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SEC. 368. POLICY TOWARD TAIWAN.
It is the sense of Congress that

(1) Taiwan's economic dynamism is a tribute to the success of the postwar United States assistance program and to Taiwan's commitment to an international system of free trade;

(2) Taiwan's economic growth has made it in recent years an indispensable part of regional and international networks of trade, investment, and finance; and

(3) the United States should support Taiwan's interest in playing a role in international and regional economic organiza

tions. SEC. 359. HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES IN EAST TIMOR. (a) FINDINGS.—The Congress finds that,

(1) many tens of thousands out of a population of nearly 700,000 perished in the former Portuguese colony of East Timor between 1975 and 1980, as a result of war-related killings, famine, and disease following the invasion of that territory by Indonesia;

(2) Amnesty International and other international human rights organizations continue to report evidence in East Timor of human rights violations, including torture, arbitrary arrest, and repression of freedom of expression;

(3) serious medical, nutritional, and humanitarian problems persist in East Timor;

(4) a state of intermittent conflict continues to exist in East Timor; and

(5) the Governments of Portugal and Indonesia have conducted discussions since 1982 under the auspices of the United Nations to find an internationally acceptable solution to the

East Timor conflict. (b) STATEMENT OF POLICY.-It is the sense of the Congress that,

(1) the President should urge the Government of Indonesia to take action to end all forms of human rights violations in East Timor and to permit full freedom of expression in East Timor;

(2) the President should encourage the Government of Indonesia to facilitate the work of international human rights organizations and other groups seeking to monitor human rights conditions in East Timor and to continue and expand cooperation with international humanitarian relief and development organizations seeking to work in East Timor; and

(3) the Administration should encourage the Secretary General of the United Nations and the governments of Indonesia, Portugal, and other involved parties, to arrive at an internationally acceptable solution which addresses the underlying

causes of the conflict in East Timor. SEC. 360. SUPPORT FOR NEW DEMOCRACIES. It is the policy of the United States

(1) to support democratization within the Soviet Union and support self-determination, observer and other appropriate status in international organizations, particularly the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) and independence for all republic-level governments which seek such status;

(2) to shape its foreign assistance and other programs to support those republics that pursue a democratic and market-oriented course of development, and demonstrate a commitment to abide by the rule of law;

(3) to strongly support peaceful resolution of conflicts within the Soviet Union and between the central Soviet government and Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia and republic-level governments;

(4) to condemn the actual and threatened use of martial law, pogroms, military occupation, blockades, and other uses of force which have been used to suppress democracy and self-determination; and

(5) to view the threatened and actual use of force to suppress the self-determination of republic-level governments and Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia as an obstacle to fully normalized

United States-Soviet relations. SEC. 361. POLICY REGARDING UNITED STATES ASSISTANCE TO THE

SOVIET UNION AND YUGOSLAVIA. (a) CONGRESSIONAL STATEMENT.-An essential purpose of United States foreign assistance is to foster the development of democratic institutions and free enterprise systems. Stable economic growth, fostered by free enterprise and free trade, is also important to the development of democratic institutions.

(b) DECLARATION OF UNITED STATES POLICY.-It is the policy of the United States, to the extent feasible and consistent with United States national interest, that,

(1) assistance to the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, including their successor entities or any constituent part, shall be conditioned on significant steps toward political pluralism based on a democratic multi-party political system, economic reform based on a market-oriented economy, respect for internationally recognized human rights and a willingness to build a friendly relationship with the United States; and

(2) expanded trade with the republics in the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia or their successor entities should be encour

aged. SEC. 362.73 * * * (Repealed-1993) SEC. 363. UNITED STATES TACTICAL NUCLEAR WEAPONS DESIGNED

FOR DEPLOYMENT IN EUROPE. (a) FINDINGS.—The Congress finds that,

(1) the Warsaw Pact military alliance no longer exists;

(2) the Soviet Union's capability to pose a military threat to European security has retreated radically; and

(3) in light of the retreating Soviet threat, West European electorates are unlikely to approve the deployment of new

United States tactical nuclear weapons on European soil. (b) POLICY.—It is the sense of the Congress that the United States Government should not proceed with the research or development of any tactical nuclear system designed solely for deployment in Europe unless and until the Council of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization has officially announced how, when, and where such tactical nuclear systems will be deployed. SEC. 364. UNITED STATES SUPPORT FOR UNCED. (a) FINDINGS.—The Congress finds that

73 Sec. 362, relating to policy toward the release of political prisoners by South Africa, was repealed by sec. 4(6X4) of the South African Democratic Transition Act of 1993 (Public Law 103– 149, 107 Stat. 1505).

(1) the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (hereinafter in this section referred to as “UNCED”) is scheduled to meet in June 1992 in Rio de Janiero, Brazil; and

(2) UNCED affords a major opportunity to shape international environmental policy as an underpinning of sustain

able development for well into the next century. (b) SENSE OF CONGRESS.—It is the sense of the Congress that

(1) the United States should seek to integrate environmental principles and considerations into all spheres of international economic activity;

(2) the President should accord the UNCED process highlevel attention and priority within the executive branch;

(3) the United States should exercise a leadership role in preparations for the June 1992 meeting of the UNCED;

(4) the United States should carefully consider what it hopes to achieve through the UNCED and how United States national security interests may best be advanced in deliberations in that conference;

(5) the United States should seek ways to forge a global partnership and international cooperation among developing and industrialized nations on behalf of environmentally sound economic development;

(6) the United States should actively pursue creative approaches to the spectrum of UNCED issues which the conference will address, and in particular seek innovative solutions to the key cross-sectorial issues of technology transfer and financial resources;

(7) the United States should consider how best to strengthen international legal and institutional mechanisms to effectively address the range of UNCED issues beyond the 1992 Conference and into the next century;

(8) the United States should promote broad international participation in the UNCED process at all levels, from grass roots to national;

(9) the Agency for International Development should assume an appropriate role in the preparations for the June 1992 meeting of the UNCED, in view of the mandate and expertise of that agency regarding the twin conference themes of international environment and development; and

(10) the executive branch should consider funding for appropriate activities related to the UNCED in amounts which are commensurate with United States responsibilities in the world, as such funds can engender good will and further our national interests and objectives in the UNCED process.

TITLE IV-ARMS TRANSFERS RESTRAINT POLICY FOR

THE MIDDLE EAST AND PERSIAN GULF REGION 74
SEC. 401. FINDINGS.
The Congress finds that,

(1) nations in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region, which accounted for over 40 percent of the international trade in weapons and related equipment and services during the decade of the 1980's, are the principal market for the worldwide arms trade;

(2) regional instability, large financial resources, and the desire of arms-supplying governments to gain influence in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region, contribute to a regional arms race;

(3) the continued proliferation of weapons and related equipment and services contribute further to a regional arms race in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region that is politically, economically, and militarily destabilizing;

(4) the continued proliferation of unconventional weapons, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, as well as delivery systems associated with those weapons, poses an urgent threat to security and stability in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region;

(5) the continued proliferation of ballistic missile technologies and ballistic missile systems that are capable of delivering conventional, nuclear, biological, or chemical warheads undermines security and stability in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region;

(6) future security and stability in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region would be enhanced by establishing a stable military balance among regional powers by restraining and reducing both conventional and unconventional weapons;

(7) security, stability, peace, and prosperity in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region are important to the welfare of the international economy and to the national security interests of the United States;

(8) future security and stability in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region would be enhanced through the development of a multilateral arms transfer and control regime similar to those of the Nuclear Suppliers' Group, the Missile Technology Control Regime, and the Australia Chemical Weapons Suppliers Group;

(9) such a regime should be developed, implemented, and agreed to through multilateral negotiations, including under the auspices of the 5 permanent members of the United Nations Security Council;

(10) confidence-building arms control measures such as the establishment of a centralized arms trade registry at the United Nations, greater multinational transparency on the transfer of defense articles and services prior to agreement or transfer, cooperative verification measures, advanced notification of military exercises, information exchanges, on-site inspections,

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and creation of a Middle East and Persian Gulf Conflict Prevention Center, are important to implement an effective multilateral arms transfer and control regime;

(11) as an interim step, the United States should consider introducing, during the ongoing negotiations on confidence security-building measures at the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), a proposal regarding the international exchange of information, on an annual basis, on the sale and transfer of major military equipment, particularly to the Middle East and Persian Gulf region; and

(12) such a regime should be applied to other regions with the ultimate objective of achieving an effective global arms transfer and control regime, implemented and enforced through the United Nations Security Council, that,

(A) includes a linkage of humanitarian and developmental objectives with security objectives in Third World countries, particularly the poorest of the poor countries; and

(B) encourages countries selling military equipment and services to consider the following factors before making conventional arms sales: the security needs of the purchasing countries, the level of defense expenditures by the purchasing countries, and the level of indigenous production of

the purchasing countries. SEC. 402. MULTILATERAL ARMS TRANSFER AND CONTROL REGIME. (a) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE REGIME.

(1) CONTINUING NEGOTIATIONS.—The President shall continue negotiations among the 5 permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and commit the United States to a multilateral arms transfer and control regime for the Middle East and Persian Gulf region.

(2) PROPOSING A TEMPORARY MORATORIUM DURING NEGOTIATIONS.—In the context of these negotiations, the President should propose to the 5 permanent members of the United Nations Security Council a temporary moratorium on the sale and transfer of major military equipment to nations in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region until such time as the 5 permanent members agree to a multilateral arms transfer and con

trol regime. (b) PURPOSE OF THE REGIME.—The purpose of the multilateral arms transfer and control regime should be

(1) to slow and limit the proliferation of conventional weapons in the Middle East and Persian Gulf region with the aim of preventing destabilizing transfers by

(A) controlling the transfer of conventional major military equipment;

(B) achieving transparency among arms suppliers nations through advanced notification of agreement to, or transfer of, conventional major military equipment; and

(C) developing and adopting common and comprehensive control guidelines on the sale and transfer of conventional major military equipment to the region; (2) to halt the proliferation of unconventional weapons, including is, biological, and chemical weapons, as well as

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