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d. Implementing the United States Proposal for the Early.

Warning System in Sinai Public Law 94-110 (H.J. Res. 683) 89 Stat. 572, approved October 13, 19761 JOINT RESOLUTION To implement the United States proposal for the early.

warning system in Sinai. Whereas an agreement signed on September 4, 1975, by the Gov

ernment of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Government of Israel may, when it enters into force, constitute a significant step

toward peace in the Middle East; Whereas the President of the United States on September 1, 1975,

transmitted to the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt and to the Government of Israel identical proposals for United States participation in an early-warning system, the text of which has been submitted to the Congress, providing for the assignment of no more than two hundred United States civilian personnel to carry out certain specified noncombat functions and

setting forth the terms and conditions thereof; Whereas that proposal would permit the Government of the United

States to withdraw such personnel if it concludes that their safety is jeopardized or that continuation of their role is no longer

necessary; and Whereas the implementation of the United States proposal for the

early-warning system in Sinai may enhance the prospect of compliance in good faith with the terms of the Egyptian-Israeli agreements and thereby promote the cause of peace: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President is authorized to implement the “United States Proposal 2 for the Early Warning System in Sinai”: Provided, however, That United States civilian personnel assigned to Sinai under such proposal shall be removed immediately in the event of an outbreak of hostilities between Egypt and Israel or if the Congress by concurrent resolution determines that the safety of such personnel is jeopardized or that continuation of their role is no longer necessary. Nothing contained in this resolution shall be construed as granting any authority to the President with respect to the introduction of United States Armed Forces into hostilities or into situations wherein involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances which authority he would not have had in the absence of this joint resolution.

SEC. 2. Any concurrent resolution of the type described in the first section of this resolution which is introduced in either House of Congress shall be privileged in the same manner and to the

122 U.S.C. 2441 note. 2 See Legislation on Foreign Relations, vol. V, sec. G, for text of the U.S. proposal.

same extent as a concurrent resolution of the type described in section 5(c) of Public Law 93–148 is privileged under section 7 of such

law.3"> of Public Lacurrent resolo

SEC. 3. The United States civilian personnel participating in the early warning system in Sinai shall include only individuals who have volunteered to participate in such system.

SEC. 4. Whenever United States civilian personnel, pursuant to this resolution, participate in an early warning system, the President shall, so long as the participation of such personnel continues, submit written reports to the Congress periodically, but no less frequently than once every six months, on (1) the status, scope, and anticipated duration of their participation, and (2) the feasibility of ending or reducing as soon as possible their participation by substituting nationals of other countries or by making technological changes. The appropriate committees of the Congress shall promptly hold hearings on each report of the President and report to the Congress any findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

SEC. 5. The authority contained in this joint resolution to implement the "United States Proposal for the Early Warning System in Sinai” does not signify approval of the Congress of any other agreement, understanding, or commitment made by the executive branch.

reducinion of the six monngress of such

350 U.S.C. 1544, 1546. War Powers Resolution.

4. Tonkin Gulf Resolution Public Law 88_408 [H.J. Res. 1145), 78 Stat. 384, approved August 10, 1964 A JOINT RESOLUTION To promote the maintenance of international peace and

security in Southeast Asia. (Whereas naval units of the Communist regime in Vietnam, in vio

lation of the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and of international law, have deliberately and repeatedly attacked United States naval vessels lawfully present in international waters, and have thereby created a serious threat to international peace; and (Whereas these attacks are part of a deliberate and systematic

campaign of aggression that the Communist regime in North Vietnam has been waging against its neighbors and the nations joined with them in the collective defense of their freedom; and (Whereas the United States is assisting the peoples of southeast

Asia to protect their freedom and has no territorial, military or political ambitions in that area, but desires only that these peoples should be left in peace to work out their own destinies in their own way: Now, therefore, be it

(Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Congress approves and supports the determination of the President, as Commander in Chief, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression.

(SEC. 2. The United States regards as vital to its national interest and to world peace the maintenance of international peace and security in southeast Asia. Consonant with the Constitution of the United States and the Charter of the United Nations and in accordance with its obligations under the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, the United States is, therefore, prepared, as the President determines, to take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force, to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom.

(SEC. 3. This resolution shall expire when the President shall determine that the peace and security of the area is reasonably assured by international conditions created by action of the United Nations or otherwise, except that it may be terminated earlier by concurrent resolution of the Congress.)

6. North Atlantic Alliance 1

a. NATO Participation Act of 1994 Title II of Public Law 103_447 (International Narcotics Control Corrections Act of 1994; H.R. 5246), 108 Stat. 4691 at 4696, approved November 2, 1994

TITLE I–NATO PARTICIPATION ACT OF 1994 2 SEC. 201. SHORT TITLE.

This title may be cited as the “NATO Participation Act of 1994". SEC. 202. SENSE OF THE CONGRESS. It is the sense of the Congress that,

(1) the leaders of the NATO member nations are to be commended for reaffirming that NATO membership remains open to Partnership for Peace countries emerging from communist domination and for welcoming eventual expansion of NATO to include such countries;

(2) full and active participants in the Partnership for Peace in a position to further the principles of the North Atlantic Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area should be invited to become full NATO members in accordance with Article 10 of such Treaty at an early date, if such participants

(A) maintain their progress toward establishing democratic institutions, free market economies, civilian control of their armed forces, and the rule of law; and

(B) remain committed to protecting the rights of all their citizens and respecting the territorial integrity of their neighbors; (3) the United States, other NATO member nations, and NATO itself should furnish appropriate assistance to facilitate the transition to full NATO membership at an early date of full and active participants in the Partnership for Peace; and

(4) in particular, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia have made significant progress toward establishing democratic institutions, free market economies, civilian control of their armed forces, and the rule of law since the fall of their

previous communist governments. SEC. 203. AUTHORITY FOR PROGRAM TO FACILITATE TRANSITION TO

NATO MEMBERSHIP. (a) IN GENERAL.—The President may establish a program to assist the transition to full NATO membership of Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and other Partnership for Peace

See also chapter 138 of 10 USC, relating to cooperative agreements with NATO allies and other countries, in Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 1994, vol. 1-B, beginning at page 339. 222 U.S.C. 1928 note.

countries emerging from communist domination designated pursuant to subsection (a).

(b) CONDUCT OF PROGRAM.—The program established under subsection (a) shall facilitate the transition to full NATO membership of the countries described in such subsection by supporting and encouraging, inter alia

(1) joint planning, training, and military exercises with NATO forces;

(2) greater interoperability of military equipment, air defense systems, and command, control, and communications systems; and

(3) conformity of military doctrine. (c) TYPE OF ASSISTANCE.-In carrying out the program established under subsection (a), the President may provide to the countries described in such subsection the following types of security assistance:

(1) The transfer of excess defense articles under section 516 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, without regard to the restrictions in paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (a) of such section (relating to the eligibility of countries for such articles under such section).

(2) The transfer of nonlethal excess defense articles under section 519 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, without regard to the restriction in subsection (a) of such section (relating to the justification of the foreign military financing program for the fiscal year in which a transfer is authorized).

(3) Assistance under chapter 5 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (relating to international military education and training).

(4) Assistance under section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act (relating to the “Foreign Military Financing Program"). (d) DESIGNATION OF PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE COUNTRIES EMERGING FROM COMMUNIST DOMINATION.—The President may designate countries emerging from communism and participating in the Partnership for Peace, especially Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, to receive assistance under the program established under subsection (a) if the President determines and reports to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate that such countries,

(1) are full and active participants in the Partnership for Peace;

(2) have made significant progress toward establishing democratic institutions, a free market economy, civilian control of their armed forces, and the rule of law;

(3) are likely in the near future to be in a position to further the principles of the North Atlantic Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area; and

(4) are not selling or transferring defense articles to a state that has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism, as determined by the Secretary of State under sec

tion 66) of the Export Administration Act of 1979. (e) NOTIFICATION.–At least 15 days before designating any country pursuant to subsection (d), the President shall notify the appro

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