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ciples,) ire mentioned by the fame living author to be — the Evidence Of External Sense J the Evidence Of Internal Sense or Consciousness J the Evidence Of Memory, and some more.h
This general division of Principles into Primary and Secondary, OrigiNal and Derived, Evidences and AxiOms, let the distinction be made in what terms you will, however novel it may found, is, I hope, philosophically made*' aad,«af so, it will be found of great importance in the search of Truth in general, as it will divide our Reasoning, which should always be governed by the Principles, into two direct kinds or methods.
h Beattie's Essay on Truth, p. 43.
1 These original Evidences are acknowledged by Aristotle in b. ii. chap. 19. of the Post. Analyt. as the genuine foundation from which all Axioms are derived: and though he chooses to reserve an equal honour to the latter, he allows the former to be necejsary to their existence. 'Analyx» ago. t%etv (t*» T<w Jw«ju.w, Jud roiaurnn i *%«», fl Ifl T8TWV TlfltUTtPX xdr dxo&etctv—Swapn avptyvTQv
xfm*»i*, w ****<;» AII0HIIN &C
Of Reason M$4o in general.
ALL Truth, to whatever Province *• *■ or department of Mind it bears a reference, is deduced from Principles by an act of RE ASON, the faculty which is common to them all, and which is distinguishing prerogative of human nature.
It is observed by the excellent Lord Bacon in his Advancement of Learnings that soundness of Direction in the application of the means takes away error and confusion, and is the principal of those general expedients, by which every work is to be successfully conducted.a
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» Merito primas tenet, Censilii frudentia it sanitas i hoc est, monstratio et delineatio viæ rectæ et proclivis ad
To execute a work in the line of his profession with competent ability, the Artist not only understands the power and compass of his Instrument; but the particular manner in which, according to the nature of his materials and the progress of the work, it is to be employed. And it is of equal moment to the Philosopher to know the general power and compass of Reason, the Instrument of Truth; and also the particular method in which it is to be applied on different subjects, and in different stages of the investigation: because the want of a just attention to these fundamentals of found Logic has often misled the Reasoner, increased his labour, and disgraced his learning.
A false estimate of Reason heightened,
as it has often been, into a wild conceit of
tern quæ proponitur, peragendatn. Claudus enim (quod 4ici (diet) in.vid) antevertit cursorem extra viam: Et Solomon perappofiter ad hanc rem: Ferrum fi retusum fuerity viribus utendum majoribus: quod vero super amnia pravalet, eft sapientia. Quibus verbis innuit, medii prudentem electionem efficacius conducere ad rem, quam virium aut iatentior.em aut accumulationem. De Augm. Sc. lib. ii.
its all-sufficiency, and that it is itself the Cause and the Standard of all Truth, is a fatal rock by which many adventurers in philosophy have either suffered shipwreck before they were well embarked, or else have been thrown out of the direct road, and left to the mercy of the waves to be tossed upon a tempestuous sea, by every blast of doctrine, into all the harbours round the world except the right one. Supposing that from its own underived resources, by acting and reacting upon itself, Reason can discover all truth of consequence to man, they totally mistake both its Nature and Office j as it is neither the original Cause, nor the Standard, of Truth.
So far from being the Cause of Truth, it cannot penetrate into, or even apprehend, the Essence or Substances of things corporeal or mental.b It can only pass over their surface to take account of their Qualities, Powers, Properties, Operations and Af
* Internas substantias nullo sensu, nulla actione refiexa cognoseimua. Newtoni Sen. Gen. sub fine Princip.
C sections, sections, which are the Causes: and that not directly and of itself, but by the help of such Evidence as nature has supplied, which is the Standard of Truth.
REASON consists of Perception and 'Judgments and operates by Comparison: and its Office is to judge of Evidences, to form and to apply Axioms, and to trace Similitudes; so that it is properly the Instrument of Truth. And, in the execution of its office, it acts liberally and impartially, when not perverted and abused, accommodating its Method and operation to the Principles and to the nature of the Subject, whatever they may be, upon which it is employed.
"C^VERY thing in the universe, whether ■*-' of Mind or Body, presents itself to our observation, however mixed with others, in its individual state: so that Perception