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from national arsenals of nuclear weapons and the means of their delivery” as well as in Article VI of the Treaty, which states that "each of the parties to the Treaty undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to the cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament”.

(3) Carrying out a policy of seeking further significant and continuous reductions in the nuclear arsenals of all countries, besides reducing the likelihood of the proliferation of nuclear weapons and increasing the likelihood of a successful extension and possible strengthening of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1995, when the Treaty is scheduled for review and possible extension, has additional benefits to the national security of the United States, including

(A) a reduced risk of accidental enablement and launch of a nuclear weapon, and

(B) a defense cost savings which could be reallocated for deficit reduction or other important national needs. (4) The Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) Treaty and the agreement by the President of the United States and the President of the Russian Federation on June 17, 1992, to reduce the strategic nuclear arsenals of each country to a level between 3,000 and 3,500 weapons are commendable intermediate stages in the process of achieving the policy goals described in paragraphs (1) and (2).

(5) The current international era of cooperation provides greater opportunities for achieving worldwide reduction and control of nuclear weapons and material than any time since the emergence of nuclear weapons 50 years ago.

(6) It is in the security interests of both the United States and the world community for the President and the Congress to begin the process of reducing the number of nuclear weapons in every country through multilateral agreements and other appropriate means.

(7) In a 1991 study, a committee of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that: “The appropriate new levels of nuclear weapons cannot be specified at this time, but it seems reasonable to the committee that U.S. strategic forces could in time be reduced to 1,000–2,000 nuclear warheads, provided that such a multilateral agreement included appropriate levels and verification measures for the other nations that possess nuclear weapons. This step would require successful implementation of our proposed post-START U.S.-Soviet reductions, related confidence-building measures in all the countries involved, and multilateral security cooperation in areas such as conven

tional force deployments and planning.". (b) UNITED STATES POLICY.-It shall be the goal of the United States

(1) to encourage and facilitate the denuclearization of Ukraine, Byelarus, and Kazakhstan, as agreed upon in the Lisbon ministerial meeting of May 23, 1992;

(2) to rapidly complete and submit for ratification by the United States the treaty incorporating the agreement of June 17, 1992, between the United States and the Russian Federa

uclear ties for national

tion to reduce the number of strategic nuclear weapons in each country's arsenal to a level between 3,000 and 3,500;

(3) to facilitate the ability of the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Byelarus, and Kazakhstan to implement agreed mutual reductions under the START Treaty, and under the Joint Understanding of June 16–17, 1992 between the United States and the Russian Federation, on an accelerated timetable, so that all such reductions can be completed by the year 2000;

(4) to build on the agreement reached in the Joint Understanding of June 16–17, 1992, by entering into multilateral negotiations with the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, France, and the People's Republic of China, and, at an appropriate point in that process, enter into negotiations with other nuclear armed states in order to reach subsequent stage-bystage agreements to achieve further reductions in the number of nuclear weapons in all countries;

(5) to continue and extend cooperative discussions with the appropriate authorities of the former Soviet military on means to maintain and improve secure command and control over nuclear forces;

(6) in consultation with other member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and other allies, to initiate discussions to bring tactical nuclear weapons into the arms control process; and

(7) to ensure that the United States assistance to securely transport and store, and ultimately dismantle, former Soviet nuclear weapons and missiles for such weapons is being prop

erly and effectively utilized. (c) ANNUAL REPORT.-By February 1 of each year, the President shall submit to the Congress a report on

(1) the actions that the United States has taken, and the actions the United States plans to take during the next 12 months, to achieve each of the goals set forth in paragraphs (1) through (6) of subsection (b); and

(2) the actions that have been taken by the Russian Federation, by other former Soviet republics, and by other countries

to achieve those goals. Each such report shall be submitted in unclassified form, with a classified appendix if necessary. SEC. 1322.9 VOLUNTEERS INVESTING IN PEACE AND SECURITY (VIPS)

PROGRAM. * . *

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REFUGEE SITUATIONS. (a) FINDINGS.—The Congress finds that,

2 For amendment to 10 U.S.C. 1801-1805, see Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 1994, vol. I-B. Freestanding subsections of sec. 1322 may also be found in that volume.


(1) an estimated 10–20 million mines are scattered across Cambodia, Afghanistan, Somalia, Angola, and other countries which have experienced conflict; and

(2) refugee repatriation and other humanitarian programs are being seriously hampered by the widespread use of anti

personnel mines in regional conflicts and civil wars. (b) REPORT.-(1) The President shall provide a report on international mine clearing efforts in situations involving the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and displaced persons. (2) The report shall include the following:

(A) An assessment of mine clearing needs in countries to which refugees and displaced persons are now returning, or are likely to return within the near future, including Cambodia, Angola, Afghanistan, Somalia and Mozambique, and an assessment of current international efforts to meet the mine clearing needs in the countries covered by the report.

(B) An analysis of the specific types of mines in the individual countries assessed and the availability of technology and assets within the international community for their removal.

(C) An assessment of what additional technologies and assets would be required to complete, expedite or reduce the costs of mine clearing efforts.

(D) An evaluation of the availability of technologies and assets within the United States Government which, if called upon, could be employed to augment or complete mine clearing efforts in the countries covered by the report.

(E) An evaluation of the desirability, feasibility and potential cost of United States assistance on either a unilateral or multi

lateral basis in such mine clearing operations. (3) The report shall be submitted to the Congress not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act. SEC. 1365.3 LANDMINE EXPORT MORATORIUM. (a) FINDINGS.—The Congress makes the following findings:

(1) Anti-personnel landmines, which are specifically designed to maim and kill people, have been used indiscriminately in dramatically increasing numbers, primarily in insurgencies in poor developing countries. Noncombatant civilians, including tens of thousands of children, have been the primary victims.

(2) Unlike other military weapons, landmines often remain implanted and undiscovered after conflict has ended, causing untold suffering to civilian populations. In Afghanistan, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Angola, tens of millions of unexploded landmines have rendered whole areas uninhabitable. In Afghanistan, an estimated hundreds of thousands of people have been maimed and killed by landmines during the 14-year civil war. In Cambodia, more than 20,000 civilians have lost limbs and another 60 are being maimed each month from landmines.

(3) Over 35 countries are known to manufacture landmines, including the United States. However, the United States is not a major exporter of landmines. During the past ten years the Department of State has approved ten licenses for the commercial export of anti-personnel landmines valued at $980,000, and during the past five years the Department of Defense has approved the sale of 13,156 anti-personnel landmines valued at $841,145.

322 U.S.C. 2778 note.

(4) The United States signed, but has not ratified, the 1981 Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed To Be Excessively Injurious or To Have Indiscriminate Effects. The Convention prohibits the indiscriminate use of landmines.

(5) When it signed the Convention, the United States stated: “We believe that the Convention represents a positive step forward in efforts to minimize injury or damage to the civilian population in time of armed conflict. Our signature of the Convention reflects the general willingness of the United States to adopt practical and reasonable provisions concerning the conduct of military operations, for the purpose of protecting noncombatants.".

(6) The President should submit the Convention to the Senate for its advice and consent to ratification, and the President should actively negotiate under United Nations auspices or other auspices an international agreement, or a modification of the Convention, to prohibit the sale, transfer or export of antipersonnel landmines. Such an agreement or modification would be an appropriate response to the end of the Cold War and the promotion of arms control agreements to reduce the indiscriminate killing and maiming of civilians.

(7) The United States should set an example for other countries in such negotiations, by implementing a one-year moratorium on the sale, transfer or export of anti-personnel land

mines. (b) STATEMENT OF POLICY.—(1) It shall be the policy of the United States to seek verifiable international agreements prohibiting the sale, transfer, or export, and further limiting the use, production, possession, and deployment of anti-personnel landmines.

(2) It is the sense of the Congress that the President should actively seek to negotiate under United Nations auspices or other auspices an international agreement, or a modification of the Convention, to prohibit the sale, transfer, or export of anti-personnel landmines.

(c) MORATORIUM ON TRANSFERS OF ANTI-PERSONNEL LANDMINES ABROAD.—During the four-year period beginning on October 23, 1992—4

(1) no sale may be made or financed, no transfer may be made, and no license for export may be issued, under the Arms Export Control Act, with respect to any anti-personnel landmine; and

(2) no assistance may be provided under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, with respect to the provision of any anti-personnel landmine.

4 Sec. 1423(c) of Public Law 103–160 (107 Stat. 1832) struck out "For a period of one year beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act", and inserted in lieu thereof "During the four-year period beginning on October 23, 1992".

(d) 5 DEFINITION.–For purposes of this section, the term “antipersonnel landmine" means

(1) any munition placed under, on, or near the ground or other surface area, or delivered by artillery, rocket, mortar, or similar means or dropped from an aircraft and which is designed to be detonated or exploded by the presence, proximity, or contact of a person;

(2) any device or material which is designed, constructed, or adapted to kill or injure and which functions unexpectedly when a person disturbs or approaches an apparently harmless object or performs an apparently safe act;

(3) any manually-emplaced munition or device designed to kill, injure, or damage and which is actuated by remote control or automatically after a lapse of time. TITLE XIV-DEMILITARIZATION OF THE FORMER


Subtitle A-Short Title SEC. 1401. SHORT TITLE.

This title may be cited as the “Former Soviet Union Demilitarization Act of 1992”.

Subtitle B-Findings and Program Authority SEC. 1411.? DEMILITARIZATION OF THE INDEPENDENT STATES OF

THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. The Congress finds that it is in the national security interest of the United States

(1) to facilitate, on a priority basis

(A) the transportation, storage, safeguarding, and destruction of nuclear and other weapons of the independent states of the former Soviet Union, including the safe and secure storage of fissile materials, dismantlement of missiles and launchers, and the elimination of chemical and biological weapons capabilities;

(B) the prevention of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their components and destabilizing conventional weapons of the independent states of the former Soviet Union, and the establishment of verifiable safeguards against the proliferation of such weapons;

(C) the prevention of diversion of weapons-related scientific expertise of the former Soviet Union to terrorist groups or third countries; and

(D) other efforts designed to reduce the military threat from the former Soviet Union; (2) to support the demilitarization of the massive defense-related industry and equipment of the independent states of the former Soviet Union and conversion of such industry and equipment to civilian purposes and uses; and

o Sec. 1182(cX3) of Public Law 103-160 (107 Stat. 1772) struck out “(e) DEFINITION.—” and inserted in lieu thereof "(d) DEFINITION._".

&22 U.S.C. 5901 note. 722 U.S.C. 5901.

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