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e. Authorization for Use of Military Force in Somalia Partial text of Public Law 103-139 (Department of Defense Appropriations

Act, 1994; H.R. 2519), 107 Stat. 1418 at 1476, approved November 11, 1993 AN ACT Making appropriations for the Department of Defense for the fiscal year

ending September 30, 1994, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the following sums are appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1994, for military functions administered by the Department of Defense, and for other purposes, namely:

SEC. 8151.1 (a) The Congress finds that,

(1) the United States entered into Operation Restore Hope in December of 1992 for the purpose of relieving mass starvation in Somalia;

(2) the original mission in Somalia, to secure the environment for humanitarian relief, had the unanimous support of the Senate, expressed in Senate Joint Resolution 45, passed on February 4, 1993, and was endorsed by the House when it amended S.J. Res. 45 on May 25, 1993;

(3) Operation Restore Hope was being successfully accomplished by United States forces, working with forces of other nations, when it was replaced by the UNOSOM II mission, assumed by the United Nations on May 4, 1993, pursuant to United Nations Resolution 814 of March 26, 1993;

(4) neither the expanded United Nations mission of national reconciliation, nor the broad mission of disarming the clans, nor any other mission not essential to the performance of the humanitarian mission has been endorsed or approved by the Senate;

(5) the expanded mission of the United Nations was, subsequent to an attack upon United Nations forces, diverted into a mission aimed primarily at capturing certain persons, pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 837, of June 6, 1993;

(6) the actions of hostile elements in Mogadishu, and the United Nations mission to subdue those elements, have resulted in open conflict in the city of Mogadishu and the deaths of 29 Americans, at least 159 wounded, and the capture of American personnel; and

150 U.S.C. 1541 note.

(7) during fiscal years 1992 and 1993, the United States incurred expenses in excess of $1,100,000,000 to support operations in Somalia.

(b) The Congress approves the use of United States Armed Forces in Somalia for the following purposes:

(1) The protection of United States personnel and bases; and

(2) The provision of assistance in securing open lines of communication for the free flow of supplies and relief operations through the provision of

(A) United States military logistical support services to United Nations forces; and

(B) United States combat forces in a security role and as an interim force protection supplement to United Nations units: Provided, That funds appropriated, or otherwise made available, in this or any other Act to the Department of Defense may be obligated for expenses incurred only through March 31, 1994, for the operations of United States Armed Forces in Somalia: Provided further, That such date may be extended if so requested by the Presi. dent and authorized by the Congress: Provided further, That funds may be obligated beyond March 31, 1994 to support a limited number of United States military personnel sufficient only to protect American diplomatic facilities and American citizens, and noncombat personnel to advise the United Nations commander in Somalia: Provided further, That United States combat forces in Somalia shall be under the command and control of United States commanders under the ultimate direction of the President of the United States: Provided further, That the President should intensify efforts to have United Nations member countries immediately deploy additional troops to Somalia to fulfill previous force commitments made to the United Nations and to deploy additional forces to assume the security missions of United States Armed Forces: Provided further, That

(i) captured United States personnel in Somalia should be treated humanely and fairly; and

(ii) the United States and the United Nations should make all appropriate efforts to ensure the immediate and safe return of any future captured United States personnel: Provided further, That the President should ensure that, at all times, United States military personnel in Somalia have the capacity to defend themselves, and American citizens: Provided further, That the United States Armed Forces should remain deployed in or around Somalia until such time as all American service personnel missing in action in Somalia are accounted for, and all American service personnel held prisoner in Somalia are released: Provided further, That nothing herein shall be deemed to restrict in any way the authority of the President under the Constitution to protect the lives of Americans.

f. U.S. Armed Forces in Somalia Partial text of Public Law 103–160 (H.R. 2401), 107 Stat. 1647 at 1840,

approved November 30, 1993 AN ACT To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 1994 for military activities of

the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe personnel strengths for such fiscal year for the Armed Forces, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SEC. 1512.1 INVOLVEMENT OF ARMED FORCES IN SOMALIA.

(a) SENSE OF CONGRESS REGARDING UNITED STATES POLICY TOWARD SOMALIA.—

(1) Since United States Armed Forces made significant contributions under Operation Restore Hope towards the establishment of a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations and restoration of peace in the region to end the humanitarian disaster that had claimed more than 300,000 lives.

(2) Since the mission of United States forces in support of the United Nations appears to be evolving from the establishment of "a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations," as set out in United Nations Security Council Resolution 794 of December 3, 1992, to one of internal security and

nation building. (b) STATEMENT OF CONGRESSIONAL POLICY.

(1) CONSULTATION WITH THE CONGRESS.—The President should consult closely with the Congress regarding United States policy with respect to Somalia, including in particular the deployment of United States Armed Forces in that country, whether under United Nations or United States command.

(2) PLANNING.–The United States shall facilitate the assumption of the functions of United States forces by the United Nations. (3) REPORTING REQUIREMENT. —

(A) The President shall ensure that the goals and objectives supporting deployment of United States forces to Somalia and a description of the mission, command arrangements, size, functions, location, and anticipated duration in Somalia of those forces are clearly articulated and provided in a detailed report to the Congress by October 15, 1993.

(B) Such report shall include the status of planning to transfer the function contained in paragraph (2). (4) CONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL.–Upon reporting under the requirements of paragraph (3) Congress believes the President should by November 15, 1993, seek and receive congressional

150 U.S.C. 1541 note.

g. United States Military Forces in Lebanon

(1) Multinational Force in Lebanon Resolution 1 Public Law 98-119 (S.J. Res. 169), 97 Stat. 806, approved October 12, 1983 A JOINT RESOLUTION Providing statutory authorization under the War Powers Resolution for continued United States participation in the multinational peace. keeping force in Lebanon in order to obtain withdrawal of all foreign forces from Lebanon.

Resolve by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SHORT TITLE SECTION 1. This joint resolution may be cited as the “Multinational Force in Lebanon Resolution”.

FINDINGS AND PURPOSE SEC. 2. (a) The Congress finds that,

(1) the removal of all foreign forces from Lebanon is an essential United States foreign policy objective in the Middle East;

(2) in order to restore full control by the Government of Lebanon over its own territory, the United States is currently participating in the multinational peacekeeping force (hereafter in this resolution referred to as the "Multinational Force in Lebanon”) which was established in accordance with the exchange of letters between the Governments of the United States and Lebanon dated September 25, 1982;

(3) the Multinational Force in Lebanon better enables the Government of Lebanon to establish its unity, independence, and territorial integrity;

(4) progress toward national political reconciliation in Lebanon is necessary; and

(5) United States Armed Forces participating in the Multinational Force in Lebanon are now in hostilities requiring authorization of their continued presence under the War Powers

Resolution. (b) The Congress determines that the requirements of section 4(a)(1) of the War Powers Resolution became operative on August 29, 1983. Consistent with section 5(b) of the War Powers Resolution, the purpose of this joint resolution is to authorize the continued participation of United States Armed Forces in the Multinational Force in Lebanon.

(c) The Congress intends this joint resolution to constitute the necessary specific statutory authorization under the War Powers

150 U.S.C. 1541 note.

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