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that the modern heretics and schismatics have discarded the crucifixes, images, and all other Christian emblems from their meeting houses ; the Christian names from their families; and the Christian terms from their vocabularies. Peter, Paul, Mathew, Mark, Luke, Bartholomew, Timothy, Titus, Mary, Martha, Catherine, Philomen, Teresa, Bridget, are names quite unknown to them ; whilst the heathen names, Horace, Virgil, Cæsar, Lucius, Cassius, Philo, Ira, Ezra, Zembla, Dido, Venus, Phebe, Lucretia, are admired and revived in every family. Also the gospel terms are altered into barbarous and absurd appellations. Masters are called boss; husband, an old man ; wise, an old woman ; servants, help ; usury, interest, funds, and securities ; thief and swindler, black-leg; rogue, smart fellow. It is manifest that they do so for the purpose of levelling the distinction between right and wrong, to season their descendants for fraud, spoliation, and anarchy ; to cloak from public view the hideous deformity of banks and usury : For if you search the Sacred Volume, the Holy Fathers, and the sacred Councils throughout, you will not meet the names, interest, boss, help, black-leg, or clever fellow; and therefore you cannot say, if you have no other guides, than Protestant books and orators, whether said barbarous terms signify what is consistent or inconsistent with the divine law; nor will you find under the names boss, help, old man, old woman, any exposition of the sacred and relative duties of master and servant, husband and wise. By altering the names and cymbols of the Christian religion, they cannot alter the nature of the things signified. If they disbelieve, will their unbelief render the faith of God without effect. Rom. III. 38.


Venerable and beloved Brethren. If the Sacerdotal dignity is great, the burden is great also; especially in these dreadful days, when the greater part of the Presses, the Sectarian ministers, and the profane lecturers in general, seem to have combined against every order, spiritual and temporal, and determined to season and excite the people into rebellion, spoliation and anarchy. You are the sale of the earth, to purify man from his sins, and to preserve and prepare him for his divine Master. Be pleased to accept a true picture of your high dignity and heavy obligations from the holy Fathers Ambrose and Pope Gregory the Great, .

B. AMBROSIUS, Tom. iv., De Dignitate Sacerdotali, c. 1. Does any one, dearest brethren, remember God's rebuke to the slothful servant for baving hid in the ground the inoney which he had received to be distributed: Why hast thou not deposited my money with the bankers, that at my coming I may receive my own with usury ? Therefore man must not, as a slothful hearer, keep for his own use alune the heavenly grace which had been given unto him; by making it available to all people, by distributing it copiously he will surely possess it, that by so doing he may yield edifying fruit to himself and to several others, and like the fine tree loaded with apples, it occupies not fruitlessly the ground whilst it lives, both itself is adorned with its fruits and every person that partakes of its fruit is nourished. The holy apostle teaches the same principle : Seek not the things that are your own but those that are other men's. And again : I seek not that which is profitable to myself, but to many others that I may be saved. Therefore, we, to whom is entrusted the dispensing of the word of God and who have undertaken to feed and foster the flock of Christ, must know that our danger is great, if our life proclaim not our calling, even if our tongue be silent. Although the troubles of this world deter me from preaching, the greatness of the precept urges me to it. Wo to me, if I preach not, or, if I hold for any time the Lord's money buried in the earth—the talent hid in my heart, and, if I keep the candle of the divine word hid under the tub, not exposed upon the candlestick before the eyes of all men ; and if I throw not open the bolts of human ignorance with the heavenly keys which, we priesis, have through the apostle Peter received, that I may for the services of my little tongue deserve to hear : Well done, good and faithful servant, because thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will place thee over many things ; enter thou into the joy of the Lord.— Moved with the fear of such awful rebukes and threats, and actuated with fraternal charity, I address not the people as usual, but shall now direct my language to the teachers of the people ; now as an humble servant, as a bishop to ihe priests, as a prelate to the pontiffs, I shall not hesitate to preach with confidence on the affairs of our common salvation. Nor shall I make any pretension to greater learning by preaching in charity to my brother clergy ; nor shall I raise any claim to a perfection of life by teaching others the way to perfection, but rather that I may partake of the fruit of my preaching unto others.

Chap. 2. "I shall now, to the best of my abilities, with the help of divine grace and of the prayers of my hearers, enter upon the intended path ; and placed, as in the bosom of my brother priests, I shall address the priests themselves. Hear me, most happy fathers, and if you please, most holy fathers ; hearken to me, ye Levitical race, ye Sacerdotal progeny, ye hallowed generation, ye leaders and rulers of the flock of Christ. Hearken to me at one and the same time, teaching under fear and anxiety for the threats and rewards, admonishing and striving to set forth the dignity of the Priesthood ; that whilst we exhibit to you the prerogatives of that dignity we may produce corresponding works, and that we who know in our hearts the truth, may not lack in works. It is proper that the priestly dignity be first understood and then sustained by us, in order that the Psalmist's sayings apply not to us. The man who understands not when he is in honor, is compared to senseless beasts, and is become like unto them. But the episcopal honor and dignity could not, my brethren, be expressed by any comparisons. If you compare it to the glittering crowns of kings, or to the splendid diadems of princes, the comparison is more defective than if you compare pallid lead with shining gold : insomuch as you see the necks of kings, and princes bowned down at the priests' knees, believing that after having kissed their right hands they reap the benefit of their prayers. But what shall I say of the body of the people, to whom they were not only preferred by the Lord, but over whom they were even commanded in the gospel to preside, as it were, by right of inheritance ? It being certainly declared by the Lord to St. Peter ; Peter, Lovest thou me? And what said he? Thou knowest, Lord, that I love thee. And being thrice questioned, he thrice answered. The Lord repeated the third time : Feed my sheep. Which sheep and flock St. Peter then received, and not he alone, but we all received them with him. They are therefore entrusted to the government of the priests ; are properly said to be subject to their rectorship ; it being declared in the shining light of the gospel : The disciple is not above his master, nor the servant above his lord; it is enough for the disciple to be as his master, and for the servant to be as his lord.

Chap. 3. “Know then, brethren, that this long preface goes to prove that no earthly dignity surpasses that of the priest, that none is higher than that of the bishop, to the purpose that wbilst we demonstrate to the prelates the height of their dignity, we may understand our real condition, and show by deeds rather than by words the import of our calling ; that the name correspond with the office, and the office with the name, lest the name be lofty and the deed filthy ; lest the garment be religious, and the conduct impious ; lest the station be showy and the crime ghastly ; lest in the church be had a stately chair and in the priests be found a polluted conscience ; lest we assume the speech of the dove and have the heart of a dog ; lest we be the sheep in face and the fierce wolf in deeds. Lest the Lord say to us, in the prophet's words : This people honoreth

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me with their lips, but their heart is far from me. Consequently, brethren, as the gown adorns the senator, agricultural skill the farmer, nautical science the sailor, and as the quality of his employment indicates each craftsman, so let nothing else but the episcopal works designate the bishop. Let him be known from his works rather than from his profession ; let him be the bishop more from his merits than from the appellation given to him; because nothing, as we have said, surpasses the episcopal dignity, so nothing is more odious than he, if fallen from his sanctity, than the priest, if held in the chain of sin. The fall on the plain is painful, the fall from the higher dignity is more painful, the fall from aloft is ruinous. The episcopal bonor is truly shining before men, but if he fall into ruin the sadness is great ; for inasmuch as the bishop fills a higher station, insomuch would bis ruin, if by negligence he fall, be the greater.The great elevation would require greater caution ; the mighty dignity should be guarded with greater circumspection ; since it is written : With the best of things are the worst mixed up. And again : The mighty shall be mightily tormented. And unto him that knoweth the law and keep it not, the sin is great ; and the servant knowing his Lord's will, if he behave not according to it, shall be beaten with many stripes. God requires one thing from the bishop, and another from the priest, and another from the deacon, and another from the minor clergy, and another from each of the laity. And although God will, on the day of judgment, weigh the works of all men, however, more is demanded of him to whom more is given ; and heavier punishments await him to whom is committed the government of the greater number of people.”

B. Greg. Regist. Epist. 31, Mauricio Augusto, writes :"In Holy Writ the priests are sometimes called gods, and sometimes angels : Moses speaking of the man who is to be brought to make an oath, says, Exod. xxv. 8, Bring him to the gods, that is, to the priests; and again : Thou shalt not tra

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