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which Inductive Reasoning draws the general conclusion, the more certain will the Axiom be, as standing upon a wider and firmer bottom; but, however numerous and extenfive, they must of necessity come short of the number and extent of Nature, which, in some cases, by its immensity will defeat all poflibility of their co-extension, and, in others, by its distance lies out of the reach of their immediate application. In order, therefore, to make his Law of general use, and to {tretch it over the whole extent of Nature, the Philosopher is obliged to have recourse to ANALOGY, by which he can lengthen out his Inductions, which are properly confined to the number of Experiments and Observations actually made, to all other particulars of the same kind, concluding the Axiom to hold good of all," and that not

u Regulæ Philofophandi.

Reg. 2. Effectuum Naturalium ejufdem generis ezdem assignandæ funt Caufæ, quatenus fieri poteft.

Reg. 3. Qualitates Corporum quæ intendi et remitti nequeunt quæque omnibus corporibus competunt in quibus experimenta inftituere licet, pro qualitatibus corporum universorum habendæ funt,

Nam Qualitates corporum non nifi per experimenta innotescunt; ideoque generalia ftatuendæ funt quotquot


only for the present, but also for the future, till it either be farther confirmed and rectified, or else contradicted, by better Experiments and a more extensive and complete Induction."

This is that just and philosophic Method OF REASONING which found Logic prescribes in this, as well as in other parts of Learning, by which, through the flow but certain road of Experiment and Observation, the mind afcends from Appearances to Qualities, from Effects to Causes, and, by a fair INDUCTION from many particular subjects extended by ANALOGY, forms GeneRAL PROPOSITIONS concerning the powers and properties of Physical Body.

cum experimentis generaliter quadrant.-Non a Naturæ ANALOGIA recedendum eft, cum ea simplex esse soleat et fibi semper consona.-Et hoc est fundamentum Philosophiæ totius.

* Reg. 4. In Philosophia Experimentati Propofitiones ex phænomenis per Inductionem collectæ, non obftantibus contrariis hypothesibus, pro veris aut accurate, aut quam proxime haberi debent, donec alia occurrerint phænomena per quæ aut accurationes reddentur, aut exceptio. nibus obnoxiæ. Newtoni Princip. lib. iii.


When the SECONDARY PRINCIPLES, which constitute the Laws of Physics, are thus Inductively and Analogically established, the proper use of SYLLOGISM, in subjects of Natural Philosophy, is very simple, and confined within a narrow circuit. This is only to reduce the particular Phenomena that occur under the General Propositions, for the truth of which they will account by communicating their own, and present us at once with new and useful inventions :" All which is, indeed, properly and effectually done by a mere Superinduction of the Principle, or by the application of the general Law to the particular instances to which it belongs; and that without the formality of a single Syllogism, which in the opinion of the father of Philosophers, is not only useless but injurious in subjects of philosophical disquisition.

* Axiomata recte inventa tota agmina operum fecum trahunt; atque opera non fparfim sed confeftim exhibent. Baconus De Augm. Sc.

* Nos demonstrationem per fyllogismum rejicimus, quod confufius agat et naturam emittit e manibus. Ta. metsi enim nemini dubium effe poffit, quin, quæ in medio


After the General Propofitions are conAtructed, men who are born with Definitions in their mouths, and bred up in the formalities of Mood and Figure, may, indeed, entertain themselves and others by playing at Sophisms and Syllogisms, as children do at Hide and Seek: but, as from the latter we do not expect much useful work, so from the former we may despair of receiving either additional Principles or new Inventions. This idle game has been uselessly played for many ages.", Their master of the Lycæum fyllogized before them to little purpose, besides that of

termino conveniunt, ea et inter fe conveniant; (quod eft mathematicæ cujusdam certitudinis :) nihilominus hoc fubeft fraudis, quod syllogismus ex propositionibus conftet, propofitiones ex verbis, verba autem notionem tesseræ et figna fint. Itaque, si notiones ipfæ mentis (quæ verborum quafi anima funt et totius hujusmodi structuræ ac fabricæ basis) male ac temere a rebus abftractæ et vagæ, nec fatis definitæ et circumscriptæ, denique multis modis vitiosæ fuerint, omnia ruunt. Baconus De Augm. Sc. Præf.

Si quis in omnem illam librorum varietatem, qua artes et scientiæ exultant, diligentius introfpiciat, ubique · inveniet ejusdem rei repetitiones infinitas, tractandi modis diversas, inventione præoccupatas ; ut omnia primo intuitu numerosa, facto examine, pauca reperiantur. De Augm. Sc. Præf.


promoting perpetual disputation,” and that of checking all useful and experimental enquiry, arrogating an implicit obedience to a false philosophy by a species of tyranny hitherto unexampled in the annals of mankind. And, if it would not spoil their diversion by shocking their devotion to the Logic of that gratuitous and hypothetical reafoner, I would beg leave to lay before them what a true philosopher and logician thought of their employment. • Let men know this

as a certain truth, that all subtlety of dif• putation and discourse of reason, if it be • only applied after Axioms are invented, is · too late and indeed preposterous; and that

the true and proper time for subtlety, or • at least the principle time, is that which is • employed in making Experiments, and from • them in forming Axioms. For that other • subtlety only mocks and catches at nature,

2 Et de utilitate aperte dicendum eft; fapientiam iftam, quam a Græcis potiffimum haufimus, pueritiam quandam scientiæ videri, atque habere quod proprium eft puerorum; ut ad garriendum prompta, ad generandum invalida et immatura fit. Controversiarum enim ferax, operum ef. fæta eft. Ibid. in eodem loco.


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