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secured thereby from more than brutal violence; from outrage and abuse of various kinds. Is the generous horse, that serves his master's necessity or pleasure, with unwearied diligence; is the faithful dog, that waits the motion of his hand, or his eye, exempi from this? What returns for their long and faithful service do many of these poor creatures find! And what a dreadful difference is there, between what they suffer from their fellow brutes, and what they suffer from the tyrant man! The lion, the tiger, or the shark, give them pain from mere necessity, in order to prolong their own life; and put them out of their pain at once: but the human shark, without any such necessity, torinents them of his free choice; and perhaps continues their lingering pain, till, after months or years, death signs their release.

III. 1. But will " the creature,” will even the brute creation, always remain in this deplorable condition ? God forbid that we should affirm this; yea, or even entertain such a thought! While “the whole creation groaneth together,” (whether men attend or not,) their groans are not dispersed in idle air, but enter into the ears of him that made them. While his creatures “travail together in pain,” he knoweth all their pain, and is bringing them nearer and nearer to the birth, which shall be accomplished in its season. He seeth “ the earnest expectation” wherewith the whole animated creation "waiteth for” that final“manilestation of the sons of God;" in which "they themselves also shall be delivered [not by annihilation ; annihilation is not deliverance) from the (present] bondage of corruption, into [a measure of] the glorious liberty of the children of God.”

2. Nothing can be more express : away with vulgar prejudices, and let the plain word of God take place. They shall be delivered from “the bondage of corruption, into glorious liberty ;" even a measure, according as they are capable, of "the liberty of the children of God."

A general view of this is given us in the twenty-first chapter of the Revelation. When he that “sitteth on the great white throne" hath pronounced, “Behold, I make all things new;" when the word is fulfilled, “The tabernacle of God is with men, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them and be their God;"—then the following blessing shall take place (not only on the children of men ; there is no such restriction in the text; but) on every creature according to its capacity: “God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes. And there shail be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying. Neither shall there be any more pain : for the former things are passed


3. To descend to a few particulars : The whole brute creation will then, undoubtedly, be restored, not only to the vigour, strength, and swiftness, which they had at their creation, but to a far higher degree of each than they ever enjoyed. They will be restored, not only to that measure of understanding which they had in paradise, but to a degree of it as much higher than that, as the understanding of an elephant is beyond that of a worm. And whatever affections they had in the garden of God, will be restored with vast increase; being exalted and refined in a manner which we ourselves are not now able to comprehend. The liberty they then had will be completely restored, and they will be free in all their motions. They will be delivered from all irregular appetites, from all unruly passions, from every disposition that is either evil in itself, or has any tendency to evil. No rage will be found in any creature, no fierceness, no cruelty, or thirst for blood. So far from it, that “ The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, the leopard shall lie down with the kid; the calf, and the young lion, together; and a little child shall lead them. The cow and the bear shall feed together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain,” Isa. xi, 6, &c.

4. Thus, in that day, all the vanity, to which they are now helplessly subject, will be abolished; they will suffer no more, either from within or without; the days of their groaning are ended. At the same time, there can be no reasonable doubt, but all the horridness of their ap pearance, and all the deformity of their aspect, will vanish away, and be exchanged for their primeval beauty. And with their beauty, their happiness will return; to which there can then be no obstruction. As there will be nothing within, so there will be nothing without, to give them any uneasiness; no heat or cold, no storm or tempest, but one perennial spring. In the new earth, as well as the new heavens, there will be nothing to give pain, but every thing that the wisdom and goodness of God can create to give happiness. As a recoinpense for what they once suffered, while under the "bondage of corruption," when God has “ renewed the face of the earth,” and their corruptible body has put on incorruption, they shall enjoy happiness suited to their state, without alloy, without interruption, and without end.

5. But though I doubt not, that the Father of all has a tender regard for even his lowest creatures, and that, in consequence of this, he will make them large amends for all they suffer while under their present bondage; yet I dare not affirm, that he has an equal regard for them and for the children of men. I do not believe, that

“He sees with equal eyes, as Lord of all,

A liero perish, or a sparrow fall.” By no means. This is exceeding pretty; but it is absolutely false For though

" Mercy, with truth and endless grace,

O'er all his works doth reign,
Yet chiefly he delights to bless

His favourite creature, Man." God regards his meanest creatures much; but he regards man much more. He does not equally regard a hero and a sparrow; the best of men and the lowest of brutes. “ How much more does your heavenly Father care for you ?” says he “ who is in the bosom of the Father.' Those who thus strain the point, are clearly confuted by his question, “Are not ye much better than they?" Let it suffice, that God regards every thing that he hath made, in its own order, and in proportion to that measure of his own image which he has stamped upon it.

6. May I be permitted to mention here a conjecture concerning the brute creation ? What if it should then please the all-wise, the allgracious Creator, to raise them higher in the scale of beings? What if it should please him, when he makes us “equal to angels,” to make them what we are now,-creatures capable of God; capable of knowing, and loving, and enjoying, the Author of their being ? If it should be so, ought our eye to be evil, because he is good ? Howerer this be, be will certainly do what will be most for his own glory.

7. If it be objected to all this, (as very probably it will,) “ But of what use will those creatures be in that future state ?" I answer this by another question, What use are they of now? If there be (as has commonly been supposed,) eight thousand species of insects; who is able to inform us of what use seven thousand of them are ? If there are four thousand species of fishes; who can tell us of what use are more than three thousand of them? If there are six hundred sorts of birds ; who can tell of what use five hundred of those species are ? If there be four hundred sorts of beasts; to what use do three hundred of them serve ? Consider this; consider how little we know of even the present designs of God; and then you will not wonder, that we know still less of what he designs to do in the new heavens and the new earth.

8. “But what end does it answer to dwell upon this subject which we so imperfectly understand ?" To consider so much as we do understand, so much as God has been pleased to reveal to us, may answer that excellent end, -to illustrate that mercy of God which " is over all his works.” And it may exceedingly confirm our belief, that much more he “is loving to every man.” For how well may we urge our Lord's words; " Are not ye much better than they?" If then the Lord takes such care of the fowls of the air, and of the beasts of the field, shall he not much more take care of you, creatures of a nobler order ? If “the Lord will save," as the inspired writer affirms, “ both man and beast," in their several degrees, surely," the children of men may put their trust under the shadow of his wings !"

9. May it not answer another end ; namely, furnish us with a full answer to a plausible objection against the justice of God, in suffering numberless creatures, that never had sinned, to be so severely punished? They could not sin, for they were not moral agents. Yet how severely do they suffer !-yea, many of them, beasts of burden in particular, almost the whole time of their abode on earth; so that they can have no retribution here below. But the objection vanishes away, if we consider, that something better remains after death for these poor creatures also; that these likewise shall one day be delivered from this bondage of corruption, and shall then receive an ample amends for all their present sufferings.

10. One more excellent end may undoubtedly be answered by the preceding considerations. They may encourage us to imitate him whose mercy is over all his works. They may soften our hearts towards the meaner creatures, knowing that the Lord careth for them. It may enlarge our hearts towards those poor creatures, to reflect that, as vile as they appear in our eyes, not one of them is forgotten in the sight of our Father which is in heaven. Through all the vanity to which they are now subjected, let us look to what God hath prepared for them. Yea, let us habituate ourselves to look forward, beyond this present scene of bondage, to the happy time when they will be delivered therefrom, into the liberty of the children of God!

11. From what has been said I cannot but draw one inference, which no man of reason can deny. If it is this which distinguishes men from beasts, that they are creatures capable of God, capable of knowing, and loving, and enjoying him ; then whoever is “without God in the world," whoever does not know, or love, or enjoy God, and

is not careful about the matter, does, in effect, disclaim the nature of man, and degrade himself into a beast ! Let such vouchsafe a little attention to those remarkable words of Solomon : " I said in my heart concerning the estate of the sons of men,--they might see, that they themselves are beasts,” Eccl. iii, 18. These sons of men are, undoubtedly, beasts; and that by their own act and deed; for they deliberately and wilfully disclaim the sole characteristic of human nature. It is true they may have a share of reason ; they have speech, and they walk erect; but they have not the mark, the only mark, which totally sepa rates man from the brute creation. “ That which befalleth beasts, the same thing befalleth them.” They are equally without God in the world ; " so that a man [of this kind] hath no pre-eminence above a beast.”

12. So much more let all those who are of a nobler turn of mind, assert the distinguishing dignity of their nature! Let all who are of a more generous spirit, know and maintain their rank in the scale of beings. Rest not till you enjoy the privilege of humanity; the knowledge and love of God. Lift up your heads, ye creatures capable of God! Lift up your hearts to the source of your being !

“Know God, and teach your souls to know

The joys that from religion flow.” Give your hearts to him, who, together with ten thousand blessings, has given you his Son, his only Son! Let your continual “ fellowship be with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ !" Let God be in all your thoughts, and ye will be men indeed. Let him be your God and your all,—the desire of your eyes, the joy of your heart, and your portion for ever!

SERMON LXVI.— The Mystery of Iniquity.
“ The mystery of iniquity doth already work," 2 Thess. ii, 7.

1. Without inquiring how far these words refer to any particular event in the Christian church, I would at present take occasion from them, to consider that important question,- In what manner the mystery of iniquity hath wrought among us, till it hath well nigh covered the whole earth?

2. It is certain, that “God made man upright;" perfectly holy, and perfectly happy: but by rebelling against God, he destroyed himself, lost the favour and the image of God, and entailed sin, with its attendant, pain, on himself, and all his posterity. Yet his merciful Creator did not leave him in this helpless, hopeless, state : he immediately appointed his Son, his well beloved Son, “who is the brightness of his glory, the express image of his person,” to be the Saviour of men; “ the propitiation for the sins of the whole world;" the great Physician, who, by his almighty Spirit, should heal the sickness of their souls, and restore them not only to the favour, but to “the image of God, wherein they were created.”

3. This great mystery of godliness began to work from the very time of the original promise. Accordingly, the Lamb being, in the purpo

of God," slain from the beginning of the world," from the same period his sanctifying Spirit began to renew the souls of men. We have an undeniable instance of this in Abel, who “obtained a testimony” from God, “that he was righteous,” Heb. xi, 4. And from that very time all that were partakers of the same faith, were partakers of the same salvation; were not only reinstated in the favour, but likewise restored to the image of God.

4. But how exceeding small was the number of these, even from the earliest ages! No sooner did “the sons of men multiply upon the face of the earth,” than God, looking down from heaven, “saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth;" so great that “every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was evil, only evil, and that continually," Gen. vi, 1-5. And so it remained, without any intermission, till God executed that terrible sentence; “I will destroy man whom I have created, from the face of the earth,” verse 7.

5. Only “ Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord;" being “a just man, and perfect in his generations.” Him, therefore, with his wife, his sons, and their wives, God preserved from the general destruction. And one might have imagined, that this small remnant would likewise have been “perfect in their generations.” But how far was this from being the case! Presently after this signal deliverance, we find one of them, Ham, involved in sin, and under his father's curse. And how did the “mystery of iniquity” afterwards work, not only in the posterity of Ham, but in the posterity of Japheth ; yea, and of Shem,Abraham and his family only excepted!

6. Yea, how did it work even in the posterity of Abraham; in God's chosen people! Were not these also, down to Moses, to David, to Mala chi, to Herod the great, a faithless and stubborn generation, a

sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity," continually forsaking the Lord, and “provoking the Holy One of Israel ?” And yet we have no reason to believe that these were worse than the nations that surrounded them, who were universally swallowed up in all manner of wickedness, as well as in damnable idolatries, not having the God of heaven “in all their thoughts,” but working all uncleanness with greediness.

7. In the fulness of time, when iniquity of every kind, when ungodliness and unrighteousness, had spread over all nations, and covered the earth as a flood; it pleased God to lift up a standard against it, by

bringing his first-begotten into the world." Now, then, one would expect the “ mystery of godliness" would totally prevail over the “ mystery of iniquity;" that the Son of God would be " a light to lighten the Gentiles ;" as well as “salvation to his people Israel.” All Israel, one would think, yea, and all the earth, will soon be filled with the glory of the Lord. Nay: the “mystery of iniquity” prevailed still; well nigh over the face of the earth. How exceeding small was the number of those whose souls were healed by the Son of God himself! “When Peter stood up in the midst of them, the number of names was about a hundred and twenty," Acts i, 15. And even these were but imperfectly healed; the chief of them being a little before so weak in faith, that though they did not, like Peter, forswear their Master, yet "they all forsook him and fled." A plain proof that the sanctifying “Spirit was not (then) given, because Jesus was not glorified.”

8. It was then, when he had “ascended up on high, and led captivity

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