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er there is specific equipment or excess capacity inconsistent with their stated purpose;
(vi) helped identify ways to promote cooperation and investment in the conversion of biological weapons facilities; and
(vii) agreed to exchanges of scientists at biological
facilities on a long-term basis.
(A) An evaluation of United States capabilities to detect and monitor biological warfare research, development, testing, production, and storage.
(B) On the basis of the assessment and evaluations referred to in other provisions of the report, recommendations by the Secretary of Defense and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for the improvement of United States
biological warfare defense and counter-measures. (e) LIMITATION.Of the amount authorized to be appropriated by section 301 for Cooperative Threat Reduction programs, $25,000,000 may not be obligated until the President submits to Congress the first report required under subsection (c). SEC. 1208. COORDINATION OF CERTAIN COOPERATIVE THREAT RE.
DUCTION PROGRAMS. (a) MILITARY-TO-MILITARY CONTACT PROGRAMS.—(1) None of the funds authorized to be appropriated in section 301 for Cooperative Threat Reduction programs may be obligated for activities under a military-to-military contact program until the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of State submit to Congress a joint report on the coordination of military-to-military contact programs and comparable activities carried out under their respective jurisdictions. (2) The report shall cover the following programs and activities:
(A) Defense and military-to-military contact programs to be carried out using funds authorized to be appropriated in section 301 for Cooperative Threat Reduction programs.
(B) Military-to-military contacts and comparable activities that are authorized by section 168 of title 10, United States Code, as added by section 1316.
(C) Programs authorized under chapter 5 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2347 et seq.). (3) The report shall include a discussion of how the programs and activities referred to in paragraph (2) are carried out to maximize
(A) the effect of such programs and activities in enhancing United States foreign policy objectives; and
(B) cost-efficiency in the conduct of the programs and activities. (b) REPORT.-Section 1207 of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act of 1993 (title XII of Public Law 103–160; 107 Stat. 1777; 22 U.S.C. 5956), is amended by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
"(5) A description of how all of the activities carried out under the authority of this title and other laws providing authority for cooperative threat reduction are coordinated with similar activities that are carried out under any other authority, including activities relating to military-to-military contacts, environmental restoration, and housing.".
SEC. 1209. SENSE OF CONGRESS CONCERNING SAFE AND SECURE DIS
MANTLEMENT OF SOVIET NUCLEAR ARSENAL. (a) FINDINGS.-Congress makes the following findings:
(1) It is a pressing national security challenge for the United States to expedite the safe and secure dismantlement of the nuclear arsenal of the former Soviet Union.
(2) In particular, it is essential to expedite the return of strategic nuclear warheads from Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan and to expedite the safe and secure dismantlement of the nuclear delivery vehicles of Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan.
(3) Leakage of nuclear materials and technology, and the continuing threat of emigration of scientists and technicians from the former Soviet nuclear weapons complex, pose a grave threat to United States national security and to international stability.
(4) Congress has authorized so-called “Nunn-Lugar" funds to enable the Department of Defense to carry out cooperative activities with states of the former Soviet Union to address the
threats described in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3). (b) SENSE OF CONGRESS.—În light of the findings in subsection (a), it is the sense of Congress that
(1) the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of State should continue to give their serious attention to carrying out a coordinated strategy for addressing the urgent national security issues described in subsection (a);
(2) the United States should expedite the availability and effective application of so-called “Nunn-Lugar” funds;
(3) although activities conducted with those funds should, to the extent feasible, draw upon United States technology and expertise, the United States should work with local contractors in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine when doing so would expedite more effective use of those funds; and
(4) efforts should be made to make the Science and Technology Centers in Moscow and Kiev, designed to slow the emigration of scientists and technicians from the former Soviet weapons complex, fully operational on an expedited basis.
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4. Cooperative Threat Reduction Act of 1993
Title XII of Public Law 103-160 (National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994; H.R. 2401), 107 Stat. 1547 at 1777, approved November 30, 1993; amended by Public Law 103-337 (National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995; S. 2182), 108 Stat. 2663, approved October 5, 1994
AN ACT To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 1994 for military activities of
the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe personnel strengths for such fiscal year for the Armed Forces, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United State of America in Congress assembled,
TITLE XII-COOPERATIVE THREAT REDUCTION WITH
STATES OF FORMER SOVIET UNION SEC. 1201.SHORT TITLE.
This title may be cited as the “Cooperative Threat Reduction Act of 1993". SEC. 1202.2 FINDINGS ON COOPERATIVE THREAT REDUCTION.
The Congress finds that it is in the national security interest of the United States for the United States to do the following:
(1) Facilitate, on a priority basis, the transportation, storage, safeguarding, and elimination of nuclear and other weapons of the independent states of the former Soviet Union, including
(A) the safe and secure storage of fissile materials de. rived from the elimination of nuclear weapons;
(B) the dismantlement of (i) intercontinental ballistic missiles and launchers for such missiles, (ii) submarinelaunched ballistic missiles and launchers for such missiles, and (iii) heavy bombers; and
(C) the elimination of chemical, biological and other weapons capabilities. (2) Facilitate, on a priority basis, the prevention of proliferation of weapons (and components of weapons) of mass destruction and destabilizing conventional weapons of the independent states of the former Soviet Union and the establishment of verifiable safeguards against the proliferation of such weapons and components.
(3) Facilitate, on a priority basis, the prevention of diversion of weapons-related scientific expertise of the independent states of the former Soviet Union to terrorist groups or third world countries.
122 U.S.C. 5951 note. *22 U.S.C. 5951.
(4) Support (A) the demilitarization of the defense-related industry and equipment of the independent states of the former Soviet Union, and (B) the conversion of such industry and equipment to civilian purposes and uses.
(5) Expand military-to-military and defense contacts between the United States and the independent states of the former So
viet Union. SEC. 1203.3 AUTHORITY FOR PROGRAMS TO FACILITATE COOPERA.
TIVE THREAT REDUCTION. (a) IN GENERAL.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the President may conduct programs described in subsection (b) to assist the independent states of the former Soviet Union in the demilitarization of the former Soviet Union. Any such program may be carried out only to the extent that the President determines that the program will directly contribute to the national security interests of the United States.
(b) AUTHORIZED PROGRAMS.—The programs referred to in subsection (a) are the following:
(1) Programs to facilitate the elimination, and the safe and secure transportation and storage, of nuclear, chemical, and other weapons and their delivery vehicles.
(2) Programs to facilitate the safe and secure storage of fissile materials derived from the elimination of nuclear weapons.
(3) Programs to prevent the proliferation of weapons, weapons components, and weapons-related technology and expertise.
(4) Programs to expand military-to-military and defense contacts.
(5) Programs to facilitate the demilitarization of defense industries and the conversion of military technologies and capabilities into civilian activities.
(6) Programs to assist in the environmental restoration of former military sites and installations when such restoration is necessary to the demilitarization or conversion programs authorized in paragraph (5).
(7) Programs to provide housing for former military personnel of the former Soviet Union released from military service in connection with the dismantlement of strategic nuclear weapons, when provision of such housing is necessary for dismantlement of strategic nuclear weapons and when no other funds are available for such housing.
(8) Other programs as described in section 212(b) of the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991 (title II of Public Law 102–228; 22 U.S.C. 2551 note) and section 1412(b) of the Former Soviet Union Demilitarization Act of 1992 (title XIV of
Public Law 102–484; 22 U.S.C. 5901 et seq.). (c) UNITED STATES PARTICIPATION.—The programs described in subsection (b) should, to the extent feasible, draw upon United States technology and expertise, especially from the private sector of the United States.
to the sides and instahe enviro
3 22 U.S.C. 5952.
(d) RESTRICTIONS.-Assistance authorized by subsection (a) may not be provided to any independent state of the former Soviet Union for any year unless the President certifies to Congress for that year that the proposed recipient state is committed to each of the following:
(1) Making substantial investment of its resources for dismantling or destroying its weapons of mass destruction, if such state has an obligation under a treaty or other agreement to destroy or dismantle any such weapons.
(2) Foregoing any military modernization program that exceeds legitimate defense requirements and foregoing the replacement of destroyed weapons of mass destruction.
(3) Foregoing any use in new nuclear weapons of fissionable or other components of destroyed nuclear weapons.
(4) Facilitating United States verification of any weapons destruction carried out under this title, section 1412(b) of the Former Soviet Union Demilitarization Act of 1992 (title XIV of Public Law 102-484; 22 U.S.C. 590(b)), or section 212(b) of the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991 (title II of Public Law 102–228; 22 U.S.C. 2551 note).
(5) Complying with all relevant arms control agreements.
(6) Observing internationally recognized human rights, in
cluding the protection of minorities. SEC. 1204.* DEMILITARIZATION ENTERPRISE FUND.
(a) DESIGNATION OF FUND.—The President is authorized to designate a Demilitarization Enterprise Fund for the purposes of this section. The President may designate as the Demilitarization Enterprise Fund any organization that satisfies the requirements of subsection (e).
(b) PURPOSE OF FUND.—The purpose of the Demilitarization Enterprise Fund is to receive grants pursuant to this section and to use the grant proceeds to provide financial support under programs described in subsection (b)(5) for demilitarization of industries and conversion of military technologies and capabilities into civilian activities.
(c) GRANT AUTHORITY.—The President may make one or more grants to the Demilitarization Enterprise Fund.
(d) RISK CAPITAL FUNDING OF DEMILITARIZATION.—The Demilitarization Enterprise Fund shall use the proceeds of grants received under this section to provide financial support in accordance with subsection (b) through transactions as follows:
(1) Making loans.
(3) Providing collateral for loan guaranties by the Export-Import Bank of the United States.
(4) Taking equity positions.
(5) Providing venture capital in joint ventures with United States industry.
(6) Providing risk capital through any other form of transaction that the President considers appropriate for supporting programs described in subsection (b)(5).
* 22 U.S.C. 5953.