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after carefully distinguishing and rejecting all contradictory instances that occur, he finds common to many. And thus from many collateral comparisons and judgments formed upon Particulars he ascends to Generals ; and, by a repetition of the same industrious process and laborious investigation, he advances from general to more general, till at last he is enabled to form a few of the most general, with their attributes and operations, into Axioms or SECONDARY PRINCIPLES, which are the well-founded Laws enacted and enforced by the God of Nature.'
This Method of REASONING, founded on Experiment and Observation, by which
Secundum nos, axiomata continenter et gradatim excitantur, ut nonnifi poftremo loco ad generalissima veniatur : Ea vero generalissima evadunt, non notionalia, sed bene terminata ; et talia quæ natura ut revera fibi notiora agnoscat, quæque rebus hæreant in medullis. Baconus de Augm. Sc. Præf. * See Nov. Org. lib. i. p. 302.
Ad veram philosophiam pertinet rerum naturas ex Causis vere existentibus derivare : eas vero Leges quærere, quibus voluit summus Opifex hunc mundi pulcherrimum ordinem stabilire, non eas quibus potuit, fi ita visum fuisset. Cotesii Præf. in Newt. Princip.
the general ideas and Formsk of Natural Philosophy are invented, is purely and exclusively INDUCTIVE. The Schools are not the theatre in which this philosophical logic is displayed. It does not delight in external appearance, and oftentatious formality. It retires from the clamour of verbal disputation into the retreat of the Elaboratory and Observatory, where, in filent investigation, it lays the foundation of substantial learning. And, as it mixes with Experiment and Observation, it is incapable of being adequately displayed by words, but is best seen and understood by attending it in the act, and pursuing it through every stage of the analytical progression.
* Inquisitio formarum fic procedit ; super naturam da, tum primo facienda eft comparentia ad intellectum omnium inftantiarum notarum, quæ in eadem natura conveniunt, per materias licet diffimillimas. Atque hujusmodi collectio facienda eft historice, absque contemplatione præfeftiną aut fubcilitate aliqua majore. Bacon. Nov. Org. lib. ii. Aph.xi.
Rejicimus igitur fyllogismum; neque id solum quoad principia, (ad quæ nec adhibent) sed etiam quoad propofitiones medias : quas educit fane atque parturit, utcunque syllogismus; sed operum steriles et a practica remotas et plane quoad partem activam scientiarum incompetentes. Quamvis igitur relinquamus syllogismo et hujusmodi demonstrationibus famotis et jactatis, jurisdictionem in artes populares et opinabiles, (nil enim in hac parte movemus ;) tamen ad naturam rerum, inductione per omnia et tam ad minores propofitiones, quam ad majores, utimur, De Augm. Sc. Præf.
Such is the genuine Logic of Physical learning ; not that which was employed by the ancient philosophers the disciples of Pythagoras and the Lycæum, who, (to speak with all reverence of these exalted characters, and to think of them with all the gratitude due to their useful labours, without being a lave to their authority,m) in haste to indulge in their national infirmity that vain and oftentatious parade of terms divorced from things and invented by themselves," overlooked the true ground-work of all sound philosophy, Experience and Induc
- Pro certo habeant homines non sectæ nos alicujus aut placiti, fed utilitatis et amplitudinis humanæ fundamenta moliri. Baconus De Augm. Sc. Præf.
• Cum toti fint in rerum nominibus, non in ipfis rebus, Sermonem quendam Philofophicum censendi sunt adinvenisse, Philofophiam tradidisse non funt censendi. Cotefi Præf, in Newtoni Princip.
The Inductive. Logic has, indeed, much humbler pretensions, but more efficient operations, stooping from the high presumption of the mind thus raised upon the wings of an imaginary perfection, to the manual and ocular examination of the meanest particulars in the universe, for the ground of its proceedings: and, so far from having advanced to a state of perfection, it was in their day in its tenderest infancy, and, from the obstacles thrown in its way by its proud opponent, continues at the present in a state of low progression. In the field of Natural Philosophy it has before it such a vast extent. and yariety of ground, as is sufficient to ein. ploy the joint and confederated labours of philosophers of different ages and countries, affisted by the largest collections and best arrangements of Natural History,' which is
poffe confidit; hunc oportet vel ftatuere Mundum ex neçesitate fuifle, Legesque propofitas ex eadem neceffitate fequi; vel, li per voluntatem Dei constitus fit ordo NatuFæ, se tamen homuncionem misellum, quid optimum factu fit perspectum habere. Cotesii Præf. in Newt. Princip.
s Phänomena Universi; hoc est, omnigena experientia, atque historia naturalis, ejus generis, quæ poffit
the proper foundation of Natural Philosophy. From this ground Experience takes its flow but steady course. It first • lights the candle, • and then by that candle thews the way, • beginning with regular and well-conducted • Experiments, not such as are vague and pre
posterous, from which it derives Axions, • and then from Axioms well established, • descends to new Experiments.''.
The more numerous and extensive the Experiments and Observations are from
esse ad condendam philofophiam fundamentalis. Neque enim excellens aliqua demonftrandi via, five naturam interpretandi forma; ut mentem ab errore et lapsu defendere ac sustinere, ita ei materiam ad sciendum præbere et subministrare, poslit. Verum iis, quibus non conjicere et hariolari, sed invenire et scire propositum est; quique non fimiolas et fabulas mundorum comminisci, fed hujus ipfius veri mundi naturam introfpicere et velut diffecare in ani. mo habent; omnia a rebus ipsis petenda sunt. Neque huic labori et inquisitioni ac mundanæ perambulationi, ulla ingenii aut meditationis aut argumentationis substitutio, aut compensatio fufficere poteft; non fi omnia omnium ingenia coierint. Baconus De Augm. Sc. Præf..
• Verus experientiæ ordo primo lumen accendit, deinde per lumen iter demonstrat, incipiendo ab Experientia ordinata et digesta, et minime præpoftera et erratica, atque ex ea educendo Axiomata ; atque ex Axiomatis conftitutis experimenta nova, Baconi Nov. Org. lib.i. Aph. 82.