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reception in an inn at Anstellen, which certainly would favour a very different opinion, and which we should extract did space permit.

Amongst the singular historical facts which Madame de Bury digs out of the records of Germany, the following, relating to the Dukes of Brunswick, is extremely curious, and will be read with interest by all, especially as we have so long had one of this ill-fated race living amongst us.

• A more melancholy city than Brunswick never served as a residence to a more fated race. There is somewhat funereal about the very railway station. You fancy you are entering the burying-place of dead locomotives, and the very sandwiches you buy have a look of “ funereal baked meats.”

Bürger was a Brunswicker; I don't wonder he wrote “ Lenore.” Living amongst these black Jägers, I don't see how he could do otherwise.

Brunswick is a Todtengrube, and in its still streets those black Schützen stalk about mysteriously. There is a ducal palaceand a mighty handsome one it is—but it is shut up and uninhabited. Where is the duke? At the hunt. Where? In the Harz, at his castle of Blankenburg. Why even that sounds strange, and makes one think of the Wild Huntsman.

• There are two things in Brunswick-a lion and a church-both date from the time of the hero of the house of Guelph, Heinrich der Löwe. The lion is open-mouthed, and in the act of showing his teeth, which the sorely-vexed duke intended as symbolical of what he himself would do to his enemies. The bronze monster stands upon a pedestal upon the north side of the cathedral of St. Blazius, built by Henry the Lion in 1172. And this same church is the real house of the princes of Brunswick, who, to my mind, have not fulfilled their mission till they are lowered into its dark vaults. What they do down in these cold chambers when the brazen doors are closed upon them, and the upper world shut out, that none may return to tell; but that in those coffin-furnished caves there are mysteries we wot not of, of that I feel perfectly convinced. There they lie, all of them, or nearly all—The Lion, Henry, and his wife, Matilda of England,' &c. &c.

• In 1090 Markgraf Eckbert, of Thüringen and Saxony, and lord of Brunswick, was assassinated by his serving-men, who, at his residence of Hogeworth, near Eisenbüttel, fell upon him with axes and killed him.

· Augustus Ferdinand, son of Ferdinand Albert I., in storming the Schellenberg, near the town of Donauwörth, with the banner of Brunswick in his hand, rushed to the assault, and fell shot by a bullet in his left temple, at twenty-seven.

• In 1741, Prince Louis Ernest was killed at the fight of Molvitz by the troops of his brother Ferdinand, against whom he had rebelled.

• In 1758 Frederick Francis, son of Ferdinand Albert II., was shot in the head by a cannon-ball at Hochkirchen, at twenty-six. In 1761 Albert Henry, son of Duke Charles, was shot in the neck in a skirmish between the Brunswick and French troops, and after a six days' torture, died at nineteen. In 1770, William Adolph, son of the same Duke Charles, died of violent inflammation of the lungs in the Russian camp at Oczakow, at twenty-five. In 1785, Duke Maximilian Leopold was drowned in the Oder at the age of thirty-three. The town of Frankfort-on-the-Oder was surprised by the rushing flood, and the fear of death by inundation caused the inhabitants to fly on all sides. The duke, without a moment's hesitation, plunged into the stream, and set about the work of rescue. “I am a man like the rest," said he to those who besought him to avoid endangering his life, “and other men's lives must be cared for as well as mine."

• In 1815 we all know that Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick, was shot at Quatre Bras.'-Ib. pp. 142–147.

Madame de Bury would have produced a work extremely agreeable to all readers had she avoided coming forth so decidedly as a partisan ; as it is, it will be warmly welcomed by one party only. Those who wish to see the light in which that party regards the late revolutions and the leading characters in them, will find what they want here. In one place the authoress gives some hard hits to our own nation, by referring to our treatment of India and Ireland ; but she should know that the sins of one people will not excuse those of another. She says, that for the punishment of treason we need go no further than to the Irish rebellion. We need not go so far as the rebellion she alludes to, we need only go to that of Smith O'Brien. The parallel attempted to be drawn between our Irish traitors and Count Batthyányi, is an unfortunate one. Batthyányi was shot having committed no treason, having only, and that most legally, stood by the constitution of his country; Smith O'Brien, who did rebel, and did all in his power to involve England and Ireland in civil war, was not shot, but admitted to the mild punishment of banishment. Had the clemency which has distinguished England in this last case distinguished Austria, the world would have been spared a most repulsive spectacle, and Austria a foul and indelible stain on her reputation. On this head the opinion of all civilized Europe is pretty well settled, and though Madame de Bury's work may amuse by its variety of information, and often interest by its eloquent arguments, it will fail to convince the world that legitimacy is the only legitimate thing, or that Austria is a mild and enlightened country.

Art. V.-1. Dr. Scoffern on Refining and Improving the Manufacture

of Sugar. London: Longman & Co. 1849. . 2. Correspondence laid upon the table of the House of Commons by the

Chancellor of the Exchequer, in July last. 3. Correspondence omitted from the above, but forming a Key to it, published by Dr. Scoffern, consisting of Letters of his own, and of several Gentlemen of Scientific and Commercial Eminence, bearing upon


process. It rarely falls to our lot to advert to a subject involving more extensive interests or results of a more thrilling character, than that on which we now enter. In the whole range of science nothing is so calculated to arrest attention, as the

startling discoveries made from time to time in the laboratory of the chemist. This department of mental investigation is so vast and so fertile, that it leaves the fabled El Dorado immeasurably in its rear. Indeed, so astounding are its gifts that to it the world may be said to owe half its present grandeur and stupendous wealth. It has enabled mankind to condense whole centuries into an hour ; or, to borrow the words of an eloquent living writer, it has made 'a point inconceivably distant yesterday its goal to-day, and its starting-post to-morrow.' Men have almost ceased to wonder at seemingly inexplicable phenomena becoming every day facts, or at shapes which were magnified by the mist of the past, and which would have startled our forefathers out of their propriety, becoming indispensable companions of our hearths and homes. These remarks but appropriately introduce a discovery made and patented by Dr. John Scoffern, an Englishman of great scientific eminence.

It has been long known to the scientific world, that the acetates of lead are the most effective means for the manufacture and refining of sugar, inasmuch as the crystallization under their influence is complete. Acetate of lead, however, in combination with the sugar, is deleterious to health ; and chemists have been baffled in their efforts to combine with its use any known agent for its removal after the work of defecation is at an end. To Dr. Scoffern, at length, the honour is conceded of having demonstrated the perfect practicability of converting the lead by the application of sulphurous acid gas into the form of sulphite of lead, the latter being innocuous, and of effecting the removal of the sulphite by the mechanical contrivance of filtra

tion. But this achievement, interesting as it is, and must be to the scientific man, would lack the greater part of its present value were it not that certain results flow from the discovery so vast, so fraught with consequences to the prosperity of our colonies and of the mother country, and so pregnant with good to the great cause of humanity, that we can place it only side by side with the great discoveries of an Arkwright or a Watt.

Let us look a little at the interests and the product which this invention is designed to affect. They are the prosperity of 800,000 human beings in our West India Colonies, made free by vast philanthropic effort, and the expenditure of twenty millions sterling; the probable overthrow of slavery and the slave-trade in the United States, Cuba, Porto Rico, and Brazil, in which not less than 7,000,000 of human beings are reduced to the condition of cattle, and compelled to wear away a miserable existence denuded of every thing which makes life cherishable; and, finally, the increase to an amazing degree, and the greatly augumented purity, of an article which, though a luxury, has become almost a necessary of life.

It may not be generally known, that in consequence of the imperfection of the ordinary process of sugar manufacture in the colonies, 66 per cent. of the juice is totally lost; that the planter has long regarded the redemption of this large proportion as hopeless; that his aim is, therefore, to, produce, as economically as possible, so large an excess that he shall be able to bear this loss without injury; that in India, the native processes of sugar extraction are so rude and so destructive, that it may be safely asserted that 75 per cent. of the sugar existing in the juice operated upon is entirely destroyed in obtaining the remainder. The amount of sugar in the cane-juice varies from 17 to 23 per cent., but the average quantity extracted by the ordinary process is about 7 per cent., and that in an impure state. Well might Dr. Scoffern express his incredulity in terms like the following That there should exist any necessity for the loss of two-thirds of any material in producing, combined with a host of impurities, the remaining third, I could not believe, so opposed did the notion appear to every analogous case, so inconsistent with all chemical harmony.

But the loss does not end here ; for so imperfect is the process of crystallization applicable to the remaining 34 per cent., that not infrequently a large proportion of the sugar is lost by drainage on its way to the distant market. At the expiration of many weeks,' says Dr. Scoffern, 'the drainage is so incomplete, that it is not unusual for some 20 per cent of the weight of a hogshead of sugar to leak into the hold of a ship on its way to Europe and to be pumped into the sea. In a recent case

which came under my notice, 25 per cent. had thus been lost, and the master of a trading vessel informed Dr. Evans, as I am told by this gentleman, that his ship was often one and a half foot deeper in the water off Barbadoes than when it arrived in the Bristol Channel.' We may add to the foregoing that a further loss of from 5 to 6 per cent. takes place during the warehousing at the docks. Now the difficulty of perfect drainage under the ordinary system is not merely mechanical. Contrivances of the mechanist might be multiplied without end : they can effect only a slight modification of the evil. The difficulty is purely chemical, and it arises from the utter inefficiency of the old process to secure a perfect crystallization of the sugar. A knowledge of these facts has given rise to various efforts of a chemical nature to free the liquor so entirely from its impurities, that the work of crystallizing should be complete. The ordinary defecating agent in the colonies is lime; but this is but partially efficacious, and is, moreover, destructive to the sugar. Alumina, in various forms, has also been employed for the same purpose, suggested no doubt by its successful application in the manufacture of vegetable colouring matters; but the work of defecation is very partial. With a view of rendering it as successful as possible, the Hon. Mr. Howard, a gentleman of scientific eminence, proposed a mixture of sulphate of lime, free lime, and alumina. In France, and other countries where sugar is largely manufactured from beet root, the sulphate of alumina is employed, but its defecating properties fall far short of the justifiable demands of the chemist. • Very far superior to all other agents as precipitants are the acetates, particularly the basic or subacetates of lead.' Of the properties of these acetates as precipitants, chemists have long been aware; their use in the laboratory for the removal of albuminous and colouring matters is common, and in the highest degree successful. Every attempt, however, to employ them for the same end in sugar even in the laboratory was unsuccessful, and on the large manufacturing scale a total failure. Dr. Scoffern says, 'the problems to be solved are these : either to use the lead salt in such exact proportion to the amount of impurity with which it is intended to combine, that both shall fall down in combination and be capable of removal; or to add a known excess of lead salt to the solution, to separate the precipitate caused by filtration, then to throw down from the filtering liquor all the remaining lead by means of some precipitating agent not productive of injury to sugar ; and as a subsidiary problem, to remove the acetic acid liberated from the lead, either as an insoluble compound, or to combine it with some body that shall neither be injurious to sugar nor to VOL. XXVIII.


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