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On comparing this with the former part of the organon and some of his other works, were it not written in the manner and language of Aristotle and authenticated by the same proofs, one could hardly believe that this book came from the pen of that deep philosopher. The general Propofitions which form the basis of a Logic which the Schools have so exclusively espoused, are, by the method which it prescribes, most fuperficially and illogically formed;' and the Syllogisms which are constructed from them, instead of advancing or even communicating truth, either conclude in falsehood, or only serve, as they have too long ferved, to protract an useless Disputation in noise and nonsense.
The Cause of this great defect in the organon of Aristotle may be traced to his blind and extravagant love of Syllogism, that favourrite child which he begot in the Analytics, and which he was resolved to enlarge in its possessions, and to qualify with every accomplishment as the Insirument of all kinds of
P See the gth and 10th books in which the method is delivered of forming dialectical propositions.
truth ; and to his ignorance, or perhaps neglect, of Induction, that sound and fundamental logic by which alone those Principles and general Propositions, which are the only support of useful Syllogism in probable Rea. soning, can be firmly and philosophically eftablithed.
He mentions Induction, indeed, in different parts of his works, and gives a just though general description of its office ;' and he acknowledges the immense importance of Principles, by which he always means general Propofitions, in the invention of truth:' but to the investigation of these Principles or general Laws, by which the maker of the world governs the world he has made, both
1 ΕΠΑΓΩΓΗ, και από τον καθέκασα επί τα καθόλα έφοδος. Τοp. lib. 1. cap. 12. See Analyt. Prior. lib. xi. Cap. 23. et Poft. lib. ii. cap. 19.
Των αρχών δε αι μεν έπαγωγή θεωρώνται, αι δε αισθέσει, αι δε έθισμα τινι, και άλλαι δε άλλως. Μετιέναι δε σειρατέον εκάσας ή σεφύκασι, και σπεδασέον όπως ορισθώσι καλώς. Μεγάλην γαρ έχεσι ροπήν προς τα επόμενα. Δοκεϊ εν πλείον ή το ήμισυ του παντός είναι η αρχή, και πολλά εμφανή γίνεσθαι δε αύτης των ζηταμένων. Ειh. Nicom, lib. i. cap. 7.
in his natural and moral dispensations, it was by no means sufficient to mention, in a general and incidental way, the only Instrument by which the latent seeds of truth of every kind, which lie scattered or dispersed through all the individuals in nature, can be collected
the philosophy of Demonstration pursued the right method of forming by Induction the Principles of probable and contingent truths, according to the nature and genius of every subject which constitute the circle of human learning, he would have taken a more honourable and successful road to the temple of knowledge; and his Logic, instead of bewildering and entangling Reason in the tramels of partial and imperfect rules, would have afforded her a fair and liberal, though more laborious, exercise, in the promotion and advancement of universal truth.
From this great imperfection of his Dia. ·lectic, as the instrument of knowledge, confirmed by the ill success of many of his own philosophical investigations for want of sound and legitimate Inductions, we may venture to conclude, if the master of the Lycæum knew their particular use and operation in forming the Principles of good reasoning, that either his time was too much employed in collecting and arranging all the learning of his age, or that his enlarged and scientific mind was too deeply immersed in mataphysical and general speculations, to cultivate a mode of reasoning which is so active and experimental, and so conversant in particular operations.
conclude • See Top. Ist book and 9th chapter.
Instead of descending to the canvass and examination of those Individuals which constitute each branch of Science, and instead of rising from them to Generals by successive and labourious steps, he pursued and dictated a more easy but a more fallacious method of raising Topics or common Axioms, as the foundation of dialectic reasoning. He applied immediately to the CATAGORIES,' those great and illustrious families possessed of all prerogative, and invested with all power to decide upon the truth and falsehood of things.' From these he drew Definitions and Propositions as from a mine unexhausted and inexhaustible; but which, being mere affumptions unfounded in the real nature and qualities of things, had their resource only in imagination and the ingenuity of invention ; which became prolific of a verbose and artificial but inefficient Logic, and productive of a pompous and formal, but useless and phlegmatic, discipline: a discipline which, instead of the advancement, has proved the obstacle and impediment, of all good learning." · The Categories are certainly universal Forms : but between them and the individual and particular cases which solicit our immediate attention, there exists a number and subordination of Generals, through every one
? Sunt Categoriæ quædam familiæ, classes, et ordines entis, seu compendia rerum omnium certa ratione disposiY 3
tärum, unde differendi ampliffima materies petitur, et ipsa scientiarum objecta tanquam e locupletissima penu depromuntur. Du Val. Synops. Doct. Peripat.
Decem Prædicamenta principia sunt et omnis Scientiæ et omnis Rationationis. Ibid.
• Ad principia scientiarum constituenda præpropere festinarunt, circa quæ omnis disputationum varietas verteretur: nescientes profectum eum, qui certa nimis propere captaverit, in dubiis finiturum : qui autem judicium tempestive cohibuerit, ad certa perventurum, Baconus De Augm. Sc. lib. v. cap. 4.