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PHILOSOPHY knows no obligation that binds one man to another without an equivalent. If one man could be subjected to another, who is not bound to render any thing in return, it would be subversive to good morals and political justice. Such a relation cannot exist, only so far as to reach the immediate death of the subjected. But it has been the error of some good men to suppose that slavery presented such a case. It has been their misfortune also to receive the following succedaneums as axioms in the search for truth:

“All men are born equal."
“ The rights of men are inalienable.”
“No man has power to alienate a natural right.”
“No man can become property.”
“No man can own property in another.”
“ The conscience is a distinct mental faculty.”

“ The conscience infallibly distinguishes between right and wrong.”

“No man is under any obligation to obey any law when his conscience dictates it to be wrong."

“ The conscience empowers any man to nullify any law; because the conscience is a part and parcel of the Divine mind.”

“ Slavery is wholly founded on force.”

“Slavery originates in the power of the strong over the weak.”

“Slavery disqualifies a man to fulfil the great object of his being."

“ The doctrines of the Bible forbid slavery.

“There is no word, either in the Old or the New Testament, which expresses the idea of slave or slavery.

“ Slavery places its subjects beyond moral and legal obligation: therefore, it can never be a legal or moral relation.”

“Slavery is inconsistent with the moral nature of man."

“ To hold in slavery is inconsistent with the present state of morals and religion.”

“Slavery is contrary to the will of God.”
“No man can hold a slave, and be a Christian.”

Averments of this order are quite numerous. Fanatics receive them; and some others do not distinguish them from truths.

At any age, and in any country, where such errors are generally adopted, and become the rules of political action, morals and religion are always in commotion, and in danger of shipwreck: for, although, where man has only approached so far towards civilization that even the enlightened can merely perceive them as rudimental, yet the great principles that influence human life, morality and religion, are, everywhere, and always have been the same.


LESSON 1.-Wayland's definition of moral law, page 7 to 8; sin the antecedent of slavery,

9; the abuse of slavery a sin, 10.

LESSON II.—Wayland on the elements of consciousness, 10 to 11; the degeneracy of races,

and slavery as the scriptural means of reclamation, 12; object of punishment, 13.

LESSON III.-Wayland on conscience as a distinct faculty, 14, 15; Channing, Barnes, and

abolitionists generally on the same, 16, 17, 18.

LESSON IV.-Wayland on conscience as an independent faculty derived from Shaftesbury,

Hutchinson, and Reid, 18; combated by Archbishop Secker, 19; argument that con-

science is neither a distinct faculty nor infallible, 20 to 23.

LESSON V.-Wayland's doctrine, that slavery sacrifices the slave's eternal happiness to

the master's temporal, refuted, 23 to 25; the master's interest and the slave's moral

improvement identical, 26, 27.

Lesson VI.-Wayland's argument, that slavery is at variance with the laws of God, ex-

amined, 27; its connection with productive labour and national wealth considered, 28

to 32 ; Sismondi's theory of labour and capital, 32; Wayland on slavery as impoverish-

ing soil refuted, 33, 34.

LESSON VII.-Wayland's doctrine, that the moral principles of the Bible are opposed to

slavery, refuted, 34, 35; Secker's authority, 36; Wayland on slavery as a prohibition

of gospel privileges and matrimony controverted, 37 to 40; Luther and Melancthon

quoted, 39; African practice in regard to matrimony, 40; interest of masters to pro-

mote permanent marriages among their slaves, 40 to 42.

LESSON VIII.-Wayland, Paley, Channing, and Barnes on the opinion that the sacred

writers abstained from condemning slavery on motives of policy, 43 to 47.

LESSON IX.-Wayland's doubts, caused by Prof. Taylor, 47 to 50 ; Wayland's assertion,

that the inculcation of the duties of slaves is no sanction of slavery, combated, 51, 52.

LESSON X.-Wayland's assertion, that Scripture is opposed to slavery, contrasted with the

declarations of the Bible, 53; slavery a desirable and ardently sought condition un-

der certain circumstances-historical proofs, 54 to 57.

LESSON XI.—Dr. Paley on slavery and the laws of nature, 57 to 61.

LESSON XII.-- Paley on cruelty as an argument against slavery, 62; Lander's testimony

respecting native cruelty in Africa, 63; Paley's slander on Jesus Christ and Paul and

Peter repelled, 65 to 67.

LESSON XIII.-Slavery in ancient Britain, 67; Dr. Samuel Johnson's argument against

negro slavery analyzed, and overthrown by arguments drawn from the laws of nations

and the laws of God, 68 to 82.


Lesson I.- Relation of guardian and ward a Divine institution, 83 to 85.

LESSON II.-Slavery a Divine institution, and the reason why, 85 to 88.

LESSON III.—Slavery the school of adversity to reclaim wicked nations and individuals-

Scripture proofs, 89 to 91.

LESSON IV.-Albert Barnes on the slavery of the Israelites in Egypt refuted, 92 to 96;

his attempt by human reason to determine the will of God, 97 to 99.

Lesson V.-Barnes's examination of the Scripture argument on slavery, and the scriptural

account of slavery in the days of Abraham, contrasted, 99 to 109.

LESSON VI.—The smiles of God on the institution of slavery proved from the argument

of Barnes against it, 110; ratio of slaves to whites, and the relative increase in the

United States, 111, 112.

LESSON VII.—The interest of the master and the direct laws of God against the abuses

of slavery coincident, 113, 114; Barnes's cure for slavery, 115.

Lesson VIII.-Barnes's denial that Christ ever came in contact with slavery compared

with scriptural assertions, 116 to 119.

LESSON IX.-The admission of Barnes in regard to slaves escaping to the Hebrew coun-

try, 119; his assertion, that the Hebrews were not a nation of slaveholders, overthrown

by Scripture testimony, 120, 121.

LESSON X.-Distribution by the Hebrews of captives taken in battle, 122, 123; Greek cus-

tom in regard to captives made in war, 124; proof-texts from the Bible, 125.

Lesson XI.-The claim of Barnes to identity with the African race, 126; his views on

Paul's injunction to sympathize with those in bonds controverted, 127, 128.

LESSON XII.-Legend of Antioch, Margarita, and the Roman Præfect Olybius, 128 to 133;

song of the slaves, 131, 132; letter of Olybius to the Emperor Probus, manufactured

from the language of Mr. Barnes, 133 to 135.

LESSON XIII.-Barnes's admissions of the existence of Hebrew and Roman slavery, 136,


LESSON XIV.-The denial of Barnes that slavery cannot be defended by Bible arguments,

138; its influence on agriculture, commerce, arts, and the African slave himself con-

sidered, idem; Sedgjo, the African slave in Louisiana, 139, 140; the Periplus of

Hanno, 140, 141; the testimony of the Landers on the depravity of native Africans,

142 to 144; the Landers made slaves, 145; various historical authorities on African

and Moorish slavery, 145 to 155.

Lesson XV.-Authorities to prove African degradation continued, 155 to 158; slavery

subservient to the religious conversion of African slaves, 159, 160.

LESSON XVI.-Paul's exhortations to slaves considered, 161, 162; God's sentence of four

hundred years of slavery upon the Hebrews, 163.

LESSON XVII.—The assertion of Barnes, that a slave bought with money had compensa-

tion commanded to be paid him by Scripture, controverted, 163, 164; Barnes's declara-

tion of the cunning of the Apostles in not condemning slavery, 165, 166.

LESSON XVIII.-Argument that the injunctions of the Bible upon God's ancient people

are in force and equally binding upon Christians now, (Christians are the heirs of

Abraham,) 166 to 169,

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