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distinction of them is an act of RATIONAL and judicious criticism.

All Imitation is Resemblance, which differs according to the nature of the Art; and the nature of the Art, depends upon the Materials and Instrument employed. Imitation is either direct or proper, or indire&t and improper: and to discriminate its nature and ex. tent in each of the elegant Arts, as well as in the different provinces of the same, is and piece of the most refined philosophy.

In Sculpture and in Painting the Imitation, from the nature of the means and materials they employ, is direct and proper, and the resemblance between the statue or picture and what they represent, is both immediate and obvious. Words are the means or materials of Poetry: But Words, though as founds they may sometimes directly resemble sounds, are not the natural representatives of ideas, in which poetry consists; they are only their arbitrary figns, and do not, therefore, admit of any imitation so proper and direct. That part of poetry, in which the poet personates another, and employs his very words and

Speeches,

ery

- {peeches, is, so far as that personification

goes, directly imitative. But, with regard to the effects which it produces, poetical imitation is indirečt in a greater or less degree. The simplest and least indirect mode of this Imitation, is that representation of sensible objects, which is called poetical Desi ription. From this Poetry advances to a sublimer operation in the representation of mental objects, of all the passions, emotions, movements and sensations of the mind;" which it performs

- Porro ut vehementioribus animæ Affectibus originem suam debet poefis, ita in Affectibus exprimendis vim suam præcipue exerit, et Affectus concitando finem fuum optime consequitur.

Imitatione constare dicitur Poesis: quicquid humana mens cogitatione complectitur, id omne imitatur; res, loca, imagines vel naturæ vel artis, actiones, mores, affectus : et cum omni imitatione magnopere delectatur mens humana, fieri vix potest, quin illam et delectet maxime et percellat ea imitatio, quæ ei suam ipsius imaginem exhibet, omnesque eos impulsus, flexiones, perturbationes, motusque secretos exprimit, quos in se agnoscit sentitque. Commendat imprimis hanc imitationem ipfius rei subtilitas et difficultas : habet magnam admirationem, cum cernimus id effectum dari, quod omnino vix effici posle judicamus, Cæterarum rerum descriptiones accuratas elle et nature congruere, memoriæ subsidio ac veluti per medium quoddam, mens tardius intelligit : cum exprimitur Affectus ali- '

two different ways-either by representing these mental emotions as they are internally felt, and succeed each other in the mindor by' representing them as they appear in their sensible and external effe&ts: And these le; direct modes constitute poetical Expresfion. In all which mental imitations the effect is often extended and enlarged by Association of ideas; and wonderfully heightened by Sympathy, that lovely and sublime affe&ion, which gives poetry such a powerful ascendant over the heart of man.

Another mode of poetical imitation is that of Fiction, which represents facts, characters, actions, manners, and events, in feigned and

quis, rem ipsam quafi nude intuetur; ipsa per se conscia est et sui et suorum motuum, nec rem perspicit solum, sed et vel idem vel fimile quiddam statim patitur. Hinc fit, quod ea Sublimitatis species, quæ ex vehementi Affectuum impulsu eorumque imitatione oritur, apud animum humanum multo maximam vim habet: quicquid ei ex. trinsecus exhibetur, utcunque grande et magnificum, minus eum ut par est commovet, quam quod intus percipit cujus magnitudinem et impetum et vehementiam ipfe apud se persentit.

Utque Imitatio Affectuum poeseos perfectiffimum est opus, ita per eorundum Concitationem maxime ad finem fuum et efectum perducitur. Lowth Poet. Præl. xvii.

general

general story, as History does in real and particular narrative, o adding to the Fiction Representation: These more indirect Imitations constitute Epic and Dramatic poetry, into which every other species is introduced.

And to these is to be added another kind of Imitation still more indirect, which conveys the thoughts and ideas of the mind through the external objects of sense : This is Parabolical and Allufve poetry.

But, although the Imitations of Poetry be less direct and proper than those of the other arts, they surpass them greatly in their extent and operation upon the mind. Poetry, which from this superiority has appropriated the general name, is the mirrour of all Truth, by which every part of Nature, corporeal and mental, is reflected and inproved. It is Physics, Facts, Actions and History feigned at pleasure ;p and represented, by the different modes of its Imitation, in a Language raised above the common use, and - which is peculiarly appropriated to itself.:

' 'H piroyae weingus pārdov tà xafóny, od isopia ta' xat* fxasov Néya. "Eso di xatórz piv, tw wow rà sem átta συμβαίνει λέγειν, ή πράττειν κατα το εικός, ή το αναγκαίον, { sexá Tai s goá G45, váu.To Emir.StuÉ: * Tà xay isov, tí 'Axxiboa dns én pagev, ñ tí én adev. Arift. Poet. c.9.

At poesis parabolica, inter reliquas eminet, et tanquam res facra videtur et augusta ; cum præfertim religio ipsa ejus opera plerunque utatur, et per eam commercia divinorum cum humanis exerceat.

corporeal p Cum nihil aliud fit, quam hiftoriæ imitatio ad placitum. Baconus De Augm. Sc. lib. ii. cap. 13.

And, whilst it exhibits a beautiful picture of every species of truth, it softens the labour which attends their acquisition by affording the mind that refined and elegant recreation, which the most rigid philosopher need not blush to take."

1241.4,

9 Poesis est genus doctrinæ verbis plerumque adftriétum, rebus folutum ei licentiosum. Ibid.

Ea eft omnis Poeseos indoles ut a vulgari fermonis ufus maxime abhorreat, atque verborum non folum delectu, fed et constructione proprium quoddam et exquisitius dicendi genus affectet. Lowth Poet. Præl. iv.

* Equidem præclare nobis consuluisse videtur natura, quæ cum nos ad veri cognitionem longe a nobis remotam, nec fine magnis laboribus assequendam, vehementer impelleret, hæc nobis invenit et paravit oblectamenta, ut haberet mens noftra, quo defatigata identidem confugeret; ubi conquiescere, omnemque illum languorem et molestiam deponeret. Lowth Poet. Præl. 1.

THUS

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