons in the said nations.
Nov. 28, 1785. 7 Stat., 18.
TREATY WITH THE CHEROKEES, 1785.
Hawkins, Andrew Pickens, Joseph Martin, and Lachlan M' Intosh,
The Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States, in Congress assembled, give peace to all the Cherokees, and receive them into the favor and protection of the United States of America, on the following conditions:
all prisoners, etc.
Indians to restore The Head-Men and Warriors of all the Cherokees shall restore all
the prisoners, citizens of the United States, or subjects of their allies, to their entire liberty: They shall also restore all the Negroes, and all other property taken during the late war from the citizens, to such person, and at such time and place, as the Commissioners shall appoint.
United States to re- The Commissioners of the United States in Congress assembled, store all prisoners.
shall restore all the prisoners taken from the Indians, during the late war, to the Head-Men and Warriors of the Cherokees, as early as is practicable.
Cherokees acknowl; The said Indians for themselves and their respective tribes and towns edge protection of
“ do acknowledge all the Cherokees to be under the protection of the United States of America, and of no other sovereign whosoever.
The boundary allotted to the Cherokees for their hunting grounds, between the said Indians and the citizens of the United States, within the limits of the United States of America, is, and shall be the following, viz. Beginning at the mouth of Duck river, on the Tennessee; thence running north-east to the ridge dividing the waters running into Cumberland from those running into the Tennessee; thence eastwardly along the said ridge to a north-east line to be run, which shall strike the river Cumberland forty miles above Nashville; thence along the said line to the river; thence up the said river to the ford where the Kentucky road crosses the river; thence to Campbell's line, near Cumberland gap; thence to the mouth of Claud's creek on Holstein; thence to the Chimney-top mountain; thence to Camp-creek, near the mouth of Big Limestone, on Nolichuckey; thence a southerly course six miles to a mountain; thence south to the North-Carolina line; thence to the South-Carolina Indian boundary, and along the same south-west over the top of the Oconee mountain till it shall strike Tugaloo river; thence a direct line to the top of the Currohee mountain; thence to the head of the south fork of Oconee river.
Nocitizen of United States to settle on Indian lands.
If any citizen of the United States, or other person not being an Indian, shall attempt to settle on any of the lands westward or southward of the said boundary which are hereby allotted to the Indians for their hunting grounds, or having already settled and will not remove from the same within six months after the ratification of this treaty, such person shall forfeit the protection of the United States, and the