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CHAP. V.

Os the Kinds of Truth, and the Rule of

Reason.

FROM the view that has been taken of Truth In General and the relation which it bears to the Intellect, theWiLL and the Imagination, the three great provinces of the human Mind, and

Of its GENERAL PRINCIPLES, PRIMARY

and Secondary, from which All ReaSoning divides into two direct Methods, the Inductive and the Syllogistic, assisted by a third which is the Analogic, let us descend to the consideration of ParTicular Principles, their correspondent Method Of Reasoning, and the Kinds of Truth in which they terminate.

E That

That Truth which we have been hitherto considering in the gross, like every thing in the universe, will be found, upon a nearer inspection, to vary its features, to assume a particular complexion, and to take a special form, according to the different nature of its Means, which are all those various Substances and Subjects of the universe, both of Mind and Body, from which its particular Principles and grounds of judgment are supplied."

And, as we have observed the general Method of Reasonings to differ with the general division of Principles; so we may reasonably expect to find all these Particular Principles, as they shoot out from the common stock into all the Arts and Sciences, and give life to every branch of the tree of knowledge, demanding a different fort of

1 At a.pya.1 xa» ra ama £tiTftrai ruv Ovtuv' Sn\ov it Ct( n ovrx. Er» yag Ti amov vyma; xai mjjiac Kal Tw» lAaSrtjAXTixuii uciv a'fj^ai xai roip^f?*, xai ama. Kai oXuj i\ zratrx lirirrifAn JiawotiTixt!, ri xai [Airiysird JWot'a?, 'Zssffi ainar xat a'fp^aj Svik, H axfiSsrtflaj, f, aljrAarffa?' aAAa waVai auTat wifi f« Ti, xat ys'fof xrf0iy^a4"%/A»ai, -sre^i Tb'tj ■sr{aiy/*aTtuoj'Tat. Aristot. Metaph. lib. vi. cap. i.

Proof

Proof or Evidence, and a Method Of Reasoning appropriated to themselves.*

And, what is of still higher importance, we shall fee all these different Principles so differently conducted terminating in different Kinds of Truth possessed of many

DEGREES OF EVIDENCE AND CONVICTION: as we fee the fruits of the harvest or of the vintage differing from each other both in shape and quality, according to the different Seeds from which they spring, and to the different mode of their Cultivation.

And here we may contemplate with admiration and not without advantage, that amazing similitude, that universal harmony, and exact proportion, which, in the midst of wonderful variety, pervade the mental and material systems; by which a clear and resplendent ray of light is reflected from the one part upon the other, however distant and

Ai jtxev aiss3>j<r£» ■BTomo'assai auro Sr.Xov, ai $ v-rroStvi* Ax&sræi To *$•«, «tu to. xaSi" avroi vna.pyjrrva. ru yitu ~m 0 EiVif, awoJfixnJaFiv % avwsxaiOTfeon r, fj.<x\tx.-/.un:ov. Aristot. Metaph. lib. vi. cap. i.

E 2 distinct, distinct, and even independent of each other, they may seem to be.

•* And God said Let there be light, and "there was light/"—" And God said Let "the earth bring forth grass, the herb yield«' ing feed, and the fruit-tree yielding fruit, '* whose seed is in itself, after its kind upon «' the earth; and it was so.*" In all his works, however different they may be, he is uniform in operation and consistent with himself j and this mandate of the Deity giving law to the various kinds or productions of his Vegetable kingdom may be considered, from the analogy of things, as extending to those of his IntelleSlual. We may consider the several KIN D S of Truth with which the world is replenished as springing from seeds or Principles of their own and which they possess within themselves, ripening, when matured by proper cultivation, into every species of knowledge, human and divine, producing that exact Certainty or Probability of which they are naturally capable, and terminating in those se

• Gen. i. 3f J Gen. i, n.

veral degrees of Conviction and Assent which are shaped and proportioned to themselves.

This mode of illustrating mental operations and affections by the analogy of vegetable productions was employed by One, whose method, as it was on all occasions the aptest and most familiar, may be imitated with advantage, and whose example, as it was in all things the model of perfection, maybe followed without reserve. "Ye shall "know them by their fruits. Do men ga"ther grapes of thorns or figs of thistles? "Even so every good tree bringeth forth "good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth "forth evil fruit.'" This mode of reasoning is at once simple and energetic j and, by reversing the analogy we may fay, that, as to expect a produce of Wheat from the seedand cultivation of Barley, or the fruit of the Olive-tree from the plant and culture of the Vine, would, in common life, be marked as an absurdity akin to madness: so to suppose that Truths from different Principles and deduced in a different way will result

* Matthrvii. 16, 17.

E 3 the

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