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able party of his own. He had gathered around him a number of ingenious and able men, many of them young, some of them almost grown up under his eye in Parliament, who, attracted by the splendour of his talents and reputation, eagerly sought his friendship, embraced his opinions, and who, disregarding or not acknowledging any other influence, looked to him alone as their leader. In return for this distinction, he probably found it necessary to accommodate some of his opinions to theirs; and the eventful scenes passing in France being well calculated to engage in their favour the ardent feelings of these friends as well as his own to a considerable degree, in addition to the hope of strong popular support, the re-action of such mingled feelings and expectations upon each other probably produced that degree of heat in the cause he had now embraced, and that dissent from his more ancient connexions which had hitherto been evident only on the single question of parliamentary reform. It was also urged by his adherents, that his views and principles in public affairs were more on a level with the free and enlightened spirit of the age than those of Mr. Burke, who was represented as fettered by old systems and prejudices, and too strong an adherence to the notions of the aristocracy in matters of government.

Whatever be the cause, just at the critical moment in question, Mr. Fox appeared to push to excess in theory, and seeming approval in practice, doctrines which the Old Whigs, as well as others, conceived to be at variance with sound discretion. “ In my journey with them through life,” said Mr. Burke,

“I met Mr. Fox in my road, and I travelled with him very cheerfully as long as he appeared to me to pursue the same direction with those in whose company I set out.

In the latter stage of our progress a new scheme of liberty and equality was produced in the world, which either dazzled his imagination, or was 'suited to some new walks of ambition which were then opened to his view. The whole frame and fashion of his politics appeared to have suffered about that time a very material alteration.”

At this period he withdrew his political allegiance from the acknowledged heads of the party, who were no longer consulted on any of his measures; and in Parliament he treated with asperity and ridicule their opinions and their fears for the public safety. Still, with the exception of Mr. Burke and a few others, the majority were unwilling to come to an open rupture ; they were loth to quit him, and yet knew not how, with propriety or satisfaction to themselves, to continue to act with him; and it was not one of the least curious anomalies of the time to hear many who gave him their votes and general support in the House, condemn their own votes and all his proceedings in detail, the moment they quitted it. The general belief was, that time and experience would produce an alteration of sentiments as the crimes of the revolutionists became developed. More than three years' experience, however, convinced the whole of that body that his co-operation was not to be expected; the junction, as already stated, therefore took place, but the deliberate consideration that preceded, and the pecuniary arrangements which attended it, so far as he was concerned, left him without the slightest cause for complaint. It was petulant, therefore, and incorrect on the part of his partizans to accuse them of deserting him, when, as has been said, the contrary might be said to be nearer to the truth. They were the head of the connexion; to their system he had acceded ; and if he found cause to dissent from the general principles which they had always hitherto acknowledged, the difference could not be justly laid to their charge.

The conduct of this body indeed at the moment displayed any thing rather than undue eagerness for power.

The first determination of the Duke of Portland and Mr. Windham was not to accept of office, believing that more support might be given to government by an open and uninfluenced vote in Parliament than by becoming officially connected with it—a disinterested and patriotic idea certainly, but not perhaps a very sound conclusion in the business of governing a kingdom. Mr. Burke soon taught them, and was well enabled to teach them, better ; for long and hardly-earned experience had satisfied him, in his own case if in no other, how comparatively useless are the most splendid talents and the best intentions, without the possession of power to give them effect. It is to his honour, that the handsome annuity settled by the party on Mr. Fox previous to their final separation, met with his warm approval.

Several attempts had been previously made by mutual friends to bring these distinguished men to something like their former intimacy; but Burke constantly observed that it would be mere mockery to meet in a formal interview, when their radical

differences of political principle precluded either unity of feeling or of action. My separation from Mr. Fox,” said he, " is a principle and not a passion; I hold it a sacred duty while the present disorganizing system continues in operation in Europe, to confirm what I have said and written against it by this sacrifice, and it is no trifling test of my sincerity. To me the loss is great; but to what purpose would be our meeting when our views and conduct continue so essentially at variance ? I could take no delight with him, nor he probably with me.”

A calamity now overtook Mr. Burke of the most grievous as well as the most unexpected description, which all his religion and philosophy were in vain exerted to surmount, and which fell with additional weight from being so shortly preceded by the loss of his brother. This was the death of his son, Mr. Richard Burke, on the 2nd August, 1794, at the early age of thirty-six. His health, although for some time in an unsettled state, was so far from proving a source of uneasiness or apprehension to the fond father, that he had looked forward with anxiety to the moment when, by his own retirement from Parliament, he should be enabled to give him that opportunity for taking part in public affairs to which he conceived his talents in every way equal. Accordingly, immediately after he had vacated his seat, they both proceeded to Malton, and the parliamentary return of his son for the borough, according to his anxious desire, took place. The latter, on the next day, addressed the following affectionate letter to his cousin, now become Mrs. Haviland :

“ MY DEAREST MARY, “ I cannot let this post, which is the first after my election, go out without assuring you of my most affectionate remembrance, and giving you the satisfaction of receiving one of my first francs, as I am sure there is no person who takes a more sincere interest in any good event that can befal me. I should have written to you from London, but that the hurry I was in for some days before I left town rendered it nearly impossible. We have been much gratified by Captain Haviland's constant correspondence from Tonbridge and by your very good letters, which show how little excuse you had for writing so little before. But I see you are resolved to get rid of all your faults, which were, however, neither numerous nor important ones.

“ I have by no means forgot your bracelets, and I hope you will be pleased with them as a token of my affection, though my purse does not enable me to make it very worthy of you. Nor have I forgot Captain Haviland's commission; Mr. Greenwood (I think his name is) the agent told me Colonel Forbes's regiment would be complete in about a month. My love to Captain Haviland and Mrs. Carey, who I suppose is still with you.

" Your's ever,


The father was further gratified by having him appointed secretary to his friend Earl Fitzwilliam, the new viceroy of Ireland ; and at a dinner given to several friends on their return to town, he was anticipating for him, wholly unconscious of the impend

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