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like silver clouds', against the darker firmament', and all the outlines of the mountain'. . would be softened', yet delicately defined'. My delight', however', would be to lean over the parapet of the Tocador', and gaze down upon Granada'," spread out like a map below me': all buried in deep repose', and its white palaces and convents sleeping', as it were', in the moon. shine'.
Sometimes I would hear the faint sounds of castanets from some party of dancers' .. lingering in the Alameda'; at other times', I have heard the dubious tones of a guitar', and the notes of a single voice'. . rising from some solitary street', and have pictured to myself some youthful cavalier', serenading his lady's window'; a gallant custom of former days', but now sadly on the decline', except in the remote towns and villages of Spain'.
Such are the scenes that have detained me for many an hour', loitering about the courts and balconies of the castle', enjoying that mixture of reverie and sensation which steal away existencec in a southern climate'—and it has been almost morning before I have retired to my bed', and been lulled to sleep by the falling waters of the fountain of Lindaraxa'.
SECTION II. Reflections on the Moslem Domination in Spain.—Ib. ONE of my favourited resorts is the balcony of the central window of the Hall of Ambassadors', in the lofty tower of Comares'.* I have just been seated there', enjoying the close of a long', brilliant day'. The sun', as he sunk behind the purple mountains of Alhama', sent a stream of effulgence up the valley of the Darro', that spread a melancholy pomp over the ruddy towers of the Alhambra', while the Vega', covered with a slight', sultry vapour that caught the setting ray', seem. ed spread out in the distance like a golden sea'. Not a breath of air disturbed the stillness of the hour'; and though the faint sound of musick and merriments now and then arose from the gardens of the Darro', it but rendered more impressive the monumental silence of the pile which overshadowed me'. It
Gran'd-da. Miks'tshůre-not, tshůr. cEg.zist'ense-not, unse. a Fa'vůr'it. Dis'tånse—not, dis'tunse. Stil'nès-not, nis. Mèr'ré 'ment
* One of the towers belonging to the Alhambra, the splendid fortified palace of the Moorish princes that formerly reigned in Granada.
was one of those hours and scenes in which memory asserts an almost magical power', and', like the evening sun'.. beaming on these mouldering towers', sends back her retrospective rays to light up the glories of the past'.
As I sat watching the effect of the declining daylight upon this Moorish pile', I was led into a consideration of the light', elegant',, and voluptuous character prevalent throughout its internal architecture', and to contrast it with the grand', but gloomy', solemnity of the Gothick edifices', reared by the Span. ish conquerors.' The very architectureb thus bespeaks the opposite and irreconcilable natures of the two warlike people who so long battled here for the mastery of the Peninsula.' By degrees', I fell into a course of musing upon the singular fea. tures of the Arabian or Morisco Spaniards', whose whole exist. ence is as a tale that is told', and certainly forms one of the most anomalous', yet splendid', episodes in history'. Potent and durable as was their dominion', we have no one distinct title by which to designate them'. They were a nation', as it were', without a legitimate country or a name'. A remote wave of the great Arabian inundation', cast upon the shores of Europe', they seemed to have all the impetus of the first rush of the torrent'. Their course of conquest from the rock of Gibraltar to the cliffs of the Pyrenees', was as rapid and bril. liant as the Moslem victories of Syria and Egypt'. Nay', had they not been checked on the plains of Tours', all France', all Europe', might have been overrun with the same facility as the empires of the east'; and the crescent might', at this day', have glittered on the fanes of Paris and of London'.
Repelled within the limits of the Pyrenees', the mixed hordes of Asia and Africa that formed this great irruption', gave up • the Moslem principles of conquest', and sought to establish' in
Spain a peaceful and permanent dominion'. As conquerors', their heroism was only equalled by their moderation'; and in both', for a time', they excelled the nations with whom they contended'. Severed from their native homes', they loved the land given them', as they supposed', by Allah', and strove to embellish it with every thing that could administer to the happi. ness of man'. Laying the foundations of their power in a systems of wise and equitable laws', diligently cultivating the arts and sciences', and promoting agriculture', manufactures', and commerce', they gradually formed an empire'. . unrivalled
El'd-gånt-not, gunt. bAr'ké 'ték-tshůre-not, tshúr. Nå'tshårzenot, tshůrz. dpd'tent-not, tunt. Wér. E-stab'lish-not, és-táb'lish. Sis'tem-not, tum. bAgʻré 'kůl-tshure.
for its prosperity', by any of the empires of Christendom'; and diligently drawing round them the graces and refinements that marked the Arabian empire in the east at the time of its greatest civilization', they diffused the light of oriental knowledge through the western regions of benighted Europe'.
The cities of Arabian Spain became the resort of Christian artisans', in which to instruct themselves in the useful arts'.
The universities of Toledo', Cordova', Seville', and Granada', were sought by the pale student from other lands', to acquaint himself with the sciences of the Arabs', and the treasured lore of antiquity'; the lovers of the gay sciences', resorted to Cor. dova and Granada', to imbibe the poetry and musick of the east'; and the steel-clad warriors of the north'. . hastened thither to accomplish themselves in the graceful exercises and courteous usages of chivalry'."
If the Moslem monuments in Spain';—if the Mosque of Cor. dova', the Alcazar of Seville', and the Alhambra of Granada', still bear inscriptions fondly boasting of the power and perma. nency of their dominion', can the boast be derided as arrogant and vain'? Generation after generation', century after century had passed away', and still they maintained possession of the land'. A period had elapsed'.. lenger than that which has passed since England was subjugated by the Norman conquer. ors'; and the descendants of Musa and Tarik might as little anticipate being driven into exile across the same straits'.. traversed by their triumphant ancestors', as the descendants of Rollo and William', and their victorious peers', may dream of being driven back to the shores of Normandy'.
With all this', however', the Moslem empire in Spain'. . was but a brilliant exotick that took no permanent root in the soil it embellished'. Secured from all their neighbours of the west by impassable barriers of faith and manners', and separated by seas and deserts from their kindred of the east', they were an isolated people'. Their whole existence was a prolonged', though gallant and chivalrick struggle fore a foot-hold in a usurped land'. They were the outposts and frontiers of Islamism'. The peninsula was the great battle-ground where the Gothick conquerors of the north', and the Moslem conquerors of the east', met and strove fore mastery'; and the fiery courage of the Arab'. . was at length subdued by the obstinate and perse. vering valour of the Goth'.
Never was the annihilation ofd a people more complete than
Stu'dènt-not, dunt. Tshiv'al-re-not, shio'al-re. From-not, frum. dôv-not, uv, nor, of. Fòr-not, fur, nor, fr.
that of the Morisco Spaniards'. Where are they'? Ask the shores of a Barbary and its desert places'. The exiled remnant of a their once powerful empire', disappeared among the barbarians of Africa', and ceased to be a nation'. They have not even left a distinct name'. . behind them', though for nearly eight centuries they were a distinct people'. The home of their adoption and of their occupation for ages', refuses to acknowledge them but as invaders and usurpers'. A few broken monuments'. . are all that remain to bear witness to their power and dominion', as solitary rocks left far in the interiour', bear testimony to the extent of some vast inundation'. Such is the Alhambra':-a Moslem pile in the midst of a a Christian land';an oriental palace'. . amidst the Gothick edifices of a the west';an elegant memento ofa a brave', intelligent', and graceful people', who conquered', ruled', and passed away'.
Extract-from Bliss' Talisman, of 1828. WHEN one has nothing which is actually new or interesting to say upon a subject', it is a question which very naturally suggests itself to the reader', why he writes about it at alli? I', therefore', suppose this question directed to myself'; and reply', with perfect honesty', that', in making such remarks as occur to me on the subject of chirography', I am fulfilling a promise', and also writing a prefaced to a story which I have to telli.
I have had reasons for meditating much on the mystery of hand-writings', though my reflections have resulted in no new discoveries'; and I have neither solved any of the paradoxes', nor come to a definite conclusion on any of the doubtful points with which the subject is pregnant. The first difficulty which was suggested to my mind about it', occurred in early child. hood'. I could not discover how the rapping of me over the knuckles with a long', round', lignum-vitæ ruler', until those articulations were discoloured and lame', was to assist me in using my fingers with ease and grace', in copying the pithy scraps of morality which were set before me': _My master', however', seemed to think it was good for me'. The poor man
Ov-not, uv, nor, of. Fôr-not, fur, nor, fr. «Såg-jésť. Pref'fås. Wer.
took a world of pains', and gave me a great many', to very little purpose'.
I certainly never became a proficient in calligraphy'. I have', however', in the course of my life', been consoled for my own imperfections on this score', by observing scholars', statesmen';; and gentlemen at large', who passed very well in the world', and obtained professorships', outfits', and salaries', and the entrée into polite society', whose signs manual wereb hieroglyph. icks', which Champollion himself would give up in despair'. Their whole manipulation', (as the learned" would say',) with pen', ink', and paper', produced a result so utterly undecipherable', that', instead of its painting thought', and speaking to the eyes',' if their secretaries or correspondents had not known what they wanted to say', or to have said for them', the persons interested in their despatches', might as well have been in the innocent situation of John Lump and Looney Mactwalter', when they had mixed the billy-duxes'.'
I have known lawyers and doctors whose autographick outpourings the solicitor and apothecary alone understood by professional instinct': and yet', the bills in chancery of the former', fairly engrossed', produced suits that are not yet decided'; and the prescriptions of the latter', found their way into the patient's system', and caused a great effect'.
There is one thing', however', on which I have made up my mind decidedly'; which is', that one who writes so detestable a hand that he cannot read it himself', acts in an improper man. ner', and abuses the gift which Cadmus was good enough to introduce into Europe'.
The character of my own writing seems somewhat amended since time has laid his frosty hand upon my head', and cramped the joints of my fingers'. It is less capricious in the variety of directions in which the letters run', and less luxuriant in gratuitous additions to their tops and bottoms', and natural terminations'. They look more like a platoon of regular troops', and less like a militia training'; more like an arrangement produced by the agency of human intellect', and less like the irregular scratches made by the brute creation in the surface of the soil': so that I get along without any material difficulty', and have', indeed', been sometimes complimented on the elegance of my writing'.
That the intellectual and moral character of a person may be ascertained from his hand-writing', is a theorye which many
States'mên-not, mun. Wêr cĻérn'éd. Sis'tem-not, sis'tum. e Thé'd-re-not, thé'er-e.