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mit an act of terrorism against a United States person or property, or

(3) leading to the prevention, frustration, or favorable resohution of an act of terrorism against a United States person or

property. "(b)2 With respect to acts of espionage involving or directed at the United States, the Attorney General may reward any individ ual who furnished information

"(1) leading to the arrest or conviction, in any country, of any individual or individuals for commission of an act of espionage against the United States;

"(2) leading to arrest or conviction, in any country, of any in. dividual or individuals for conspiring or attempting to commit an act of espionage against the United States; or

"(3) leading to the prevention or frustration of an act of espi.

onage against the United States. “8 3072. Determination of entitlement; maximum amount:

Presidential approval; conclusiveness “The Attorney General shall determine whether an individual furnishing information described in section 3071 is entitled to a reward and the amount to be paid. A reward under this section may be in an amount not to exceed $500,000. A reward of $100,000 or more may not be made without the approval of the President or the Attorney General personally. A determination made by the Attorney General or the President under this chapter shall be final and conclusive, and no court shall have power or jurisdiction to review


"§ 3073. Protection of identity

“Any reward granted under this chapter shall be certified for payment by the Attorney General. If it is determined that the iden. tity of the recipient of a reward or of the members of the recipient's immediate family must be protected, the Attorney General may take such measures in connection with the payment of the reward as deemed necessary to effect such protection. “ 3074. Exception of governmental officials

"No officer or employee of any governmental entity who, while in the performance of his or her official duties, furnishes the information described in section 3071 shall be eligible for any monetary reward under this chapter. "83075. Authorization for appropriations

"There are authorized to be appropriated, without fiscal year limitation, $5,000,000 for the purpose of this chapter. up 3076. Eligibility for witness security program

"Any individual (and the immediate family of the individual) who furnishes information which would justil power brother Attorney General under this chapter or by the far 16#11 A state under section 36 of the State Department Ban ites bet of

2 ber

ID: 12, u Public Law 103–354 1953

U.S.C. 12. of the of the United

1956 may, in the discretion of the Attorney General, participate in the Attorney General's witness security program authorized under chapter 224 of this title.3 "83077. Definitions "As used in this chapter, the term"(1) 'act of terrorism' means an activity that,

"(A) involves a violent act or an act dangerous to human life that is a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State, or that would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States; and “(B) appears to be intended

"(i) to intimidate or coerce a civilian population;

"(ii) to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or

"(iii) to affect the conduct of a government by assas

sination or kidnapping; 4
“(2) 'United States person' means,

"(A) a national of the United States as defined in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(22));

"(B) an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States as defined in section 101(a)(20) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(20));

"(C) any person within the United States;

“(D) any employee or contractor of the United States Government, regardless of nationality, who is the victim or intended victim of an act of terrorism by virtue of that employment;

"(E) a sole proprietorship, partnership, company, or association composed principally of nationals or permanent resident aliens of the United States; and

"(F) a corporation organized under the laws of the United States, any State, the District of Columbia, or any territory or possession of the United States, and a foreign sub

sidiary of such corporation; 4 “(3) 'United States property' means any real or personal property which is within the United States or, if outside the United States, the actual or beneficial ownership of which rests in a United States person or any Federal or State governmental entity of the United States; 4

"(4)5 'United States',6 when used in a geographical sense, includes Puerto Rico and all territories and possessions of the United States;

3 Sec. 46 of Public Law 994646 (100 Stat. 3601) struck out "title V of the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970" at this point and inserted in lieu thereof “chapter 224 of this title".

*Sec. 3572 of Public Law 101-647 (104 Slat, 4929) struck out a period at the end each of paras.(1), (2), (3), and (5), inserted in lieu thereof a semicolon; and struck out a period at the end of (6) and inserted in lieu thereor "; and".

Sec. 330021(1) of Public Law 103-322 (108 Slat. 2150) corrected the spelling of "kidnapping”.

o Sec. 7051 of Public Law 100-690 (102 Slat. 4401) restated sec. 3077(4). This text was for. merly designated as "(A)". Para. (B) was struck out; it read as follows:

"(B) when used in the context of section 3073 shall have the meaning given to it in the Immigration wality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.).".

ic Law 101-647 (104 Stat. 4929) reversed the comma and quotation mark.

"(5) 'State' includes any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any other possession or territory of the United States; 4

“(6) 'government entity' includes the Government of the United States, any State or political subdivision thereof, any foreign country, and any state, provincial, municipal, or other political subdivision of a foreign country; ?

"(7) ‘Attorney General means the Attorney General of the United States or that official designated by the Attorney General to perform the Attorney General's responsibilities under this chapter; and ?

"(8)? 'act of espionage' means an activity that is a violation of

"(A) section 793, 794, or 798 o title 18, United States Code; or

"(B) section 4 of the Subversive Activities Control Act of

1950.". (b) The chapter analysis of part II of title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding after the item relating to chapter 203 the following new item: "204. Rewards for information concerning terrorists acts and espionage 8 ....... 3071".



SEC. 201. (a) The President is urged to seek more effective international cooperation in combatting international terrorism, includ


(1) severe punishment for acts of terrorism, which endanger the lives of diplomatic staff, military personnel, other government personnel, or private citizens; and

(2) extradition of all terrorists and their accomplices to the country where the terrorist incident occurred or whose citizens were victims of the incident. (b) High priority should also be given to negotiations leading to the establishment of a permanent international working group which would combat international terrorism by

(1) promoting international cooperation among countries;

(2) developing new methods, procedures, and standards to combat international terrorism;

(3) negotiating agreements for exchanges of information and intelligence and for technical assistance; and

(4) examining the use of diplomatic immunity and diplomatic facilities to further international terrorism.

? Sec. 803(b) of Public Law 103–359 (108 Stat. 3429) struck out "and" at the end of para. (6), replaced the period at the end of para. (7) with "; and"; and added a new para. (8).

Sec. 803(c) of Public Law 103_359 (108 Stat. 3429) added reference to espionage.

Sec. 102 amended the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956 by adding a new sec.


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i. Hostage Relief Act of 1980 1 ıblic Law 96-449 (H.R. 7085), 94 Stat. 1967, approved October 14, 1980 N ACT To provide certain benefits to individuals held hostage in Iran and to

similarly situated individuals, and for other purposes. e it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the * *ted States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may cited as the "Hostage Relief Act of 1980”.


sonal sea civil the Seche

DEFINITIONS SEC. 101. For purposes of this title

(1) The term "American hostage” means any individual who, while

(A) in the civil service or the uniformed services of the United States, or

(B) a citizen or resident alien of the United States rendering personal service to the United States abroad similar to the service of a civil officer or employee of the United

States (as determined by the Secretary of State), is placed in a captive status during the hostage period.

(2) The term "hostage period” means the period beginning on November 4, 1979, and ending on the later of

(A) the date the President specifies, by Executive order, as the date on which all citizens and resident aliens of the United States who were placed in a captive status due to the seizure of the United States Embassy in Iran have been returned to the United States or otherwise accounted for, or

(B) January 1, 1983. (3) The term "family member", when used with respect to any American hostage, means

(A) any dependent (as defined in section 5561 of title 5, United States Code) of such hostage; and

(B) any member of the hostage's family or household (as determined under regulations which the Secretary of State

shall prescribe). (4) The term "captive status” means a missing status arising because of a hostile action abroad

(A) which is directed against the United States during the hostage period; and

15 U.S.C. 5561 note. See also sec. 599C of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101-513; 104 Stat. 2064), as amended by sec. 302 of Public Law 102-138 (105 Stat. 707), and further amended by sec. 5 of Public law 102-499 (106 Stat. 3266), relating to benefits for U.S. hostages in Iraq and Kuwait and U.S. hostages captured in Lebanon.

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