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of which the logician should pass with the utmost care. Legitimate Induction does not rise, by a hasty abstraction or superficial enumeration only, to the highest generals. Before it presumes to rise, it descends by a practical and experimental examination; and from many particular observations made on the powers and properties, the actions and paffions, the affections and qualities, the causes and effects, of things, after dividing, excluding and rejecting all special matter, it arrives at general truths, from thence to more general, till, perhaps, the most general may be known."
* In conftituendo autem axiomate, forma inductionis alia, quam adhuc in usu fuit, excogitanda eft; eaque non ad principia tantum (quæ vocant) probanda et invenienda, sed etiam ad axiomata minora, et media denique omnia. Inductio enim, quæ procedit per enumerationem fimplicem, res puerilis eft, et precario concludit, et periculo exponitur ab inftantia contradictoria, et plerumque fecundum pauciora quam par eft, et ex his tantummodo quæ præfto funt, pronunciat. Ac inductio, quæ ad inventionem et demonftrationem scientiarum et artium erit utilis, naturam separare debet, per rejectiones et exclusiones debitas; ac deinde post negativas tot quot sufficiunt, super affirmativas concludere ; quod adhuc factum non eft, nec tentatum certe, nisi tantum modo a Platone, qui ad excutiendas definitiones et ideas, hac certe forma inductionis aliquatenus utitur. Verum ad hujus inductionis sive demonftra
The great defect of the Ariftotelian Logic (a defect by which the use and value of the dialectical part are totally destroyed,) is the omission of these necessary intermediate stages, and the deduction of its arguments too hastily and superficially from the highest Forms:' an error into which its author seems to have been drawn by his love of Metapbysics, which is the science of univer, als ; and by forming his method of reasoning in general from that of the Mathematics or demonstra-. tive science, which is conversant only in general truths.
tionis instructionem bonam et legitimam, quamplurima adhibenda funt, quæ adhuc nullius mortalium cogitationem fubiere ; adeo ut in ea major sit consumenda opera, quam adhuc consumpta eft in fyllogismo, atque hujus inductionis auxilio, non solum ad axiomata invenienda, verum etiam ad notiones terminandas, utendum eft. Atque in hac certe inductione spes maxima sita est. Ibid. Nov. Org, lib. 1. Aph. 105.
De scientlis tum demum bene fperandum eft, quando per scalam veram et per gradus continuos, et non intermiffos aut hiulcos, a particularibus ascendetur ad axiomata minora, et deinde ad media, alia aliis fuperiora, et postremo demum ad generaliffima. Etenim axiomata infima non multum ab experientia nuda discrepant. Suprema vero illa et generalisima, (quæ habentur) notionalia funt et abstracta et nil habent solidi. At media sunt axiomata illa vera et solida et viva, in quibus humanæ res et fortunæ fitæ funt; et fupra hæc quoque tandem ipsa illa generalisfima; talia scilicet quæ non abstracta fint, fed per hæc media vere limitantur. Ibid. lib. i. Aph. 104.
y In notionibus nil fani eft, nec in logicis, nec in phyficis; non Substantia, non Qualitas, Agere, Pati, Ipsum else, bonæ notiones funt, sed omnes phantasticæ et male termia natz. Ibid. lib. i. Aph. 15:
Thus the theory of SYLLOGISM delivered in the organon is a splendid monument of human invention, a superb and stately fabric raised from the ableft specimens and examples of Mathematical and Demonstrative Science by the analytical acumen and mental philosophy of its author : but which, like the temples of the heathen divinites, on the ruins of which we may look with admiration, was never employed to any useful or honourable purpose. To invent another organum of of a different origin and construction, was an honour reserved for a future philosopher of a distant age and country from those of the Stagyrite ; which, instead of puzzling all learning with artificial forms and perplexing all knowledge with disputations, put truth and nature to the torture by a thousand trials,
and forced them to confess those secrets which, in spite of Syllogism, had hitherto lain concealed; and by which arts and sciences have been improved, to the great honour of learning, and the advantage of society. And, whereas Aristotle constructed or rather extracted the rules of his Poetics, his Rhetoric, and his Logic, after poets, orators, and philosophers had brought their respective professions to considerable perfection by their natural sagacity and strength of mind; it is a farther honour due to the name of BACON, that he delineated the rules of his Inductive logic with great amplitude and precision, before the world had seen any philosophical example of it: which argues an effort and strength of mind, which eclipse the merit and fame of Aristotle.
On the appearance of this luminary in the field of science, after they had laboured in the search of truth for near two thousand years with a dark and imperfect guide, the Novum Organum gave a new turn to the labours and studies of men. They learned to hold all vain hypotheses and mental fabrications in
just just contempt, and to respect nothing but propofitions established upon facts sufficiently tried and critically examined, and conclusions drawn from them by a fair and philosophical interpretation. Sir Isaac Newton was the first, or however the most considerable, philosopher, who pursued and exemplified this better logic in different branches of natural philosophy: and its value may be best appreciated from the wonderful effects it has produced in the hands of that exalted genius, both in his Principia and in his Optics ; from whose immortal labours, as from the best examples, the organum of Lord Bacon, which was the produce of his great but unafsifted mind, might, by a kind of reflection, be improved and perfected.
Her from being the Instrument of all truth and
learning, as he vainly hoped, the ORGANON of Aristotle has upon the whole been the Inftrument of ignorance and error;' by which that
' Qui summas diale&ticæ partes tibuerunt, atque inde fidissima scientiis præfidia comparari putarunt, veriffime et optime viderunt, intellectum humanum fibi permissum, merito suspectum esse debere. Verum infirmior omnino est