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economic collapse and provide its citizens with basic necessities.
(3) During the past year, however, the collapse in the value of the Lebanese Pound from less than 40 to the dollar to nearly 300 has made the importation of wheat, rice, and other basic commodities prohibitively expensive.
(4) As a result, for the first time, the Lebanese are faced with the prospect of starvation.
(5) Hizballah and other radical elements are taking advantage of the current economic crisis by providing foreign supplied food. In so doing, they are winning converts to their cause and radicalizing the youth.
(6) It is in the interest of the United States to support the traditional Lebanese free enterprise system of distribution of food which until now has been able to compete successfully with these radical movements. (b) SENSE OF CONGRESS.-It is the sense of the Congress that the United States should base its policy toward Lebanon on the following principles:
(1) Preservation of the unity of Lebanon.
(3) Recognition of and respect for the territorial integrity of Lebanon.
(4) Reassertion of Lebanese sovereignty throughout the nation and recognition that it is the responsibility of the Government of Lebanon for its safekeeping.
(5) Reestablishment of the authority of the Government of Lebanon throughout the nation is a prerequisite for a lasting solution to the problem of international terrorism emanating from Lebanon. (c) FURTHER SENSE OF CONGRESS.-It is the further sense of Congress that the provision of at least 200,000 tons of wheat and 30,000 tons of rice through Public Law 480, title I and section 416 of the Agriculture Act of 1949 to the Government of Lebanon is in the interest of the United States. Provision of this assistance will meet the United States policy objective of strengthening the Central Government as well as helping alleviate a serious hunger problem. SEC. 1233. ACTING IN ACCORDANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL LAW IN
THE PERSIAN GLLE. (a) FINDINGS.-The Congress makes the form owing findings:
(1) According to Article 2 of the 1955 Geneva Convention on the High Seas, every state is entitled to exercise free and open use of the high seas for the navigation of its vedtele.
(2) On September 22, 1957, Criad Staze davy forces discovered the Iranian ship Iran Ar layır:g mines in international waters of the Persian Guif, ada fired upon that and to help terminate the mining
(3) On September 23, 1937, President Prazan delared that this United States action was "authorized by aw", 31.0 a star ment was issued by the State Legarent that the Unius States had the right usger I r sai isw us tha "reason
able and proportionate forces to a 14 TZ (b) POLICY.-It is the sense of the Comete
(1) by mining the high seas of the Persian Gulf without notifying nonbelligerent nations engaged in maritime commerce, the Government of Iran violated international law;
(2) the use of force by the United States Navy to terminate that Iranian mining was justified under international law; and
(3) fostering broader adherence to international law promotes the security interests of the United States. SEC. 1234. UNITED STATES POLICY TOWARD THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR. (a) FINDINGS.—The Congress finds that,
(1) the continuation of the Iran-Iraq war threatens the security and stability of all states in the Persian Gulf;
(2) stability in the Persian Gulf and the flow of oil is critical to world trade and the economic health of the West;
(3) the conflict between Iran and Iraq threatens United States strategic and political interests in the region;
(4) the conflict threatens international commercial shipping interests and activities; and
(5) the Iran-Iraq war has continued seven years with more than 1,500,000 casualties. (b) POLICY.—The Congress declares it to be the policy of the United States consistent with United Nations Security Council Resolution 598—
(1) to support the withdrawal of both Iran and Iraq to internationally recognized boundaries;
(2) to support an immediate cease-fire;
(3) to endorse the peaceful resolution of this conflict under the auspices of the United Nations;
(4) to encourage all governments to refrain from providing military supplies to any party which refuses to abide by United Nations Security Council Resolution 598;
(5) to recognize that stability and security in the Persian Gulf will only be achieved if Iran and Iraq are at peace and agree not to interfere in the affairs of other nations through military action or the support of terrorism; and
(6) to urge strict observance of international humanitarian law by both sides and to support financially the International Committee of the Red Cross' special appeal for prisoners of
war. SEC. 1235. IRAN HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS. (a) FINDINGS.—The Congress finds that,
(1) the United Nations has passed nine resolutions condemning the violation of human rights in Iran;
(2) the United Nations Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities stressed in Resolution 1987-12 that to date, more than two-hundred thousand Iranians have been imprisoned, tortured or executed because of their beliefs;
(3) the United Nations Commission on Human Rights confirms seven thousand executions in Iran between 1978 and 1985, and attests that the actual number is probably much higher;
(4) despite the persistent requests over the past six years by the United Nations and by many human rights organization's that the Iranian Government allow a special representative of the United Nations Security Council to inspect Iranian prisons and to determine the true extent of torture in Iran, such requests have been ignored by the Iranian Government;
(5) executions, including executions of children and members of religious minorities, still take place in Iran;
(6) the Khomeini government has brought the domestic economy of Iran to the brink of ruin by pouring the resources of the country into war making;
(7) Iran has rejected all proposals to end the seven year IranIraq war;
(8) Iran has not responded positively to United Nations Security Council Resolution 598 which calls for an end to the IranIraq war;
(9) the Khomeini government continues to attack and intimidate the other countries of the Persian Gulf region; and
(10) it is known that the Khomeini government supports terrorism and has used hostage taking as an instrument of for
eign policy. (b) POLICY.-Now, therefore, the Congress
(1) expresses concern for those citizens who must endure war and unprecedented repression;
(2) supports an official United States policy of completely halting the shipment of any kind of armament to the Government of Iran, and
(3) urges that the President continue to make every effort to cooperate with the other nations of the United Nations to bring about an end to government sponsored torture in Iranian prisons, to pressure Iran to permit inspection of Iranian prisons by an international delegation, and to respect internationally rec
ognized human rights. SEC. 1236. IRANIAN PERSECUTION OF THE BAHA'IS. (a) POLICY.It is the sense of the Congress that,
(1) the Government of Iran has systematically discriminated against the Baha'i community, including the arbitrary detention, torture, and killing of Baha'is, the seizure of Baha'i property, and the outlawing of the Baha'i faith; and
(2) Iran's gross violations of the human rights of the Baha'i community are in direct contravention of the Charter of the United Nations and the United Nations Declaration of Human
Rights. (b) IMPLEMENTATION OF POLICY.-It is the sense of Congress that the President shall take all necessary steps to focus international attention on the plight of the Baha'i community and to bring pressure to bear on the Government of Iran to cease its insidious policy of persecution.
PART E-ASIA SEC. 1241.* • • • (Repealed-1993) SEC. 1242. REPORT ON ADMINISTRATION POLICY ON AFGHANISTAN. (a) FINDINGS.-The Congress finds that,
(1) each of the substantive sanctions imposed on the Soviet Union by the United States to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan have been lifted;
(2) although the administration's policy on Afghanistan states that only “steadily increasing pressure on all frontsmilitary, political, diplomatic—will induce the Soviets to make the political decision to negotiate the withdrawal of their forces”, political and diplomatic pressures on the Soviet Union have decreased rather than increased;
(3) in the absence of a coordinated and aggressive policy by the administration regarding the war in Afghanistan, the Congress has been forced to unilaterally implement numerous programs to bring "steadily increasing pressure" to bear on the Soviet Union; and
(4) despite the failure of Soviet troops to withdraw from Afghanistan, and the serious deterioration with regard to the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, the administration is planning to lift further sanctions and initiate increasing areas
of cooperation with the Soviet Union. (b) REPORT TO CONGRESS.-(1) Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State shall provide the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee with a report listing each sanction imposed against the Soviet Union by the United States since the first anniversary of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, a detailed explanation for the lifting of each sanction, and a detailed analysis of the benefit to the Soviet Union incurred by the lifting of each sanction.
(2) Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State shall provide the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the chairman of the House Poreign Affairs Committee a comprehensive list of all areas of ongonna cooperation that could be withheld from the Soviet Union.
13, Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State shall provide the chairman of the Sene Poreign Relations Committee and the chairman of the House
en Affairs Committee with a detailed and comprehensive reDitt in a suitably classified form, and in an unclassified form, con
2 tre disposition of Soviet military forces in the Afghanistan 162126.. an account of any troop withdrawals and any new troop Art71" .'. *71., 1243. HLMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN TIBET BY THE PEOPLE'S
KEPUBLIC OF CHINA.
(1, m Stoker 1, 1987, Chinese police in Lhasa fired upon retai tncuiand unarmed Tibetan demonsriors, which in
* 24 *4/11A
met ongeton hantar was gre au3-154. 107 Sual 20%
) of the
cluded killing at least 27, 1987, endence and to
cluded hundreds of women, children, and Tibetan Buddhist monks, killing at least six and wounding many others;
(2) on September 27, 1987, a peaceful demonstration in Lhasa calling for Tibetan independence and the restoration of human rights in Tibet, which was led by hundreds of Tibetan monks, was violently broken up by Chinese authorities and 27 Tibetan Buddhist monks were arrested;
(3) in the wake of His Holiness the Dalai Lama's five point peace plan, which was presented to Members of the United States Congress during his visit to Washington in September 1987, Chinese authorities in Tibet staged, on September 24, 1987, a mass political rally at which three Tibetans were given death sentences, two of whom were executed immediately;
(4) beginning October 7, 1950, the Chinese Communist army invaded and occupied Tibet;
(5) since that time, the Chinese Government has exercised dominion over the Tibetan people, who had always considered themselves as independent, through the presence of a large occupation force;
(6) over 1,000,000 Tibetans perished from 1959 to 1979 as a direct result of the political instability, executions, imprisonment, and widescale famine engendered by the policies of the People's Republic of China in Tibet;
(7) after 1950, particularly during the ravages of China's Cultural Revolution, over 6,000 monasteries, the repositories of 1,300 years of Tibet's ancient civilization, were destroyed and their irreplaceable national legacy of art and literature either destroyed, stolen, or removed from Tibet;
(8) the exploitation of Tibet's vast mineral, forest, and animal reserves has occurred with limited benefit to the Tibetan people;
(9) Tibet's economy and education, health, and human services remain far below those of the People's Republic of China as a whole;
(10) the People's Republic of China has encouraged a large influx of Han-Chinese into Tibet, thereby undermining the political and cultural traditions of the Tibetan people;
(11) there are credible reports of many Tibetans being incarcerated in labor camps and prisons and killed for the nonviolent expression of their religious and political beliefs;
(12) His Holiness the Dalai Lama, spiritual and temporal leader of the Tibetan people, in conjunction with the 100,000 refugees forced into exile with him, has worked tirelessly for almost 30 years to secure peace and religious freedom in Tibet, as well as the preservation of the Tibetan culture;
(13) in 1959, 1961, and 1965, the United Nations General Assembly called upon the People's Republic of China to end the violations of Tibetans' human rights;
(14) on July 24, 1985, 91 Members of the Congress signed a letter to President Li Xiannian of the People's Republic of China expressing support for direct talks between Beijing and representatives of His Holiness the Dalai Lama and the Tibetans in exile, and urging the Government of the People's Republic of China “to grant the very reasonable and justified aspira