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4. United States Scholarship Program for Developing
Countries Authorization, Fiscal Years 1986 and 1987

Partial text of Public Law 99-93 (H.R. 2068), 99 Stat. 406 at 439, approved

August 16, 1985; amended by Public Law 103–199 (FRIENDSHIP Act, H.R. 3000), 107 Stat. 2317, approved December 17, 1993; Public Law 103–236 (Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1998; HR. 2333), 108 Stat. 382, approved April 30, 1994

NOTE.-Sections in this Act amend other State Department and foreign relations legislation and are incorporated elsewhere in this compilation.

AN ACT To authorize appropriations for fiscal years 1986 and 1987 for the Depart

ment of State, the United States Information Agency, the Board for International Broadcasting, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,



The purpose of this title is to establish an undergraduate scholarship program designed to bring students of limited financial means from developing countries to the United States for study at United States institutions of higher education. SEC. 602.9 FINDINGS AND DECLARATIONS OF POLICY. The Congress finds and declares that

(1) it is in the national interest for the United States Government to provide a stable source of financial support to give students in developing countries the opportunity to study in the United States, in order to improve the range and quality of educational alternatives, increase mutual understanding, and build lasting links between those countries and the United States;

(2) providing scholarships to foreign students to study in the United States has proven over time to be an effective means of creating strong bonds between the United States and the future leadership of developing countries and, at the same time, assists countries substantially in their development efforts;

122 U.S.C. 4701. 222 U.S.C. 4702.

(3) study in United States institutions by foreign students enhances trade and economic relationships by providing strong English language skills and establishing professional and business contacts;

(4) students from families of limited financial means have, in the past, largely not had the opportunity to study in the United States, and scholarship programs sponsored by the United States have made no provision for identifying preparing, or supporting such students for study in the United States;

(5) it is essential that the United States citizenry develop its knowledge and understanding of the developing countries and their languages, cultures, and socioeconomic composition as these areas assume an ever larger role in the world community;

(6)3 an undergraduate scholarship program for students of limited financial means from developing countries to study in the United States would complement current assistance efforts in the areas of advanced education and training of people of developing countries in such disciplines as are required for planning and implementation of public and private development activities;

(7)3 the National Bipartisan Commission on Central Amer. ica has recommended a program of 10,000 United States Gov. ernment-sponsored scholarships to bring Central American students to the United States, which program would involve careful targeting to encourage participation by young people from all social and economic classes, would maintain existing admission standards by providing intensive English and other training, and would encourage graduates to return to their home countries after completing their education, and

(8)3 it is also in the interest of the United States, as well as peaceful cooperation in the Western Hemisphere, that particu

lar attention be given to the students of the Caribbean region. SEC. 603. SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM AUTHORITY.

(a) IN GENERAL.—The President, acting through the United States Information Agency, shall provide scholarships (including partial assistance) for undergraduate study at United States institutions of higher education by citizens and nationals of developing countries who have completed their secondary education and who would not otherwise have an opportunity to study in the United States due to financial limitations.

(b) FORM OF SCHOLARSHIP; FORGIVENESS OF LOAN REPAYMENT.To encourage students to use their training in their countries of origin each scholarship pursuant to this section shall be in the form

3 Sec. 305 of the FRIENDSHIP Act (Public Law 103–199; 107 Stat 2324) struck out paras. (6) and (7), and redesignated paras. (8) through (10) as (6) through (8). Former paras. (6) and (7) provided as follows:

(6) the number of United States Government-sponsored scholarships for students in develop ing countries has been excecdcd as much as twelve times in a given year by the number of scholarships offered by Soviet-bloc governments to students in developing countries, and this disparity entails the serious long-run cost of having so many of the potential future leaders of the developing world educated in Soviet-bloc countries;

"(7) from 1972 through 1982 the Soviet Union and Eastern European governments collectively increased their education exchange programs to Latin America and the Caribbean by 205 percent while those of the United Slates declined by 52 percent;".

*22 U.S. 4703.

of a loan with all repayment to be forgiven upon the student's prompt return to his or her country or origin for a period which is at least one year longer than the period spent studying in the United States. If the student is granted asylum in the United States pursuant to section 208 of the Immigration and Nationality Act or is admitted to the United States as a refugee pursuant to section 207 of that Act, half of the repayment shall be forgiven.

(c) CONSULTATION.-Before allocation any of the funds made available to carry out this title, the President shall consult with United States institutions of higher education, educational exchange organizations, United States missions in developing countries, and the governments of participating countries on how to implement the guidelines specified in section 604.

(d) DEFINITION.–For purposes of this title, the term “institution of higher education" has the same meaning as given to such term by section 1201(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965. SEC. 604. GUIDELINES.

The scholarship program under this title shall be carried out in accordance with the following guidelines:

(1) Consistent with section 112(b) of the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2460(b)), all programs created pursuant to this title shall be nonpolitical and balanced, and shall be administered in keeping with the highest standards of academic integrity.

(2) United States missions shall design ways to identify promising students who are in secondary educational institutions, or who have completed their secondary education, for study in the United States. In carrying out this paragraph, the United States mission in a country shall consult with Peace Corps volunteers and staff assigned to that country and with private and voluntary organizations with a proven record of providing development assistance to developing countries.

(3) United States missions shall develop and strictly implement specific economic need criteria. Scholarships under this title may only be provided to students who meet the economic need criteria.

(4) The program shall utilize educational institutions in the United States and in developing countries to help participants in the programs acquire necessary skills in English and other appropriate education training.

(5) Each participant from a developing country shall be selected on the basis of academic and leadership potential and the economic, political, and social development needs of such country. Such needs shall be determined by each United States mission in consultation with the government of the respective country. Scholarship opportunities shall emphasize fields that are critical to the development of the participant's country, including agriculture, civil engineering, communications, social science, education, public and business administration, health, nutrition, environmental studies, population and family planning, and energy.

622 U.S.C. 4704.

(6) The program shall be flexible in order to take advantage of different training and educational opportunities offered by universities, postsecondary vocational training schools, and community colleges in the United States.

(7) The program shall be flexible with respect to the number of years of undergraduate education financed but in no case shall students be brought to the United States for a period less than one year.

(8) Adequate allowance shall be made in the scholarship for the purchase of books and related educational material relevant to the program of study.

(9) Further allowance shall be made to provide adequate opportunities for professional, academic, and cultural enrichment for scholarship recipients.

(10) The program shall, to the maximum extent practicable, offer equal opportunities for both male and female students to study in the United States.

(11) The United States Information Agency shall recommend to each student, who receives a scholarship under this title for study at a college or university, that the student enroll in a course on the classics of American political thought or which otherwise emphasizes the ideas, principles, and documents

upon which the United States was founded. SEC. 605. AUTHORITY TO ENTER INTO AGREEMENTS.

The President may enter into agreements with foreign governments in furtherance of the purposes of this title. Such agreements may provide for the creation or continuation of binational or multinational educational and cultural foundations and commissions for the purposes of administering programs under this title. SEC. 606.6 POLICY REGARDING OTHER INTERNATIONAL EDU.

CATIONAL PROGRAMS. (a) AID-FUNDED PROGRAMS.—The Congress urges the administrator of the agency primarily responsible for administering part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, in implementing programs authorized under that part, to increase assistance for undergraduate scholarships for students of limited financial means from developing countries to study in the United States at United States institutions of higher education. To the maximum extent practicable, such scholarship assistance shall be furnished in accordance with the guidelines contained in section 604 of this title.

(b) USIA-FUNDED POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN THE UNITED STATES.—The Congress urges the Director of the United States Information Agency to expand opportunities for students of limited financial means from developing countries to receive financial assistance for postgraduate study at United States institutions of higher education.

(c) STUDY BY AMERICANS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.—The Congress urges the President to take such steps as are necessary to expand the opportunities for Americans from all economic classes to study in developing countries.

822 U.S.C. 4706.


SERVICES. (a) COUNSELING SERVICES ABROAD. For the purpose of assisting foreign students in choosing fields of study, selecting appropriate institutions of higher education, and preparing for their stay in the United States, the President may make suitable arrangements for counseling and orientation services abroad.

(b) COUNSELING SERVICES IN THE UNITED STATES.-For the purposes of assisting foreign students in making the best use of their opportunities while attending United States institutions of higher education, and assisting such students in directing their talents and initiative into channels which will make them more effective leaders upon return to their native lands, the President may make suitable arrangements (by contract or otherwise) for the establishment and maintenance of adequate counseling services at United States institutions of higher education which are attended by foreign students. SEC. 608. BOARD OF FOREIGN SCHOLARSHIPS.

The Board of Foreign Scholarships shall advise and assist the President in the discharge of the scholarship program carried out pursuant to this title, in accordance with the guidelines set forth in section 604. The President may provide for such additional secretarial and staff assistance for the board as may by required to carry out this title. SEC. 609. GENERAL AUTHORITIES.

(a) PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR CONTRIBUTIONS.—The public and private sectors in the United States and in the developing countries shall be encouraged to contribute to the costs of the scholarship program financed under this title.

(b) UTILIZATION OF RETURNING PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS.—The President shall seek to engage the public and private sectors of developing countries in programs to maximize the utilization of recipients of scholarships under this title upon their return to their own countries.

(c) PROMOTION ABROAD OF SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM.—The President may provide for publicity and promotion abroad of the scholarship program provided for in this title.

(d) INCREASING UNITED STATES UNDERSTANDING OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.—The President shall encourage United States institutions of higher education, which are attended by students from developing countries who receive scholarships under this title, to provide opportunities for United States citizens attending those insti. tutions to develop their knowledge and understanding of the developing countries, and the languages and cultures of those countries, represented by those foreign students.

(e) OTHER ACTIVITIES TO PROMOTE IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING.– Funds allocated by the United States Information Agency, or the agency primarily responsible for carrying out part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, for scholarships in accordance with this title shall be available to enhance the educational training and ca

722 U.S.C. 4707. 822 U.S.C. 4708.

22 U.S.C. 4709.

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