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(A) diversifying exchange opportunities so as to assist persons from professional and public life to spend time in an academic setting and to assist teachers and scholars to spend time in professional and other pursuits in the public arena;

(B) providing sharper focus to exchange activities by bringing selected grant recipients together for joint work on themes and problems identified as having current sig. nificance in international affairs; and

(C) lengthening the period of some scholarships to allow work by grant recipients to be phased over more than one

location. Sec. 108.5 * * * (Repealed-1994)

ASSISTANT SECRETARIES OF STATE SEC. 109. (a) * * *

(6) 6 The individual holding the position of Coordinator for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs on the date of enactment of this section shall assume the duties of the Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs and shall not be required to be reappointed by reason of the enactment of this section.

(7)? * * * (Repealed-1982)

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SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY TOLL NEGOTIATIONS SEC. 110. (a) There is established an advisory board (hereafter in this section referred to as the “Board”) to advise the Secretary of State with respect to the negotiations with Canada concerning toll increases on the Saint Lawrence Seaway and the Welland Canal.

(b) The Board shall consist of 15 members appointed by the President from among representatives of groups in the Great Lakes area which would be affected most directly by increased tolls, including port directors, port authorities, maritime labor, shipping companies, shippers, and consumers.

(c)(1) Members of the Board shall each be entitled to receive the daily equivalent of the maximum annual rate of basic pay in effect for grade GS-15 of the General Schedule for each day (including traveltime) during which they are engaged in the actual performance of duties vested in the Board. - (2) While away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for the Board, members of the Board shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in the same manner as persons employed intermittently in the Ciprament service are allowed expenses under section 5703 He par lmeed Sates Code.

6 Formerly at 22 U.S.C. 2151n-1. Sec. 139/4) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995 (Public Law 103-236; 108 Stat. 398), repealed sec. 108, which had required that the Secretary of State report annually on Americans incarcerated abroad.

622 U.S.C. 2384 nole. This position has been restated in sec. 1(cX2) of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956, as amended by sec. 161(a) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1995 and 1996, as the Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.

Paragraph (7), which had required a report from the Secretary of State on operations and organization plans for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Human Rights and HumaniLarian Astairs, was repcalcd by sec. 505/a X3) of Public Law 97-241 (96 Stat. 299). The Secretary submitted this report on January 31, 1978.

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forming the basis for such retirement benefits is not used as the basis for any other retirement benefits under any retirement system.

(c) In the event that an officer who is entitled to retirement benefits under this section dies before reaching the age of fifty, but after the date of enactment of this section, his or her death shall be considered a death in service within the meaning of section 832 of the Foreign Service Act of 1946,11 except that no survivor's annuity (other than a survivor's annuity which would be payable under the first complete sentence in section 634(b)(2) of such Act but for the enactment of this section) shall become effective before October 1, 1977.

(d) An officer entitled to retirement benefits under this section may make the election described in section 821 (b) or (f), as appropriate, of the Foreign Service Act of 1946 11 at any time before reaching the age of fifty or before the end of the sixty-day period beginning on the date of enactment of this section, whichever is later.

COMPENSATION FOR JUNIOR FOREIGN SERVICE OFFICERS SEC. 412. (a)(1) Paragraph (2) of section 5541 of title 5, United States Code, is amended_12

(A) by striking out “or” at the end of clause (xii);

(B) by striking out the period at the end of clause (xiii) and inserting in lieu thereof a semicolon; and (C) by adding at the end thereof the following clauses:

"(xiv) a 'Foreign Service officer' within the meaning of section 401 of the Foreign Service Act of 1946; or

"(xv) a 'Foreign Service information officer' as provided for by the first section of the Act entitled 'An Act to promote the foreign policy of the United States by strengthening and improving the Foreign Service personnel system of the International Communication Agency 13 through establishment of a Foreign Service Information Officer Corps,'

approved August 20, 1968”. (2) The amendments made by paragraph (1) shall take effect on October 1, 1978. (b) 14 * * * (Repealed-1978] SEC. 413.15 * * * (Repealed-1981)

11 Such Act was repealed by the Foreign Service Act of 1980.

12 This amendment to section 5541 of title 5 excluded Foreign Service officers from civil serv. ice law which required overtime pay for certain Federal employees of GS-10 or lesser rank.

13 The reference to the International Communication Agency was substituted in lieu of a reference to the United States Information Agency by sec. 204/bX5) of Public Law 95 426 (92 Stat. 974). However, sec. 303 of Public Law 97-241 (96 Stat. 291) redesignated the Agency as the United States Information Agency and directed that any reference to the International Communication Agency shall be deemed to refer to the United States Information Agency.

14 Subsec. (b), which had provided for a $250 per annum salary increase for Foreign Service officers in classes 5 through 8, was repealed by sec. 410 of Public Law 95-426 (92 Stat. 980). Such salary increase became effective with pay periods beginning on or aner October 1, 1978.

16 Sec. 413 was repcaled by sec. 2205(3) of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (Public Law 96465; 94 Stat. 2160). For current text concerning the employment of family members of Foreign Service personnel, see sec. 311 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980.

LANGUAGE TRAINING FOR FOREIGN SERVICE SPOUSES SEC. 414.16 It is the sense of Congress that, in order to increase the effectiveness of United States diplomatic representation abroad, the Secretary of State should make greater use of his authority under section 701 of the Foreign Service Act of 1946 in order to increase the language training opportunities available to the family members of Foreign Service personnel.

TITLE V-MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Sec. 501.17 * * * (Repealed—1982)

BELGRADE CONFERENCE SEC. 502. The Congress finds that the Belgrade Conference to review compliance with the Helsinki Accords provides the United States an important forum to press its case for greater respect for human rights. Furthermore, the Congress is convinced that the emphasis given human rights in general by the United States should be translated into concern for specific individuals. In this regard, the Congress is particularly concerned about the fate of Anatoly Shcharansky and urges the United States representatives to the Belgrade Conference to express the official concern of the United States over the Shcharansky case.

UNITED NATIONS REFORM SEC. 503.18 The United States should make a major effort toward reforming and restructuring the United Nations system so that it might become more effective in resolving global problems. Toward that end, the United States should present a program for United Nations reform to the Special United Nations Committee on the Charter of the United Nations and on Strengthening of the Role of the Organization. In developing such a program the United States should give appropriate consideration to various possible proposals for reforming the United Nations, including but not limited to proposals which would

(1) adjust decisionmaking processes in the United Nations by providing voting in the General Assembly weighted according to population and contributions and by modifying veto powers on certain categories of questions, such as membership recommendations, in the Security Council;

(2) foster greater use of the International Court of Justice by the United States and other members of the United Nations; (3) supplement United Nations finances through contributions from commerce, services, and resources regulated by the United Nations;

16 22 U.S.C. 1041 note. Sec. 505/aX3) of Public Law 97-241 (96 Stat. 299) repealed subsec. (b) of this section which had required a report from the Secretary of State on increased language training opportunity for the families of Foreign Service personnel. The Secretary submitted this report on December 20, 1977.

17 Sec. 501, which had required a report from the President containing recommendations for reorganizing the international information, education, cullural, and broadcasting activities of the United States, was repcaled by sec. 505/a X3) of Public Law 97-241 (96 Stat. 299). The Presi. dent submitted this report on October 31, 1977.

18 Sec. 505(aX3) of Public Law 97-241 (96 Slat. 299) repealed subsec. (b) of this section which had required a report from the President on recommendations for reform in the United Nations. The President submitted this report on March 7, 1978.

(4) improve coordination of and expand United Nations activities on behalf of human rights;

(5) establish more effective United Nations machinery for the peaceful settlement of disputes, including means for the submission of differences to mediation or arbitration;

(6) adjust assessment scale calculations to reflect more accurately the actual ability of member nations to contribute to the United Nations and its specialized agencies; and

(7) provide greater coordination of United Nations technical assistance activities by the United Nations Development program.

INFORMATION OFFICES IN THE UNITED STATES SEC. 504. It is the sense of the Congress that any foreign country should be allowed to maintain an information office in the United States if maintenance of such office is consistent with United States law.

REPARATIONS FOR VIETNAM Sec. 505.19 The President shall continue to take all possible steps to obtain a final accounting of all Americans missing in action in Vietnam.

PANAMA CANAL SEC. 506. Any new Panama Canal treaty or agreement negotiated with funds appropriated under this Act must protect the vital interests of the United States in the Canal Zone and in the operation, maintenance, property, and defense of the Panama Canal.

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UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR

DEVELOPMENT SEC. 507. (a) The President shall take appropriate steps to ensure that, at all stages of the United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development, representatives of the United States place important emphasis, in both official statements and informal discussions, on the development and use of light capital technologies in agriculture, in industry, and in the production and conservation of energy.

(b) As used in this section, the term "light capital technologies” means those means of production which economize on capital wherever capital is scarce and expensive and labor abundant and cheap, the purposes being to insure that the increasingly scarce capital in the world can be stretched to help all, rather than a small minority, of the world's poor; that workers will not be displaced by sophisticated labor-saving devices where there is already much un

1822 U.S.C. 2151 note. Sec. 505(aX3) of Public Law 97–241 (96 Stat. 299) repealed subsec. (a) of this section which had prohibited the use of any funds authorized to be appropriated by this Act for reparations, aid, or any other form of payment to Vietnam.

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