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phers are too fanguine, whilst their labours are entitled to our gratitude, their mistaken zeal bespeaks our pardon,) that the other Nine would furnish Axioms with almost equal case, from which men might reason fyllogiftically upon every possible question, and which they might apply in proof and elucidation of every kind of knowledge.'
He, therefore, took the Ten CATEGORies or Universal Forms from the Pythagorean School, where they had been held almost in adoration as the grand umpires of all knowledge, and prefixed them to his Organon, that they might fupply Axioms of every kind as the laws and principles of all Probable or Dialectic, as well as of Demonstrative, Reasoning. And, to complete his great design, at the end of his Analytics he added his book
Ardua est et gravis doctrina Categoriarum, magnique usus et momenti, non ad Logicam tantum, sed et Metaphyficam, omnesque Philosophiæ partes, quæ de ente univerfim, vel de partibus entis disserunt; sunt enim Catagoriæ veluti quædam familiæ, clasles et ordines entis, seu compendia rerum omnium, certa ratione difpofitarum, unde differendi ampliffima materies petitur et ipsa scientiarum objecta tanquam è locupletissimo penu depromuntur. Du Valli Synop. in Aristot. p. 58.
of Topics, where he delivers the methods in which these general Propositions are to be formed at pleasure from the Categories, enumerating and distributing them into certain heads according the five Predicables, and affigning them as the general Principles of argumentation upon every subject. To these general Principles, so easily procured, he applied his Dialectic Syllogifm, which included in his idea everyxspecies of reasoning, according to all the Moods and Figures in which, in his Analytics, he had with so much labour and ingenuity displayed the Demonstrative. · Thus by a lofty and magnanimous flight of genius, in an early period of the world, and in the infancy of science, ARISTOTLE erected a fort of Universal Reasoning; and, as its governour, enacted the laws of Disputation, according to which all its various artillery was to be levelled and discharged : And, by the superaddition of his book of SOPHISMS, he rounded the whole into a System of
3 See Aristot. Top. lib. i. cap. 9, 10.
See Ibid. lib. viii.
Logic' or rather Disputation, which stood for many ages the arbiter of all learning, and became the boast and idol of the Schools of which ancient and illustrious seminaries it still continues to rule the Discipline.
"To attempt in so early a period a methodical delineation of the vast region of human knowledge, actual and poffible; and to point out the limits of every district, was, indeed magnanimous in a high degree, and deserves our admiration, while we lament that the human powers are unequal to fo bold a fight. Dr. Redd App. to Ld. Kain's's 3d vol, of Sketches p. 330.
In the conclusion of his book of Sophistical Elenchs in which be winds up the whole Organon, which taken together must be allowed, notwithstanding its defects, to form one of the greatest monuments of human reason produced by one man, Aristotle apologizes for the errors of such an undertaking which was entirely new and unattempted by any before himself : and although the art of categorical
syllogism is better fitted for scholastic litigation, than for real improvement in knowledge, it is a venerable piece of antiquity, and a great effort of human genius. Weadmire the pyramids of Egypt, and the wall of China, though useless burdens upon the earth. We can bear the most minute description of them, and travel hundreds of leagues to see them. If any person should with sacrilegious hands destroy or deface them, his memory would bc had in abhorrence. The predicaments and predicables, the rules of syllogism, and the topics, have a like ' title to our veneration as antiquities; they are uncom'mon efforts, not of human power, but of human genius;
and they make a remarkable period in the progress of "human reason.' Ibid. p. 420.
As in exploring the depths and recesses of the earth for those treasures which are hidden under its surface, and in producing them to the use of men ; so in discovering those truths which are hidden in similar obscurity on every side, and in conveying them to their information, much depends upon the Method and Direction which we pursue. ' It was unfortunate for the Discipline of the Schools, whose main object should be the invention and communication of Truth in general, and which should train up the mind in the right Method of Science, that the TOPICAL part of the organon of Aristotle, which affects to be of more importance and extent than the Analytical, as establishing the Principles of all the parts of learning excepting the demonstrative, as enacting the Laws of all probable reasoning,' and as
* Χρήσιμος προς τα πρώτα των περί εκάςην επισήμην agxwv.-T TO GO door ñ párosa oixçãou tñs diam extixñs ésiv. εξετανική γαρ έσα, προς τας απασών των μεθόδων αρχας ödòv txh. Top. lib. i. cap. 2. See the 8th book of Topics.
guarding that reasoning from all possible error," is weak in its foundation and consequently infirm in all its parts. Here we behold the great Peripatetic falling from the strength and dignity of a philosopher displayed in his Analytics, into all the weakness and credulity of a sophist. Instead of analyzing the several subjects of enquiry as they present themselves before him, and investigating the secret causes of their truth, he rests without examination on the bare authority of others, and erects the Principles of his reasoning on their Opinions," or on what was only ANALOGOUS° to their opinions.
* See the book on Sophistical Elenchs.
» Διαλεκτικός δε συλλογισμός, ο εξ ΕΝΔΟΧΩΝ συλλογιζόμενος.-'Ένδοξα δε, τα δοκάνια πάσιν, ή τους πλείςοις, ή τους σοφούς και τέτοις, ή τοις πάσιν, ή τους πλείςοις, ή τους μάλιςα γνωρίμοις, και ενδόξοις. Τοp. lib. 1. cap. Ι.
"Έξι δε πρότασις μεν διαλεκτική, ερώτησις ένδοξος ή πάσιν, ή τους πλείςοις, ή τους σοφούς και τούτοις, ή πασιν, ή τους πλείςοις, ή τους μάλιςα γνωρίμοις, μη παράδοξος: θείη γαρ άν τις το δοκούν τους σοφούς, εαν μη εναντίον ταις των πολλών δόξαις η. Ιbid. 1:5. 1. cap. 10.
° Εισί δε προάσεις διαλεκζικαι, και τα τους ενδόξοις ΩΜΟΙΑ. Ιbid.
See the 14th chap. of the first book De Propofitionibus Sumendis.