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is concerned, Reason is concerned; particularly where certain Caufes, whatever they may be, are employed to produce certain Effects, and where certain Means are adapted to certain Ends. So that there is no part of learning in which Reason and Judgment have more various employment, or in which they perform a more delicate task, than in their application to the Imitative Arts,
When Effects are produced upon the Internal Feeling by objects or events as they occur in the ordinary course of things, which is the foundation of Poetical Imitation, we may, perhaps, be either too deeply interested in them, or too much involved in their contemplation, to think about their Causes : yet there are Causes, and these rational and intelligent, which are uniform and consistent in their operation, so long as the present system of nature and constitution of the human mind remain the same. In con
héye aangis mointix ésir s d'útenvía, Tivavtíor ustä λόγα ψευδες ποιητική έξις, σερί το ενδεχόμενον άλλως έχαν. Eth. Nicom. lib. vi, cap. 4.
sequence of this inattention to them, and other concurrent circumstances, as their frequency, their variety, and complexity, and above all their familiarity, they are not, perhaps, so distinctly to be ascertained, or so easily generalized, as those which are productive of truth in the provinces of the Will and Intellect. They have, however, in nature a permanent existence, and are more or less recognized and responded to by all, though in a higher degree by sensible minds. The Poet or Artist remarks these Causes as they affect his own feelings, and as he observes their operation on those of others: and thus, from sentiment and observation often repeated, he supplies himself with a large and various stock of poetical ideas generalized and remembered;' from which as from a genuine treasure he draws all the resources of his Art, to
Γίγνεται δ' εκ της μνήμης εμπειρία τους ανθρώπους, αι γαρ πολλαι μνήμαι τα αυτα πραγματG», μιας εμπειρίας δύναμιν αποτελέσει και δοκεί σχεδόν επιστήμη και τέχνη όμοιον είται η εμπειρία. αποβαίνει δ' έπιςήμη και τέχνη δια της εμπειρίας τους ανθρώποις. και μέν γαρ εμπειρία, τέχνην εποίησεν, ώς φησι Πώλος, ορθως λέγων· η δ' άπειρία, τύχην. γίνεθαι δε τέχνη, όταν εκ πολλών της εμπειρίας ευνοη
be employed in all the different acts of Imitation. All this, however logical, he does in fact, though it is generally performed by the silent and almost insensible operation of his mind, without the phlegmatic process of a formal logic.
But, however infensibly performed, the REASONING may be clearly analyzed; and from thence the truth produced may be critically ascertained.
The truth of both Fasts and History results from the apprehension or investigation of particulars, independently of their causes ; whereas that of Poetry springs from the application of causes, and these general ones. The first act of Reasoning is, therefore, from a number of particulars, by collateral judge ments of effects produced by them upon the internal Feeling, to collect these General Causes ; and the second, to apply them, by the different modes of Imitation, in order to
μάτων, καθόλου μία γένηαι σερί τον των ομοίων υπόληψις. Aristot. Metaph. lib. i. cap. 1.
* Η μεν εμπειρία των καθέκασα έσι γνώσις, η δε τέχνη 7y xalónov. Ibid. lib. i. cap. 1.
produce the poetical Effect. Hence Poetry is said to be more philosophical.' Experience is the foundation, Induction is the first, and a judicous application of Generals, is the second, act. And if these generals are well formed in the first place, and well applied in the second, the poetical truth will discover itself in the effect by a proportionable operation on the sensibility of all according to its powers.
Thus Poetry stands high in the eye of Philosophy. It is founded in Abstraction which is the sublimest operation of the mind, by which its ideas are not only generalized, but corrected and improved by an act of intellect, and rendered more perfect and complete than the archetypes themselves. These are the materials with which the Imagination works, and which it moulds into forms of beauty superior to any that appear in the face of nature. And hence it is, that the Imitative Arts, derive that excellence and superiority in which they glory. As by this
1 Διό και φιλοσοφώτερον και σπουδαιότερον ποίησις ισορίας εσίν. Η μεν γαρ ποίησις μάλλον τα καθόλ.8, η δ' isogía Tà x.x3? fra sov néven. Ibid De Poet. cap. 9.
power of Abstraction the Mathematician conceives the idea of a perfect circle or a perfect sphere, which in nature has no existence; and the Moralist that of a faultless character: so from archetypes that exist in nature, the Artist derives ideas so corrected and sublimed, that they become transcendent, that is above, though not contrary to, nature.
Particulars and Individuals, with all their deformities and imperfections are, indeed, often applied by Imitation to the production of poetical effect: but, to arrive at the summit of his profession, the Artist should employ none but general ideas, with all the advantages which arrangement, disposition, and situation can give them: as did the intelligent statuary, to whose poetical genius the world has been indebted for the Venus de Medicis, or the Apollo Belvidere.
But the Imitation, by which these poetical ideas are employed in Art, according to good Taste (which is only another word for Judgment,) is of different kinds, and the just