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is one and singular in regard to both modes of the unbegotten. He is the unbegotten, who had no co-eternal God or Gods; neither before him, nor after him ; having them neither above him, nor under him, nor opposite to him ; enjoying incorruptible nature and essence."

Lib. de Trinitate, seu in expositione fidei. “Certainly the holy Scriptures teach and the Constitutions of the Fathers direct us to worship one God; for there is of necessity one supreme author of the universe, that no eternal, collateral being should have power to disturb the order of the creation. For if any other besides God originally existed, it would necessarily proclaim itself either God or some other power. But should it call itself God, it might take up the sacred Volume openly declaring, Isa. XLI, XLIII, XLIV, I, the Lord, am the first and the last ; and besides me there is not a God. Therefore we see it openly announced that nothing originally co-existed with God, the parent of all things. Consequently the God of this universe is certainly one, who is known in the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost.

IRENÆUS, A. D. 180. Lib. 1, Cap. 2. “The Church disseminated throughout the world to the very ends of the earth, received from the Apostles and their disciples, this faith, which is in one God the Father almighty, who made heaven and earth.

Cap. 19. “When we hold the rule of truth, that is, that there is one omnipotent God, who made all things by his only word.

Lib. 2, Cap. 1, “There must be either one who contains all things, and who created in its own place every one of the things that are created, just as he willed; or many and undefined makers and Gods, starting out from one another and clashing with one another on every point. It will be necessary that thosc straying abroad, be somehow restrained by some other, or that these within and discharging their offices be announced by some one, but none of all these can be God; for each filling the lower station lacks something in comparison to all the rest, and the appellation omnipotent would be lost, and such notions necessarily sink into impiety.

Lib. 3, Cap. 3. “ The tradition of the Apostles attested by the succession of the Bishops in all the Churches, especially in the Roman, declares that there is one omnipotent God, the maker of heaven and earth."

ATHANASIUS, A. D. 340. Oratio contra idola. “ It is not lawful to imagine that there are many rulers or creators of the world, but from the dictates of true and perfect religion and the concurrent testimony of the nature of things, one only is to be believed. For that impression is certain that the author of this universe is one, because not a manifold, but one world perpetually exists ; for if there be many chiefs, there ought to be also many and diverse worlds. The absurd consequences arising therefrom, would forbid that many would build one world or that one world would be created by many. Wherefore, when there is but one nature of things, one world, and one order thereof, we should understand that the Lord our God is the one builder and ruler of it. For this reason, that the builder has only one world in the whole, lest from a plurality of worlds, a plurality of architects be also supposed, but that from the one work one author thereof be believed. Not because the Creator is one, does it follow that there must be but one world : for God might create other worlds also. But as there is but one world created, we must necessarily believe that the Creator thereof is one."

EPIPHANIUS, A. D. 370. Hæresi 57, Contra Nætianos. “Did they contemplate a multitude of Gods, who truly offer worship and veneration to the Trinity, who are really sons of the truth and of the only Catholic Church? Surely not so. For who rejoices not that the God of truth is one? The Church knows but one Deity.The Father is the one God of truth. The Father is perfect in substance, the Son perfect in substance, the Holy Ghost perfect in substance ; one Deity, one principality, one dominion.”

CYRILLUS HIEROSOLYMITANUS, A, D, 370.

Catechesi 4. “Therefore the first dogma imprinted in our heart in regard to God, is that the one God is unbegotten, without a beginning, immutable, not alterable, nor made by another. The one God is sole, and the Creator both of souls and bodies. He is the one builder of heaven and earth, the Creator of the angels and archangels ; who is indeed the maker of many things, but the Father before ages of one only.

Catechesi 6. “Heretics have the presumption to assert there are two Gods, and two sources, the one of good, the other of evil, and that they are unbegotten. If both be unbegotten, both certainly have equal powers. How then does the darkness banish the light ? Bụt how, in short, are they jointly or severally? They cannot be in joint company. What communication hath light with darkness, saith the Apostle ? But if they be far separated, they must have proper places. We shall truly adore one God.

JOANNES DAMASCENUS, A, D. 730. Orthodoxæ fidei, lib. I, Cap. 5. “ That there is one God, not many, is certainly beyond dispute among those who give credit to the holy scriptures. For the Lord prefaces his commandments in these words, Exod. XX: I am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt : thou shalt not have strange Gods before me : and again he saith : Hear O Israel, the Lord thy God is one God: and by the Prophet Isais XLIII. He saith : Before me there was no God formed, and after me there shall be none. And we argue after this manner, with those who yield not credit to the holy scriptures : God is perfect, and (whether you consider goodness, or wisdom, or power) free from every defect, without a beginning and an end, everlasting, not circumscribed ; and finally, that I may express the subject in one word, he is totally perfect. Wherefore if we assert many Gods, we must suppose a collision between the many. For if there be no conflict between them, there will be one, not many Gods. But if they have any contradiction among them, where will be the perfection ? For if in regard to goodness, or power, or wisdom, or time, there be any lack of persection, he certainly will not be God. Really, the perfect identity denotes one, not many Gods. For if there be many Gods, how will identity remain safe and secure unto them? Forsooth, a collision of the governors opens a door for strise and confusion. But if you say that each God rules an individual nation, may I ask you, who would be the author of the order, or who would divide the dominion between them? He would be rather God himself. God is therefore one, perfect, without limitation, the builder, preserver and ruler of the world, higher and anterior to perfection.”

MINUTIUS FELIX, A. D. 230. In Octavio. “The bees have one king; one leader in the flock ; one guide in the herd. Do you imagine that in heaven the supreme power is divided, and that the whole authority of that true and celestial empire is rent? Whereas, it is evident that God, the parent of all, has neither beginning nor end.”

CYPRIANUS, A. D. 250. De Idolorum vanitate. “Therefore the Lord of all things is one God. For that majesty cannot have a partner ; whereas, it alone possesses all power. Let us borrow from the earth a model for the divine government. When did any joint kingdom arise in good faith or disappear without bloodshed ? Thus was the Theban confederation broken up, and discord, civil broils, and massacres took their permanent abode in the land. One kingdom was not ruled by the two Romans, whom one womb had sheltered. Pompey and Cæsar, although near relatives, disputed, and soon after broke their friendly alliance. The spirit of contention is not peculiar to mankind alone ; there are evident traces of it even among the wild animals ; there is one head among the bees, one chief in the herd, one leader in the flock. From greater reason the ruler of the world is one ; who by his word orders all things in existence, disposes them by his providence, perfects them by his power.

ARNOBIUS RHETOR, A. D. 300. Contra Gentes, lib. 2. “If we all concede that the Father of all things is one, immortal, and unbegotten alone, and that nothing which we could name, is found in existence before him, it follows that those beings whom mankind held to be God, were either made by him, or produced at his bidding.”

LACTANTIUS, A. D. 320. Lib. 1, Institut, Cap. 3. “Every man pretending wisdom and reason, understands that God is one, who created all things, and regulates them by the same power with which he created them.

De Ira Dei, Cap. 2. “We have shown in our Institutions that there cannot be many Gods; that the divine power and authority, if divided among many, must of necessity be diminished, but what is diminished is, of course, mortal, and if it be not mortal, it cannot be divided. God is therefore one, in whom power and authority is absolute ; it cannot be diminished or increased. But if there be many who have each a share of the power and divinity, the supreme authority decreases, and each cannot possess in full what is divided among the many ; each lacks what

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