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that an unusual fairness of aspect is often the source of greatest terror to those concerned. To cozen with a form of fair words seems atopce the habit and delight of the man."
“ The positive cruelty of Ali Pasha's temper admits of little pallia-, tion ; connected, as it seems to be, not solely with ambitious views, but often with feelings of a more personal kind?” : We now proceed with Dr. Holland on his Journey. When describing the city of Ioannina, he enters into the long controverted point of the site of Dodona, which, on very slender foundations, he endeavours, to fix between Thesprotia and Molossia. Strabo most distinctly says, that it belonged at first to the Thesprotians, and afterwards to the Molossians. And we are not aware of its having been assigned by any writers of the same era to these two different nations at the same time. It is singular, however, that Dr. Holland should have overlooked one proof of the opinion supported by him, as it occurs in the very passage of Æschylus, to which he refers in the note to p.: 143. Æschylus speaks of lo going to the Molossian plains and the temple of Thesprotian Jove,
έπει γαρ ήλθες προς Μολοσσά γάπεδα, ,
Prometheus; lines 854–857. Dodona is so intimately associated in ancient writings with the tradition of a flood, that the author naturally adverts to that event. We are, however, disposed to think, that the author would have done much better to have rested satisfied with Herodotus's simple explanation of the fable of the black dove; viz. that she was a black Egyptian woman who spoke in an unintelligible dialect, than to have resorted to the idle conjecture of Bryant, that any allusion is here made to the dove in Noah's ark. While we are on the subject of Bryant, it may be remarked, that it is by no means to be allowed that he has succeeded in rendering it probable that any of the ceremonies, which she forces into the most unnatural explanations, had in reality 'any allusion to Noah's flood. The Grecian and Egyptian ceremonies which he thus explained, referred in reality to the Metempsychosis. His .whimsical practice of quibbling upon all the Grecian and Eastern names of places and persons, and of dissecting them all into Hebrew radicals, has been well exposed by Sir William Jones.
It would, indeed, be highly desirable to resolve the curious fact, that the Greeks aseribed the flood of Deucalion, which certainly was the universal flood, to, a particular district in Greece; but we must look for aid in this difficulty elsewhere, than in the reveries of Bryant. We should recollect that all the persons of the Mythology were foreigners to Greece, yet in every part of
that country the scenes of their exploits were exhibited. The Niore ancient traditions of universal history became in like manner referred to particular districts, just as in England the country people point out in remote corners the scene of many a kegendary exploit of John the Baptist, or, of Christ and his Apostles.
Crude, however, as Bryant's conjectures are, Dr. Holland has not fairly stated them; he affirms, that Bryant supposed the Arkite worship to have originated in the scriptural record of the flood." * (P. 143.) This is certainly wrong. Bryant does not mean any such thing. He fancied that the tradition current, founded on actual memory, quickly gave rise to certain rites in commemoration of the escape, without any reference to scripture, which was long subsequent. He thought the mysteries had no other object than the preservation of this event, and that the ceremony gradually degenerated into a worship of the Arkites, or the eight persons who came out of the ark. Now we apprehend that none but mere visionaries believe that these ceremonies had the smallest relation to any thing of the kind.
Before we conclude our remarks on this question, we must point out a singular error into which Dr. Holland has fallen, in attempting to prove, that there should be no remains of the temple of Dodona. In a note, page 146, he says that Strabo asserts, "the Oracle of Dodona has disappeared in like manner as other things.” On referring to the passage in question, it will be found that Dr. Holland has totally mistaken the meaning. Strabo says, εκλέλοιπε δε πως και το μαντείον το εν Δωδώνη καθάπερ τάλλα; which is the oracle has lost its spirit of prophecy like other oracles. This affords no proof of the destruction of the temple. Nay, “ Strabo adds, sari de od punere, &c. It is a foundation of the Pelasgi, &c. which shows that it was standing in his time.. Polybius, too, in the passage quoted by Dr. Holland says just as little to the purpose for which he is cited.
We at first regretted the extreme scantiness of Dr. Holland's remarks, on the Roman or modern Greek; but on examining those with which he has favoured us, we rather congratulate our selves as well as him, that they are so very few. He attempts to compare the difference between the ancient and modern Greek with that between the Latin and the Italian. This is very erroneous. The Italian has a totally different construction from the Latin; it is in fact a distinct language; the Romaic on the other hand is not a different language from the ancient Greek, but merely a corrupt dialect. When the northern nations settled in Italy and began to speak the language of the country, they never learned the inflexions of words and the rules of syntax, but taking mere vocables they used them in the same way as their own northern terms, and in the construction of the German and
other northern languages. The Italian then may be compared to a new wall built of old Roman bricks. But in the Greek the edifice remains the same; the stones are not only antique, but the mortar and style of masonry is the same; only the building is in ruins. It would be impossible for a nation remaining so unmixed as the Greeks to deviate into a new syntax, and a totally foreign idiom, as the Italians have done.
Dr. Holland, in a note, p, 172, says, “ The interesting topic of the progressive substitution of accent for quantity,” &c. showing that he has adopted the vulgar opinion that the old Greeks pronounced, as they say, according to quantity, not according to accent. The topic would indeed be interesting if such a miracle had ever been performed. The Greeks in Cicero's time used the accents very much, as they do now in Greece. For what purpose, if not for that of pronunciation? It is clear that they always laid the stress on the accented syllable whether long or short, and that we now pronounce Greek by rules very foreign to the genius of the language. Mitford, in his excellent work on the harmony of language, has shown that our pronunciation of Greek is neither according to accent nor quantity; that our pronunciation of Latin is correct according to the true Roman accent, not to quantity (this last we neglect, and it is for false ac, cent, not for false quantity, that so many boys are flogged at our public schools:) and that we are much more incorrect with respect to Greek than to Latin; for though it is well known that the Greek-accent differed widely from the Roman, yet we obstinately pronounce Greek according to the Latin accent, and that method we absurdly call pronouncing it according to Greek quantity,
From Ioannina the author made an excursion into Thessaly over Pindus, the upper ridges of which are composed of a beautiful serpentine, which he supposes rests in unconformable masses on primitive slate. In this journey he visited the remarkable monasteries of Meteora, placed on the summits of perpendicular Focks, which can only be attained by means of a basket drawn up by a windlass and rope. Formerly there were twenty of these remarkable buildings; at present they are reduced to ten. They exhibit the worst specimen of monastic seclusion. The rocks of Meteora are composed of a beautiful conglomerate. From Me teora to Larissa nothing remarkable is described : at the latter place Dr. Holland had an interview with Veli Pasha, one of Ali's sons, who, like his father, sought and obtained the Doctor's medical advice. This man, unlike the Turks in general, is said to value antiquarian résearches. : The two most remarkable personages at Larissa were the Archabishop Polycarp and the physician Joannes Velara--the latter is described as a man of superior attainment and talent.
From Larissa the journey to Salonica through Amphilochia; the vale of Tempe, Platomana, Mount Olympus, Katrina, Pydna, Leuterochi, presents nothing worthy of particular remark, except Dr. Holland's ascribing to Quintus Curtius the story of Alexander's passage over the top of Mount Ossa. Curtius says nothing about it. The story is given by Freinshemius, who wrote the supplement, and who borrowed it from Polyænus's trifling work on military stratagems, dedicated to Antoninus and Verus. The story itself is worthy of no regard. It is not mentioned by the judicious and accurate Appian, and is contradictory to the statements of Justin and Diodorus Siculus, who represent Alexander as going in a friendly manner to the assembly of the chiefs of Thessaly, and as discanting on his consanguinity and family friendship with them ; in consequence of which they without any struggle acceded to his desires.
At Salonica the church of Santa Sophia, and a stone, -from which St. Paul is said to have preached to the Thessalonians, are the chief objects of curiosity. The former was built by Justinian on the model of S. Sophia at Constantinople. The city is said to stand on mica-slate. The whole population consists of about 70,000, and the Frank society is respectable. In consequence of the continental system, Salonica became of considerable consequence as an entrepôt for English goods and colonial produce, which were transported by land through Turkey to the very centre of the continent of Europe. The goods for carriage into Germany were made up into packages, each weighing about 1 cwt. and two of these were carried on a horse. The cavalcades consisted from two, and three hundréd to eleven hundred horses. Property to the amount of 30,000l. sterling has been seut off at one time in this way. We ourselves know one Gera man merchant who performed this arduous task in person. About 35 days were consumed in going.from Salonica to Vienna, exclusive of a term of quarantine. " The cavalcades trevel eight hours in the twenty-four. In the evening they halt in the neighbourhood of some town or village; the packages are taken off the horses and placed in a central spot, with guards around them during the night; the horses pasture in the vicinity; and the men attending the cavalcade supply themselves with provisions from the villages. These men vary in number according to the size of the caravan, one man being commonly attached to every five horses, besides the guards who watch over the security of the whole. It is worthy of remark, that as far as the close of 1812, no predatory attempt had been made upon these caravans, nor any material loss sustained by mere petty pillage during this long over land journey."
The estimated expense of the transit of colonial produce to Via
enna was cent. per cent., which was fully paid by the enormous prices of these articles in Germany. Coffee was sold at Vienna in the autumn of 1812 at 15l. per cwt.
The return cargoes from Salonica were chiefly grain and timber. The destruction of the continental system has superseded the necessity of this very circuitous route.' Tobacco, cotton-wool, and wool, are the principal objects of trade.
After a perilous voyage from Salonica to Zeitun in a Greek polacca, our traveller returned to Larissa through the pass of Thomoka and the plain of Pharsalia. At Larissa he again met Veli Pasha and the archbishop. During his stay, a clerical patient afflicted with sore throat was brought to him for advice. On attempting to administer an emetic to him, he was told by the bishop," that the remedy could not now be employed; that he (the priest) had officiated at mass in the morning, and that the rites of the church rigidly proscribed the act of vomiting so soon after this ceremony."
From Larissa our traveller passed to Salona, which contains about 800 houses, and is a place of small trade: thence he proceeded through ancient Phocis, Baotia, and Attica, to Athens. We pass over these details rapidly, as they present nothing remarkable, in order that we may dwell on some of those happy descriptions in which Dr. Holland so peculiarly excels.
“ Those who expect to see at Athens only the more splendid and obvious testimonies of its former state, will find themselves agreeably mistaken in the reality of the scene. It may be acknowledged that the Parthenon, the Theseum, the Propylcea, the temple of Minerva Polias, &c., are individually the most striking of the objects occurring here; yet it may perhaps be added that they have been less interesting singly, than in their combined relation to that wonderful grouping together of nature and art, which gives its peculiarity to Athens, and renders the scenery of this spot something which is ever unique to the eye and recollection. Here, if any where, there is a certain genius of the place which unites and gives a character and colouring to the whole; and it is further worthy of remark, that this genius loci is one which most strikingly connects the modern Athens with the city of former days. Every part of the surrounding landscape may be recognized as harmonious and beautiful in itself; and at the same time as furnishing those features which are consecrated by ancient description, by the history of heroic actions; and still more as the scene of those celebrated schools of philosophy, which have transmitted their influence to every succeeding age. The stranger, who may be unable to appreciate all the architectural beauties of the temples of Athens, yet can admire the splendid assemblage they form in their position, outline, and colouring; can trace out the pictures of the poets in the vale of Cephissus, the hill of Colonos, and the ridge of Hymettus ; can look on one side upon the sea of Salamis, on the other