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SECOND SECTION.

ON THE GROUNDS OF MORALS AND RELIGION, AND THE
DISCIPLINE OF THE MIND REQUISITE FOR A TRUE

UNDERSTANDING OF THE SAME.

ESSAYS 1–XI. pp. 347–472.

ESSAY

Introduction.
pp. 347–375.

Dignity and

necessity of
speculative phi-
losophy, and a
history of its

decline.
Essays I-IIL
pp. 376-407.

Letter from Mathetes (Professor Wilson and Mr.

A. Blair): internal and external difficulties to a
mind endeavoring to establish itself on sure
principles, moral and intellectual: answered by
The Friend (Mr. Wordsworth): advice and

caution.
I. Relation of morality and religion: pamphlets of

the age of Charles I.: extract: sanity of true
genius: distinction between genius, talent, sense,
and cleverness: relative character of the national

mind of Germany, England, and France.
II. Self-interest and conscience: ethics not founded on

utility: honor: universal assent a presumption
of truth: ground of belief in miracles : true
Christian enthusiasm : mysteries of faith not to
be explained by mere human analogies: Taylor's

latitudinarianism.
III. Greek sophists: their character and principles :

separation of ethics from religion: the author's
convictions of the nature and results of the his-

tory of the last century and a half.
IV. Method, in the will and in the understanding :

illustrated from Shakspeare: founded on obser-
vation of relations of things: want and excess of
generalization: necessity of a mental initiative:

definition of method.
V. Two kinds of relations in which objects of mind

may be considered : 1. Law: synthetic and
JVI. 2. "Theory ? "method in the fine arts intermediate :

poetry and music: mental initiative in botany:

history and estimate of the science : in chemistry.
VII. Intention of Plato's writings: zoology and John

Hunter: theory can not supply the principle of
method: nor hypothesis: necessity of an idea:
contrast between the state of science as to elec-

tricity and magnetism: law of polarity.
VIII. True character of Plato: Aristotle: unpleasant

side of Bacon's character: Hooke: Kepler : Tycho
Brahe: reconcilement of the Platonic and Bacon-

ian methods.
IX. Investigation of the Baconian method: shown to

be essentially one with the Platonic, but in a dif-
ferent direction: method the guiding light in
education and cultivation,

Principles of
the Science of

Method.
Essays IV-XI.
pp. 408-472.

X. Existence of a self-organizing purpose in nature

and man: illustrated: operation of this idea in
the history of mankind: patriarchal state: cor-
rupted into a polytheism: early Greeks: their
idolatry checked by the physical theology of the
mysteries : portion which they represented of the
education of man: their discoveries in the region
of the pure intellect and success in the arts of
imagination contrasted with their crude essays
in the investigation of physical laws and phænom-
ena: Romans : Hebrews the mid-point of a line,
towards which the Greeks as the ideal, and the
Romans as the material, pole were approximat-

ing,-Christianity the synthesis.
XI. Trade and Literature essential to a nation : conse-

quences of the commercial spirit preponderating:

difference of ultimate aims in men and nations :
Y

evidence of objective reality in man himself:
nature and man, union and difference: mere
being in its essence: the idea, whence origina-
ted: revelation : God: the material world made
for man: universal laws for the whole tempered
by particular laws for the individual in nature
and man: causation : invisible nexus : ground of
union: difference between the reason and the
understanding : what they can respectively
achieve: method of the will: religious faith.

Existence of

luck or fortune

under the

Christian

scheme.

Essay I.

pp. 475–478.

I. Fortune favors fools: different meanings of the

proverb: luck has a real existence in human af-

fairs : how : invidious use of the phrase.

Notices of the

life and charac-

ter of Sir Alex-

ander Ball, and

of the circum-

stances of the

English occupa-

tion of Malta.

Essays II-VI.

pp. 479-522.

II. Impression left by Sir A. B. on the anthor: state

of Malta: corruption.

III. Personal memoir of Sir A. B.: anecdotes of him.
IV. Ball and Nelson : Nelson's reliance on him: Ball

at the battle of the Nile: explosion of the ship

L'Orient: anecdote.

V. Ball's habits of mind: conduct during the siege of

Valetta : behavior of English to foreigners:

Ball's decisive conduct with the court of Naples :

unjust and unwise treatment of the Maltese by

the British government.

VI. Ball's popularity in Malta : jealousy of him in the

government: discussion of the importance of
Malta to this country.

APPENDIX......

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*FRIEND! were an author privileged to name his own judge, -in addition to moral and intellectual competence I should look round for some man, whose knowledge and opinions had for the greater part been acquired experimentally; and the practical habits of whose life had put him on his guard with respect to all speculative reasoning, without rendering him insensible to the desirableness of principles more secure than the shifting rules and theories generalized from observations merely empirical, or unconscious in how many departments of knowledge, and with how large a portion even of professional men, such principles are still a desideratum. I would select, too, one who felt kindly, nay, even partially, toward me; but one whose partiality had its strongest foundations in hope, and more prospective than retrospective would make him quick-sighted in the detection, and unreserved in the exposure, of the deficiencies and defects of each present work, in the anticipation of a more developed future. In you, honored friend ! I have found all these requisites combined and realized : and the improvement, which these essays have derived from your judgment and judicious suggestions, would, of itself, have justified me in accompanying them with a public acknowledgment of the same. But knowing, as you can not but know, that I owe in great measure the power of having written at all to your medical skill, and to the characteristic good sense which directed its exertion in my behalf; and whatever I may

* Dedication to the second edition.-Ed.

xvi

have written in happier vein to the influence of your society and to the daily proofs of your disinterested attachment ;—knowing, too, in how entire a sympathy with your feelings in this respect the partner of your name has blended the affectionate regards of a sister or daughter with almost a mother's watchful and unwearied solicitudes alike for my health, interest, and tranquillity; -you will not, I trust, be pained,--you ought not, I am sure, to be surprised that

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