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" Whosoever repeats it in the morning or evening or “ during the night, while meditating on the Supreme

Being, being freed from all past sins, shall not be “inclined to act unrighteously. The worshipper shall "first pronounce Om, then the three Vyahritis, and S afterwards the Gayutree of three lines, and shall 66 finish it with the term Om. We meditate on him 66 from whom proceed the continuance, perishing, and

production of all things; who spreads over the three “ mansions; that eternal Spirit, who inwardly rules the 6 sun and all living creatures; most desirable and all“pervading; and who, residing in intellect, directs the “operations of the intellectual power of all of us mate“ rial beings. The worshipper, by repeating every day “ these three texts expressing the above meaning, “ attains all desirable objects, without any other reli

gious observance or austerity. One only without a " second' is the doctrine maintained by all the Oopuni“ shuds: that imperishable and incomprehensible Being 6 is understood by these three texts. Whoever repeats “ them once, or ten, or a hundred times, either alone or “ with many others, attains bliss in a proportionate

degree. After he has completed the repetition, he “shall again meditate on Him who is one only without

a second, and all-pervading: thereby all religious “ observances, though not performed, shall have been

virtually performed. Any one, whether a house6 holder or not, whether a Brahmun or not, all have “ equal right to the use of these texts as found in the 66 Tuntru.”

Here Om, in the first instance, signifies that Supreme Being who is the sole cause of the continuance, perish

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iny, and production of all worlds. " He from whom “ these creatures are produced, by whom those that are

produced exist, and to whom after death they return, “ is the Supreme Being, whom thou dost seek to know."

-The text of the Ved quoted by the revered Shunkur Acharyu in the Commentary on the first text of the Vedant Durshun.

The doubt whether or not that cause signified by « Om” exists separately from these effects, having arisen, the second text, Bhoor Bhoovuh Swuh, is next read, explaining that God, the sole cause, eternally exists pervading the universe, “Glorious, invisible, ,

perfect, unbegotten, pervading all, internally and

externally is He the Supreme spirit.Moonduk Oopunishud.

It being still doubted whether or not living creatures large and small in the world act independently of that sole cause, the Gayutree, as the third in order, is read. “ Tut Suvitoor vurenyum, Bhurgo devusyu dheemuhi,

dhiyo yo nuh pruchoduyat.” We meditate on that indescribable spirit inwardly ruling the splendid Sun, the express object of worship. He does not only inwardly rule the sun, but he, the spirit, residing in and inwardly ruling all us material beings, directs mental operations towards their objects. “He who inwardly " rules the sun is the same immortal spirit who inwardly “ rules thee." (Chhandoggu Oopunishud.)—“God resides 66 in the heart of all creatures.'-Bhuguvudgeeta.

The object signified by the three texts being one, their repetition collectively is enjoined. The following is their meaning in brief.

“ We meditate on the cause of all, pervading all, and “ internally ruling all material objects, from the sun “ down to us and others.”

[The following is a literal translation of the Gayutree according to the English idiom: “We meditate on “ that Supreme Spirit of the splendid sun who directs

our understandings.”

The passage, however, may be rendered somewhat differently by transferring the demonstrative “that” from the words “Supreme Spirit” to the words “ splendid sun.” But this does not appear fully to correspond with the above interpretation of Yajnuvulkyu.]

While translating this essay on the Gayutree, I deemed it proper to refer to the meaning of the text as given by Sir William Jones; whose talents, acquisitions, virtuous life, and impartial research, have rendered his

memory an object of love and veneration to all. I feel so much delighted by the excellence of the translation, or rather the paraphrase given by that illustrious character, that with a view to connect his name and his explanation of the passage with this humble treatise, I take the liberty of quoting it here.

The interpretation in question is as follows:

THE GAYATRI, OR HOLIEST VERSE OF THE VEDAS."

“Let us adore the supremacy of that divine sun, * “the godheadt who illuminates all, who recreates all,

Opposed to the visible luminary. # Bhargas, a word consisting of three consonants, derived from bhá, to shine; ram, to delight; gam, to move.

“ from whom all proceed, to whom all must return, “ whom we invoke to direct our understandings aright “ in our progress toward his holy seat.

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“ What the sun and light are to this visible world, " that are the Supreme good and truth to the intel“ lectual and invisible universe; and, as our corporeal “ eyes have a distinct perception of objects enlightened

by the sun, thus our souls acquire certain knowledge,

by meditating on the light of truth, which emanates “ from the Being of beings: that is the light by which “ alone our minds can be directed in the path to bea“ titude.”

A DEFENCE

OF

HINDOO THEISM,

IN REPLY TO THE

ATTACK OF AN ADVOCATE FOR IDOLATRY

AT MADRAS.

CALCUTTA :

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