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And, lastly, to finish his encomium of this first and universal philofophy, he honoured it with the exclusive name of WISDOM.'
And though, in his celebrated Partition of the Sciences, Lord Bacon has made the distribution of METAPHYSICS fomewhat differently from that of the old philosophers, he treats this First PHILOSOPHÝ with the greatest respect and attention, calling it the general root or stem out of which the other parts of learning lhoot into separate branches, viewing it in hopeful prospect, when more maturely cultivated, as supplying a collection of Axioms and Universal Propohtions appropriated to no particular science but of more general application, considering it as the Parent of them all, declaring it tranfcendent, and calling it with Plato The SciENCE OF THINGS DIVINE AND HUMAN."
Ut Physica tractat res naturales et corporeas quæ materia constant et forma ; fic Metaphysica res incorporeas et materiæ expertes, quæ divinæ dicuntur, – Agit, primo, de Ente generatim ejusque principiis, essentia scilicet et existentia et partibus, sive de summis generibus Entis et Categoriis, ut res fint five partes Entis ; deinde, de Subftantia Spirituali five Spiritu, et, ultimatim, de Deo. Eft Scientiarum Universalisfima. Differit generatim per supremas causas et universales, primaque principia ; unde nominata SAPIENTIA et PRIMA PHILOSOPHIA. Du Val. Synopf. Doct. Peripat.
i Primus Philofophus res speculatur quatenus abstracta funt, ab omnique nexu liberá. Philosophia autem Prima ea eft quæ etiam Sapientia dicitur, cujus ambitu omnes disciplinæ cinguntur. Ýi wolüujintas popix, jav xai authv anhãs étushun xantkov, xai parisc émishunu, ut inquit
Themist. in i Pofter. Ipfa enim tenet et speculatur primarias reruin causas. Budæi Comment. in Ling. Gr. Η σοφία περί τίνας αιτίας και αρχάς έσιν επιςήμη.
Aristot. Metaph. lib. i. cap. I.
Mr. Locke has taken the most useful part of this fraitful field of ancient erudition, which forms the most difficult as well as the sublimest subject of investigation, and has descended, with peculiar genius and ability and a pative strength of mind, to the analysis of the Human Understanding. And, if this great philosopher had followed the example of the learned Cudworth in his Intelle&tual System, and built his work upon the foundation of the ancient metaphyfi. cians, he would have added much to its merit and perfection, and have greatly enhanced that fame, which it has already made immortal.
* De Augm. Sc. lib. iii. cap. 1. See Plato in Thäet. and Cic. 2. Tusc. Quæst.
The object of this Universal Science or Philosophy of Mind, the seat of all learning, and the storehouse of all Truth, is both the first in dignity and the largest in comprehension. It is a study both deep and difficult; a' study which has been too much conducted on false principles founded only in imagination, too long perverted and obscured by the subtleties of logic, and too often terminated in something more injurious to Truth than mere refinement and speculation. When founded, however, on just observation and sound reflection, and conducted by rational investigation, it is a study which paves the way to a more scientific and fuccessful cultivation of all the other parts of knowledge.'
Waving, for the present, the further pursuit of this fundamental Science, in its use or in its abuse, through the volumes of ancient and modern metaphysicians, and without descending to a more minute parti
1 Το μεν πάντα επίςασθαι, το μάλιςα έχονται την καθόλα επισήμην αναγκαίον υπάρχεν. ούτος γαρ οίδε πως WÁuta Tã ÚToxEÍJava, Aristot. Metaph. lib. i, cap. 2,
cular of the HUMAN MIND, that imperfect emanation of the Divine, it will be sufficient for the purpose of these Lectures that its general functions have been distributed into three different provinces - The Theoretic, the PRACTIC, and the Poetic, Mind, TM which I shall otherwise express by the INTELLECT, the WILL, and the IMAGINATION.
ο Πασα διάνοια, η ΠΡΑΤΙΚΗ, ή ΠΟΙΗΤΙΚΗ, ή DES2PHTIKH. See Aristot. Metaph. lib. vi. cap. 1. for the philosophical distinction between them.
Philosophia Theoretica eft, cujus finis est Veritatis nuda solaque contemplatio.
Philosophia Practica, cujus finis est Praxis, id eft Actio interna, libera, ex electione profecta, et ad Bonum directa.
Philosophia Poetica, cujus finis eft Poefis, id eft Effectio, feu Actio externa. Du Val. Synop. Doctrin. Peripat.
Plato divided the Mind into four Faculties or Affections NOH EIE, AIANOIA, NIETIE, EIKALIA: Intelligentia, Cogitatio, Fides, Simulatio-correspondent to the different Degrees of Truth. Nonous étừ Two úvWT&TW, Διάνοια επί το δευτερο, το τριτο Πισις, και το τελευω Eixz512. (De Repub. sub fine.) This Distribution is not however so well calculated to distinguish the several Kinds, as MIETIE is common relating to all the kinds.
Lord Bacon makes his general Partition of Learning as it relates to the MEMORY, the IMAGINATION, and Reason. " Partitio Doctrinæ humanæ ea eft veriffima quæ fumitur
• To each of these Faculties, in their operation upon their respective objects external or internal, TRUTH IN GENERAL divides into special relations; and the distribution of its several Parts, forming the whole circle of Learning divine and human, will be most naturally and philosophically made, according as they range under one or other of these general provinces.
« ex triplici facultate animi rationalis quæ Doctrinæ fedes «est. Historia ad Memoriam refertur, Poesis ad Phan« tafiam, Philosophia 'ad Rationem. Neque aliâ cense« mus ad Theologica partitione opus esse.” De Augm. Sc. lib. ii. c. 1.
And in the 7th Book he refers Morality to the Will under the conduct of Reason,
This distribution of our great Philosopher and Reformer of Learning seems, also, to be imperfect; for Reason is the general Instrument of the mind common to all its faculties, (and his words are ex triplici facultate ANIMI RATIONALIS,) and common alike to all the kinds of Truth or Learning
I have, therefore, preferred the distribution of the Peripa, tetic to those both of the Academic and English Philosopher as being more proper and distinct, and also as comprehensive ; for under his divifion Διάνοια θεωρητική he claffes all those parts of learning which do not belong to the other two. Τρείς φιλοσοφίαι θεωρητικαί, μαθεματική, φυσιx9, Teodoyixń. Aristot, Metaph. lib. vi, cap. I.
And for the same reasons I deem it much more just and philofophical than Mr. Locke's Division of the Sciences in the Conclusion of his Essay,
• CH A P.