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This empire is governed by States, under Ferdinand I., Charles Leopold Joseph Francois Mascellin, born the 19th of April, 10. He succeeded his father, Francois I., the 2nd of March, 1835. Residence, Vienna. The army and contingent are fixed in time of peace at 270,000 men, and twenty ships of war. Contingent 94,822 men, which form the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Corps d'Armée. .

Austria has four votes in the General Council, and contributes towards the expense of the diet the sum of 2,000 florins. The revea nues of the State amount to from 90 to 100 millions of rix dollars, a the debt is 550,000,000 rix dollars.

2. The KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA is divided as follows :

Sq. miles.

Inhabitants. 1. The Province of Brandenburght . . 723 . . 1,548,000 2. The Province of Pomerania . .

. 567 . . 870,000 3. The Province of Silesia . .

. 743 . , 2,414,000 4. The Province of Saxony . .

155 5. The Province of Westphalia

• 364} . . 1,234,000
6. The Principalities of Juliers, Clèves, and /

173} . . 1,075,000
Berg . . . :.
7. The Province of the Lower Rbine . '. 307 . . 1,100,000

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. 1,424,000

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The government is an absolute monarchy, with the exception of some provinces that have States, under William the Third, born the 3rd of August, 1770, succeeded his father, Frederick William 11., 16th of November, 1797. Residence, Berlin.

The army is composed of 120,000 men, regular troops, and 200,000 landwehr. The contingent 79,234, which forms the 4th, 5th, and 6th Corps Armée. Prussia has four votes in the General Council, and pays towards the expense of the diet 2.000 forins. The revenue of the state amounts to 50,000,000 rix dollars ; its debts are 170,000,000.

3. The Kingdom of Bavaria is divided into the eight following departments.

Sq. miles.

Inhabitants. 1. The Department of Isar .

311

590,000 2. The Department of the Upper Danube 171

540,000 3. The Department of Nezat . . . 143 .

565,000 4. The Department of Ratisbon

. 195 .

410,000 5. The Department of the Lower Danube : 197

445,000 6. The Department of the Upper Maine 186

475,000 7. The Department of the Lower Maine . 156

550,000
8. The Department of the Rhine

.
140

475,000
Total
. . . 1,499

4,030,000

The government is a constitutional monarchy, with two chambers, instituted 26th of May, 1818. The first chamber is composed of

• The rix dollar may be taken at about three shillings English. The florin may be taken at twenty pence English

+ All these provinces have their distinct Regencies, or local administrations, called Regierungs Bezirk.

princes, mediatised princes, employés of the crown, archbishops, bishops, the president of the Protestant worship, and councillors of state named by the king. The second chamber is composed of deputies elected by the landed proprietors, by the universities, by the ecclesiastical bodies, and by the towns. Louis the First, CharlesAugustus, is king. He succeeded his father, Maximilian Joseph, 13th of October, 1825, and resides at Munich. The army consists of 53,900 men. The contingent 35,600, and forms the 7th Corps ď Armée. Bavaria has four votes in the Consilium Plenum, and contributes 2,000 florins to the diet. Its revenues amount to 20,000,000 of rix dollars, its debt is 32,000,000.

4. The KINGDOM OF SAXONY, which is divided into five departments, thus :

iles, Inhabitants. 1. The Department of Meissen .. . . . 78 . . 350,000 2. The Department of Upper Lusa (Obertes sitz). 39. 200,000 3. The Department of Leipsick

250,000 4. The Department of Misnie (Erzgebirge) · 83 ..

530,000 5. The Department of Voigtlande . .

. 25 . . 105,000 Total

272

1,435,000

Government, a constitutional monarchy, based upon the ancient States, and represented, lst. By prelates, princes, counts, and lords. 2nd. By the knights. 3rd. By the deputies of eighty-five towns. Anthony the First is the king, began to reign the 5th of May, 1827, and associated to the government, as co-regent, his nephew the Duke Frederick Augustus, on the 13th of September, 1830. They reside at Dresden. The army is composed of 12,869 men. The contingent 12,000, which forms the 9th Corps ďArmée. Saxony has four votes in the General Council, and contributes 2,000 florins to the diet. Its revenue 6,000,000, its debt 21 millions of ris dollars.

5. The KingDOM OF HANOVER. Thus divided :

Sq. miles.
1. The (Landdrostei*) of Hanover . 117 .
2. The Landdrostei of Hildesheim

80
S, The Landdrostei of Lunebourg . .

204 4. The Landdrostei of Stade

122
5. The Landdrostei of Osnabruck .

105
6. The Landdrostei of Aurich
7. The Superintendency of the Mines of 9
Clausthal · · · · · ·

Total . . . 6893

Inhabitants. . 296,000

322,000
285,000
221,000
244,000
152,000
26,000

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atendency of the Minesi

1,546,000

Hanover is governed by a constitution, granted the 7th of December, 1819, divided into two chambers. William the Fourth, our gracious sovereign, is the king, and Prince Frederick Adolphus, Duke of Cam

* Landdrostei. The Landdrost is the civil governor of the district or province ; his attributes are similar to those of the French prefects. His powers are extensive, and almost unlimited in all matters of local administration.

bridge, his viceroy, residing at Hanover. The troops of the line amount to 12,940 men. The landwehr to nearly 18,000. Its contingent is 13,054 men, which forms part of the 10th Corps d'Armée. Hanover has four votes in the General Council, and contributes 2,000 florins to the diet. Its revenues amount to 3,200,000 rix dollars, its debt to 10,000,000. 6. The KingDOM OF WURTEMBERG. Thus divided :

Sq. miles. 1. The District of Neckar

. . 440,000 2. The District of the Black Forest . . . 88 . . 415,000 3. The District of the Danube

. 111 , . 370,000 4. The District of Jaxt

97

360,000 Total . . 362 1,585,000

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Wurtemberg is governed by the fundamental law of the 25th of September, 1819, and constitutionally, by two chambers. William Frederick Charles, born 27th of September, 1781, succeeded his father, Frederick, 30th of October, 1816, and resides at Stutgardt. Its peace establishment consists of 4,906 troops, its war of 16,824, contingent 13,955, which make a part of the 8th Corps d'Armée. Wurtemberg has four votes in the General Council, and pays to the diet the sum of 2,000 florins. Revenue 6,300,000 rix dollars, debt 18,000,000.

7. The Grand Duchy of BADEN. Thus divided :

Sq. miles. 1. The District of Mourg and Pfinz .

54 2. The District of Kinzing . .

49 .
3. The District of Treisam

60!
4. The District of Mer . .
5. The District of Neckar
6. The District of Mein and Tauber

26 .
Total . . . 2804

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Baden is governed by the fundamental law of the 22nd of August, 1818, and constitutionally by two chambers. Charles Leopold Frederic, born 29th August, 1799, is the Grand Duke, and succeeded his brother Louis, 30th of March, 1830, and resides at Carlsrushe. Its army 10,979 men, contingent 10,000, constituting a part of the 8th Corps d'Armée. Baden has three votes in the General Council, and pays. 2,000 florins to the diet. Revenue 6,200,000 rix dollars, debt 9,000,000. 8. The ELECTORATE OF HESSE is divided into

Sq. miles.
1. The Province of Lower Hesse . . . 94 . 295,000
2. The Province of Upper Hesse . . . . 44 . 105,000
3. The Province of Fulde

125,000
4. The Province of Hanau . .

88,000 Total

202 · 613

613,000

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Hesse is governed by the fundamental law of the 5th January, 1831, and constitutionally by one chamber, under the electoral prince, Frederic William, declared co-regent 30th September, 1831, and charged with the full direction of the government. Army 9,359 men, contingent 5,679, making a part of the 9th Corps d'Armée. Electoral Hesse has three votes in the General Council, and furnishes 2,000 forins to the diet. Revenue 300,000 rix dollars, debt nil.

9. The Grand Duchy of Hesse is thus divided :

Sq. miles.
1. The Province of Starkenbourg

. . . 54 .
2. The Province of Upper Hesse . . .
3. Rhenish Hesse

.

Inbabitants. . 258,000 . 284,000 . 178,000

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The Grand Duchy of Hesse is governed by the fundamental law of the 17th December, 1820, and constitutionally by two chambers. Louis II., born the 26th of December, 1777, is the Grand Duke, and replaced his father the 6th of April, 1830, and resides at Darmstadt.

The army 8,421 men. The contingent 6,195, forming a part of the 8th Corps d'Armée. The Grand Ducal Hesse has three votes, and contributes 1,500 florins to the diet. Revenue 3,800,000 rix dollars, debt 9,000,000 crowns.

10. The Duchies of HOLSTEIN AND LAUENBOURG, comprising

Sq. miles. Inhabitants. 1. The Duchy of Holstein . . . . 1534 . 417,000 2. The Duchy of Lauenbourg . .

16 . , 37,000

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The duchies of Holstein and Lauenbourg are governed by the ancient States. Frederick VI., born the 28th of January, 1768, suc. ceeded his father, Christian VII. (King of Denmark,) the 13th of March, 1808. He resides at Copenhagen. The army is composed of 5,400 men, the contingent 3,600 men, making part of the 10th Corps d'Armée. The duchies of Holstein and Lauenbourg have three votes in the Consilium Plenum, or General Council, and pay the diet the sum of 2,000 florins. Revenue 190,000 rix dollars, debt nil.

11. The Grand Duchy OF LUXEMBOURG, comprehending the districts of Luxembourg, Diekirch, and Neuf-Chateau, comprises a total of one hundred and eight square miles, and 298,650 inhabitants. The Grand Duchy participates in the constitution of Holland. William I., born the 24th of April, 1772, assumed the sovereignty of it the 6th of December, 1815; he resides at the Hague. The contingent is 2,556 men, making a part of the 9th Corps d'Armée. Luxembourg has three votes in the General Council, and pays 1,500 florins to the diet.

12. The Grand Duchy of SAXE-WEIMAR, EISENACH, contains

Sq. miles. Inhabitants. 1. The Duchy of Weimar..

. 46 . . 155,000 2. The Duchy of Eisenach ..

• 21. . 75,000

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This Grand Duchy is governed by the fundamental law of the 5th of May, 1816, and by on echamber. Charles Frederick, born the 2nd of February, 1783, succeeded his father, Charles Augustus, the 14th of June, 1828. His residence is at Weimar. The army 2,380 men. The contingent 2,010, making part of the 9th Corps ď'Armée. It has one vote in the General Council, and pays its quota of 400 florins to the diet. Revenue 1,000,000, debt 4,000,000 of rix dollars, without reckoning that of the domains.

13. The Grand Duchy Of Saxe COBOURG Gotha, is thus divided

Sq. miles. Inhabitants. 1. The Principality of Cobourg . . . . 16

39,000 2. The Principality of Gotha . . 24 · · 88,000 3. The Principality of Lichtenberg · · · 9 · ·

29,000 Total . . . . 49. . 156,000

This Grand Duchy is governed by a constitution, granted at Cobourg the 8th of August, 1821. Ernest, born the 2nd of January, 1784, succeeded his father the 9th of December, 1806. Residing at Cobourg. Army 2,500 men, contingent 1,366, forming part of the 9th Corps d'Armée. One vote in the General Council, without contributing to the expenses of the diet. Revenue 700,000 rix dollars, debt 1,800,000 rix dollars.

14. Duchy of Saxe ALTENBOURG is divided into two provinces, that of the West and East, making a total of twenty-three square miles, and of 109,500 inhabitants. Frederic, born the 29th of April, 1765, succeeded his father, the Duke Ernest Frederic Charles, the 22nd of September, 1780. Residing at Altenbourg. The army 2,000 men, contingent 982 men, making a part of the 9th Corps Armée. One vote in the General Council, without contributing to the diet. Revenue 460,000 rix dollars, debt 600,000 rix dollars.

15. The Duchy Of SAXE-MEININGEN-HildBOURGHAUSEN, comprising a total of forty-two square miles, and 136,000 inhabitants, governed by states, installed the 25th of August, 1829, and composed of eight knights, eight citizens, and eight peasants. Bernhard-ErichFreund, born 27th December, 1800, succeeded his father, George, the 24th of December, 1803. Residing at Meiningen. Army 1,800 men, contingent 1,150 men, forming a part of the 9th Corps d'Armée. The duke has one vote in the General Council, without contributing to the diet. Revenue 380,000 rix dollars, debt 812,000 rix dollars.

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