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they have also succeeded by these means in establishing a well-organized secret police, of which these soi-disant sovereigns are nothing but the chiefs. The Thirty-eight Sovereigns of Germany, represented at the Diet of

Frankfort, by Seventeen diplomatic Agents. President, M. Le Comte de Munch-Bellinghausen, Envoy of Austria, and Minister Plenipotentiary.

Represented by

Votes. 1 Austria . . . . . . M. Munch-Bellinghausen .. 4 2 Prussia . . . . M. le Gl. Schüber . . . 4 3 Bavaria . . . . . . M. de Mieg . . . 4 4 Saxony . . . . . . M. de Manteuffel . , 4 5 Hanover . . . . . M. de Stralenheim

4 6 Wurtemberg . . . . M. le Baron de Trott . . * 7 The Grand Duchy of Baden

. M. le Baron de Blittersdorf 8 Electoral Hesse . . . . M. Riess de Scheuerschloss : 3 9 The Grand Duchy of Hesse . . M. de Gruben . . 10 The Grand Duchy of Holstein and

"} M. le Baron de Pechlin

M. Je Lauenbourg . . . . S 11 The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg . M. le Comte de Grünne . 3 12 The Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar.) Eisenach

. . .
The Duchy of Saxe-Cobourg . . M. le Comte de Beust .
The Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen

The Duchy of Saxe-Altembourg 13 The Duchy of Brunswick .

! M. le Comte de Stralenheim

- 4 The Duchy of Nassau 14 The Grand Duchy of Mecklenbourg) Shwerin

W :
The Grand Duchy of Mecklenbourg

M. de Schalk . . . 3 Strelitz . . 15 The Grand Duchy of Oldenbourg )

T'he Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau . .
The Duchy of Anhalt-Coethen .
The Principalities of Schwarzbourg- M. de Both . . . 6

The Principality of Swarzbourg-Rudol-

stadt . .
16 Principality of Hohenzollern-Hechingen

of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
of Lichtenstein .
of Reuss (elder branch) .
of Reuss (younger branch). } M. le Baron de Leonhardi : 9
of Lippe
of Schaumburg

of Waldeck
The Landgraviat of Hesse-Hombourg
17 The Free Cities of Frankfort . :)

M. Smidt, Bourgemetre of Bremen 4

Total : 69

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The number of Envoys of the Germanic Confederation is composed of seventeen persons, of whom sixteen are noble and one plebeian, the latter a burgess representing the four free towns under a republican form of government.

The Military Commission is composed of Austria, represented by M. de Walden, President and Major General .

. Perpetual PRUSSIA, represented by M. de Wolzogen, Lieut.-General Members. BAVARIA,

M. de Voldersdorf, Lt.-Gen. of Staff.)

The 8th, 9th, and 10th Corps ďArmée, are represented by members who are changed every year on the 19th of March.

The thirty-eight German States employ, for Germany alone, the following personnel among the upper officials, with exorbitant allowances.




The Personnel of the Crown, and the upper officials of the Court,

are composed of .
The Personnel of the Ministers, without counting the Secretaries.

General (France has but 9, England 13) .
Ambassadors, without comprehending a part of those who are at

Frankfort .
Counsellors a
Counsellors of Legation, and first Secretaries : : :


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Are not these poor Germans to be pitied, condemned to labour like slaves to nourish this body of almost totally useless idlers, who show activity only in favour of violence, oppression, and arbitrary power? As a proof of which, we subjoin the following.

La Hesse Electorale, in consequence of the events of 1830, governed by a reformed constitution, possesses in its legislative assembly a few men of firmness and talent. This assembly, in 1834, refused the government some of the items demanded in the budget. Long and violent debates ensued. The inconvenience occasioned by the refusal of the sums demanded, and the boldness of such conduct, although perfectly constitutional, became the subject of a complaint to “ la serenesme diéte," which immediately assembled, and passed the following decree. Count Munch Bellinghausen, as president, pronounced a long discourse, in which he explained the necessity of the measures adopted by the diet, to prevent, for the future, the federal constitutional assemblies of Germany making an improper use of the liberty accorded them; and the ambassadors without exception, convinced of this necessity, immediately signed the following Act(Schiedsgericht.)

Court of Arbitration. Art. I.-In case of any dispute happening in any state of the confederation, between the government and the states, either with regard

to the explanation of the constitution or the powers granted to the state in the execution of certain rights of sovereignty, namely, in consequence of the refusal of the necessary means to govern conformably to the constitution and the federal obligations; and all the means of conciliation offered by the laws and the constitution having been employed without effect, the members of the Germanic confederation engage themselves reciprocally in that quality to cause such differences to be decided by arbitrators, in the manner indicated in the following article, before requiring the intervention of the confederation.

Art. II.—To form a court of arbitration, each of the seventeen votes of the ordinary assembly of the diet shall nominate every three years in the states which they represent, two men, distinguished by their character, reputation, and opinions, and who, by many years service, have given proofs of their capacity and knowledge of business, one in the legal and the other in the administrative department. The government shall communicate this nomination to the diet, which shall publish it as soon as the seventeen votes shall be assembled ; the government also shall fill up the said tribunal during the period of three years, in case one of the members should leave it voluntarily or a vacancy should occur by sickness or death before the expiration of the period for which he is nominated.

Art. III.When in the case designed by the first article it becomes necessary to have recourse to arbitration, the government interested shall inform the diet, and from among the thirty-seven persons named in the list and published in due form, six arbitrators shall be chosen, three by the government and three by the state: the arbitrators chosen by the government interested shall be excluded in the election as judges in the case in dispute, unless both parties agree to admit them; the two parties have the power of fixing the number of arbitrators at two or four, and even to increase them to eight. The arbitrators chosen shall be declared to the diet by the government interested. In case of having recourse to the court of arbitration, if the arbitrators are not chosen within one month after the government shall have communicated the list of arbitrators to the states, the diet shall have the right to choose the arbitrators in the place of the parties neglecting to do so.

Art. IV.-The arbitrators shall be informed of their election by the diet by the means of their government, they shall be requested to elect from among the arbitrators a chief arbitrator ; in case of the votes being equal the diet shall name the chief arbitrator.

Art. V.—The acts sent to the diet by the government interested, and in which the question in dispute must be stated, either by reci. procal memorials or in any other manner, shall be sent to the chief arbitrator, who shall charge with the compiling, narrating, and digesting, two arbitrators, one of whom shall be taken from among those chosen by the government, and the other from among those chosen by the states.

Art. VI.-The arbitrators, the chief arbitrator inclusive, shall immediately assemble in a place fixed upon by the two parties, or the diet, in case the parties cannot agree, and shall decide by the majority of votes the question in dispute, according to their conscience and conviction.

Art. VII.-If the arbitrators before pronouncing sentence find it necessary to have more ample information, they shall acquaint the diet of their desire, who shall cause the said information to be procured by the minister of the government interested.

Art. VIII._Unless the case mentioned in the preceding article should occasion an inevitable delay, sentence must be pronounced within four months from the date of the nomination of the chief arbitrator, and sent to the diet to be communicated to the government interested.

Art. IX.—The sentence of arbitration shall have the same force and effect as a decision austregale, and the order of execution established by the laws of the confederation shall be resorted to on the occasion. In disputes relating particularly to the budget, the arbitration shall extend to the duration for which the taxes have been granted by the budget in question.

Art. X.-If any disagreement should arise concerning the expenses of the court of arbitration, and which must be supported by the state interested, they shall be levied by an order of the diet.

Art. XI.-A similar employment of the court of arbitration in all questions designated from the first to the tenth article shall be resorted to, to settle all disputes which may arise in the towns between the senate and the municipal authorities. This article not to alter, in any respect, the constitution of the free town of Frankfort, as detailed in the forty-sixth article of the congress of Vienna.*

Art. XII.—The members of the confederation having the right to decide by the court of arbitration any differences arising among themselves, in such case the diet, after the declaration made by the parties, shall take the necessary measures to enforce the execution of the arbitration, conformably to the articles from three to ten.

Here follow the seventeen signatures, which are those of the ambassadors mentioned in the table.

The protocol of the diet of the 12th March, 1835, makes the nominations indicated in the subjoined table..

List of Arbitrary Judges appointed for 1835, 1836, 1837, named by

the Consilium Restrictum, in Virtue of the Decree of the Diet of the 30th of October, 1834.

Members of the Diet, represented
by Seventeen Votes in the Con- Names of the arbitrating Judges.

Residence. silium Restrictum.

5 Baron de Hess . . Prague. 1 Austria · · } Count de Ugarte . . . Brunne.

5 Count de Hardenberg . . 2 Russia

M. Stelzer . ..

5 Baron de Sutner . .
3 Bavaria

. Munich, . . :3 Baron de Korb . . . Amberg.

M. Schumann 4 Saxony . .

· Baron de Nostiz ei Jänkendorf Dresden. * This article refers to the independence of the confederate states in case of war. Oct. 1835.-VOL. XIV.NO. LIV.

Members of the Diet, represented

by Seventeen Votes in the Con- Names of the arbitrating Judges. Residence.
silium Restrictum.
5 M. Meyer,

Lunebourg, 5 Hanover

innsegge · · · Count de Kielmannsegge

. Celle
Baron de Hartmann · Stuttgard.
6 Wurtemberg .

Baron de Schmidlin
M. Thibaut

7 Baden .
Baron de Theobald

. Carlsruhe. s Baron de Hanstein · Cassel. 8 Electoral Hesse

M. Bickell . . S

Baron de Kopp .. . Darmstadt. 9 Grand Duchy of Hesse ; M. Linde .

. Giessan.

Saxe Coburg Gotha :

10 Denmark on account of 2 p.

Baron Gattsche de Leweltzau. Ratzebourg.
Holstein and Lauen-

. M. Ingwer Carsten Lewsen . Gluetrstadt.
burg . . . )

5 M. Stifft 11 Luxembourg

Luxembourg. : : M. München . . 12 Saxe Weimar Gotha · L M. Riedesel de Eisenbach

Neuf hof. Eisen.
Saxe Meiningen Hild.”

1. Lotz

. .

. Coburg. Saxe Altenburgh . 13 Brunswick and Nas. Baron de Amsberg . . Brunswick.

sau . . .l Baron de Winzingerode . Usingen. 14 Meklembourg Schwerin Baron de Oertzen . . . Parehim.

Meklembourg Strelitz M. Bouchholtz . . . Schwerin. 15 Oldenbourg . .

Anhalt Dessau . .
Anhalt Bernbourg .
Anhalt Coetben

M. Luden . . . . Oldenbourg.
Schwarzbourg Sonder M. Albert . . . Bernbourgh.

shausen . Schwarzbourg Rudol.

stadt 16 Hohenzollern Hechin

gen . .
Hohenzollern Sigma-
ringen . .

Baron de Strauch . . Gera,
Lichtenstein . ..

Baron de Strombeck . . Wolfenbuttel.
Reus (elder & younger

branch) :

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Schaumbourg Lippe.

Lippe and Waldeck . 17 Free City of Lubeck .

Free City of Francfort ( M. Horn
Free City of Bremen . M. Monckeberg
Free City of Hamburgh)

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It is worthy of observation that all the persons called upon to execute the office of arbitration judges have been nominated by the diet, and all occupy high official situations, dependant upon one or the other of the governments.

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