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“ and persecute you.”d For the truth of this divine aphorism,our Lord does not appeal to any of the topics and factitious propositions of Aristotle, but to a more certain and infallible rule— the Will and Example of his heavenly Father, the final and immutable criterion of all moral truth“That ye may be " the children of your Father which is in “ heaven: for he maketh his fun to rise on “ the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain “ on the just and on the unjust — that ye “ may be perfect even as your Father which “ is in heaven is perfect.” •
In the preceding pages, I have paid a just respect to the moral philosophy of the Stagyrite, and cannot help adverting in this place to its great, I had almost said, its only, defect --the imperfect and inadequate Principle on which it is founded. Had he known the
d 'Hxécute őto pognu 'Ayanyons tov wincióv 2, vai μισήσεις τον εχθρόν σα. 'Εγω δε λέγω υμίν · 'Aγαπάτε Tès ix gps's upewu, cửroyecte Tès 247@pwuéves upas, xenüs ποιείτε τις μισέντας υμάς, και προσεύχεσθε υπέρ των ¿Tenpea?ćutav upris, mai diwxóvtwy upeas. Matt. v. 43, 44.
Mndevi xanór ársi xcxã, &c. See Rom. xii, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. • Matt. v. 45, 48.
genuine foundation of moral Virtue, which nothing but Revelation could adequately difcover, the Morality of Aristotle would have exhibited a monument of that perfection, to which it is seldom the lot of mortals to attain.
But to take an exception to the whole Diale&tic from the failure of one Rule, though in a most important point, may be thought partial and unfair : let us, therefore, take a more general view of the Design and Scope of the whole, as they are proposed in the book
of Topics, and also of the Effect it has pro* duced it other parts of his works.
The general Design is given in the first sentence of the first book; and is so extensive and enlarged, as to embrace every subject of probable and contingent reasoning.'
In the second chapter, the general Scope is divided into three specific objects — Exercise, Conversation, and Philosophical Sciences. In
"Hyev weóteous tñs aspeyp.z telo.5, wé Todov çuçcîv, io' is duencóps da suarezi ceo feu epi wart's tā apstiJivt web@aucto, fu dó€ww. Aristot. Top. lib. i. cap. I.
8 'Esi on após teix zonsopeos, após TYMNAEIAN, προς τας ΕΝΤΕΥΞΕΙΣ, προς τας κατά ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΑΝ ENIETHMAE. Ariftot. Top. lib. i. cap. 2.
regard to the first object, that of Exercise, it professes to furnish à method of Difputing pro and con on every possible question. In regard to Conversation, it professes to qualify men to weigh and to examine the Opinions of many, and to refute them, if they do not appear to be well founded. And in regard to the third object, the Philosophical Sciences, which is the most important, it professes great things indeed; not only to enable men to doubt on both sides of every question, but to determine what is true and what is false with the greatest facility st 247, In additicn
to all this, it makes it the proper and pecu· liar business of Dialectic Logic, to investi
Α 'Ότι μεν ούν προς ΓΥΜΝΑΣΙΑΝ χρήσιμος, εξ αυτών καταφανές εσι' μέθοδον γαρ έχοντες, ρον σερί παντός τε προτεθέντος επιχειρείν δυνησόμεθα. Ιbid.
Προς δε τας ΕΝΤΕΥΞΕΙΣ· διότι τας των πολλών κατηριθμημένοι δόξας, εκ εκ των αλλοτρίων, αλλ' εκ των οικείων δογμάτων όμιλήσομεν προς αυτούς, μεταβιβάζοντες ό, τι αν μη καλώς φαίνωνται λέγειν ημίν. Ιbid.
* Προς δε τας καλα ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΑΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜAΣ, ότι δυνάμενοι προς αμφότερα διαπορήσαι, ράον εν εκάςοις κατοψόμεθα ταληθές τε και το ψεύδος. Ιbid.
gate and to establish the Principles of all the Sciences.'
How far, with so fair and full a promise, it has answered the sanguine hope and expectation of its inventor, facts and experience will best proves and áts utility and value will be the most infallibly ascertained by the fruits and Effects which it has produced fór fruits and inventions are the proper
sponsors and sureties for the truth of dif"ferent philosophies.'"
Of its operation and effect in the mouth of Aristotle himself either in Disputation or Conversation, which 'exist in a viva voce practice seldom committed to writing, we cannot perhaps form any clear and decisive judgment. It may, however, be here observed, once for
1 'Έτι δε προς τα ΠΡΩΤΑ ΤΩΝ σερί εκάςην επιςήμην ΑΡΧΩΝ. Τάτο ' ίδιον, ή μάλιςα οικείον της διαλεκτικής εσιν. εξετάςικη γαρ ούσα, προς τας απασων των μεθόδων APXAE édör fxes. Ibid.
* Inter signa nullum magis certum aut nobile est, quam quod ex fructibus. Fructus enim et opera inventa, pro veritate philofophiarum velut sponsores et fidejussores funt Baconi Nov. Org. lib. i. Aph. 73.
With similar success the labours of other philosophers have been attended in their application of this Logic to the Sciences; and from one and the fame cause, viz. tbat, • according to its method of enquiry, the • true Forms of things,' from which found Axioms are made, 'can never be obtained. . And the root of the evil is this, that men o draw their attention too soon and too far • from Experience and Particulars, and give • themselves up to meditations and dispụta• tions." The low progress of science and philosophy, during the many ages in which the syllogistic method was employed in the
Experience, which evinces the falsity or futility of this Logice and though it has efpoused many an error and given birth to as many more, with regard to the invention and
n Quia illo inquirendi modo, qui hucusque in usum venit, nunquam in fæculum comparebunt rerum formæ. Radix autem mali hujus, ut et omnium, ea eft ; quod homines et propere nimis et nimis longe, ab experientia et rebus particularibus, cogitationes suas divellere et abstrahere confueverunt, et suis meditationibus et argumentationibus se totos dedere. Ibid. De Aug. Sc. lib. iii. cap. 4.