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a. United States Information and Educational Exchange Act

of 1948, as amended

Public Law 80-402 (H.R. 3342), 62 Stat. 6, approved January 27, 1948; as

amended by Public Law 82–298 (S. 2077), 66 Stat. 43, approved April 6, 1952; Public Law 82-414 (Immigration and Nationality Act, H.R. 5678), 66 Stat. 276, approved June 27, 1952; Public Law 83-665 (Mutual Security Act of 1954, H.R. 9678), 68 Stat. 862, approved August 26, 1954; Public Law 84-555 (S. 2562), 70 Stat. 241, approved June 4, 1956; Public Law 84-726 (Mutual Security Act of 1956, H.R. 11356), 70 Stat. 555, approved July 18, 1956; Public Law 85-477 (H.R. 12181), 72 Stat. 261, approved June 30, 1958; Public Law 87-139 (H.R. 3279), 75 Stat. 339, approved August 14, 1961; Public Law 87-256 (Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961, H.R. 8666), 75 Stat. 527, approved September 21, 1961; Public Law 92-226 (Foreign Assistance Act of 1971, S. 2819), 86 Stat. 20, approved Feb. ruary 7, 1972; Public Law 92–264 (S. 18), 86 Stat. 114, approved March 30, 1972; Public Law 92-352 (Foreign Relations Authorization Act of 1972, H.R. 14734), 86 Stat. 489, approved July 13, 1972; Public Law 92 394 (S. 3645), 86 Stat. 577, approved August 20, 1972; Public Law 93-59 (S. 1972), 87 Stat. 142, approved July 6, 1973; Public Law 93–168 (USIA Appropria. tions Authorization Act of 1973, S. 2681), 87 Stat. 688, approved November 29, 1973; Public Law 93 475 (USIA Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1975; S. 3473), 88 Stat. 1439, approved October 26, 1974; Public Law 94–350 (For. eign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1977; S. 3168), 90 Stat. 823, approved July 12, 1976; Public Law 95–426 (Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1979; H.R. 12598), 92 Stat. 963 at 974, approved October 7, 1978; Public Law 96-60 (International Communication Agency Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1980 and 1981; H.R. 3363), 93 Stat. 395 at 398, approved August 15, 1979; Public Law 96-470 (Congressional Reports Elimination Act of 1980, H.R. 6686), 94 Stat. 2237 at 2240, approved Octo. ber 19, 1980; Public Law 97-241 (Department of State Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1982 and 1983; S. 1193), 96 Stat. 273, approved August 24, 1982; Public Law 98-164 (Department of State Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1984 and 1985; H.R. 2915), 97 Stat. 1017, approved November 22, 1983; Public Law 99-93 (Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1986 and 1987; H.R. 2068), 99 Stat. 405, approved August 16, 1985; Public Law 100-204 (Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989; H.R. 1777), 101 Stat. 1331, approved December 22, 1987; Public Law 101-246 (Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991; H.R. 3792), 104 Stat. 15, approved February 16, 1990; Public Law 102-138 (Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993; H.R. 1415), 105 Stat. 647, approved October 28, 1991; Public Law 102 499 (H.R. 6047), 106 Stat. 3264, approved October 24, 1992; Public Law 103–236 (For. eign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995; H.R. 2333), 108 Stat. 382, approved April 30, 1994; Public Law 103_415 (H.R. 5034), 108 Stat. 4299, approved October 25, 1994 AN ACT To promote the better understanding of the United States among the

peoples of the world and to strengthen cooperative international relations. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, TITLE I_SHORT TITLE, OBJECTIVES, AND DEFINITIONS

SHORT TITLE SECTION 1. This Act may be cited as the “United States Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948”.

OBJECTIVES SEC. 2.1 The Congress hereby declares that the objectives of this Act are to enable the Government of the United States to promote a better understanding of the United States in other countries, and to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of other countries. Among the means to be used in achieving these objectives are

(1) an information service to disseminate abroad information about the United States, its people, and policies promulgated by the Congress, the President, the Secretary of State and other responsible officials of Government having to do with matters affecting foreign affairs;

(2) (Repealed by Public Law 87-256 (75 Stat. 527; 22 U.S.C. 1431(a), approved September 21, 1961.)

UNITED NATIONS SEC. 3.2 In carrying out the objectives of this Act, information concerning the participation of the United States in the United Nations, its organizations and functions, shall be emphasized.

DEFINITIONS SEC. 4.3 When used in this Act, the term(1) 4 "Secretary” means the Secretary of State. (2) 4 “Department” means the Department of State.

(3) “Government agency" means any executive department, board, bureau, commission, or other agency of the Federal Government, or independent establishment, or any corporation wholly owned (either directly or through one or more corporations) by the United States.

122 U.S.C. 1431. In an effort to strengthen the objectives and purposes of this Act, sec. 501 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1978 (91 Stal. 857), called on the President to submit a report to Congress by October 31, 1977, conlaining his recommendations for reorganizing the international informalion, education, cultural, and broadcasting activities of

States. Pursuant to such request, the President submitted Reorganization Plan Na 2 of 1977 on October 11, 1977, which would establish a new International Communication Agen cy by consolidating the functions of the State Department's Burcau of Educational and Cultural Alains and USIA. Such reorganization plan became effective on April 1, 1978.

2 22 U.S.C. 1432. 322 U.S.C. 1433.

* Pursuant to sec. 7 of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1977, all functions vested in the President Secretary of State, the Department of State, the Director of the United States Information Agency, and the United States Information Agency were transferred to the Director of the Inter national Communication Agency. As now codificd, these definitions refer to the "Director and the "Agency” rather than the "Secretary and the “Department".

Subsequently, sec. 303(b) of Public Law 97–241 (96 Stat. 291) redesignated the International Communication Agency as the United States Information Agency and stated that any reference to the Interational Communication Agency in any statute, reorganization plan, Executive order, regulation, agreement, determination, or other official document or proceeding, shall be deemed to be a reference to the United States Information Agency. Sec. 303 also stated that

3 to the Director or other official of the International Communication Agency shall be deemed to refer to the Director or other official of the United States Information Agency,

TITLE II—INTERCHANGE OF PERSONS, KNOWLEDGE AND

SKILLS

PERSONS
SEC. 201.5 * * * (Repealed-1961)

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BOOKS AND MATERIALS SEC. 202.6 The Secretary? is authorized to provide for interchanges between the United States and other countries of books and periodicals, including government publications, for the translation of such writings, and for the preparation, distribution, and interchange of other educational materials.

INSTITUTIONS SEC. 203.8,9 The Secretary? is authorized to provide for assistance to schools, libraries, and community centers abroad, founded or sponsored by citizens of the United States, and serving as demonstration centers for methods and practices employed in the United States. In assisting any such schools, however, the Secretary? shall exercise no control over their educational policies and shall in no case furnish assistance of any character which is not in keeping with the free democratic principles and the established foreign policy of the United States.

TITLE III-ASSIGNMENT OF SPECIALISTS

PERSONS TO BE ASSIGNED Sec. 301.10 The Director of the United States Information Agency 11 is authorized, when the government of another country is desirous of obtaining the services of a person having special scientific or other technical or professional qualifications, from time to time to assign or authorize the assignment for service, to or in coopera

o Sec. 201, which authorized the interchange of persons on a reciprocal basis between the United States and other countries, was repcaled by sec. 111 of Public Law 87-256 (75 Stat. 538).

822 U.S.C. 1447.

?Pursuant to sec. 7(aX1) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1977, all functions vested in the President, Secretary of State, the Department of State, the Director of the United States Information Agency, and the United States Information Agency by this Act were transferred to the Director of the International Communication Agency. The codified version of this Act has been changed to reflect this transfer of authority.

Subsequently, sec. 303(b) of Public Law 97–241 (96 Stat. 291) redesignated the International Communication Agency as the United States Information Agency and stated that any reference to the International Communication Agency in any statute, reorganization plan, Executive order, regulation, agreement, determination, or other official document or proceeding, shall be deemed to be a reference to the United Stales Information Agency. Sec. 303 also stated that references to the Director or other official of the International Communication Agency shall be deemed to refer to the Director or other official of the United States Information Agency.

822 U.S.C. 1448. This section has been repcaled insofar as it related to schools, by Public Law 87-256 (75 Stat. 527).

This section was referred to in sec. 104(j) of Public Law 83-480 (68 Slat. 454), as amended by Public Law 84–962 (70 Stat. 988).

10 22 U.S.C. 1451.

11 The reference to the Director of the United States Information Agency was inserted in lieu of a reference to the Secretary of State by sec. 304(a X2) of Public ! ** 241 (96 Stat. 292). Previously, Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1977, which establishert

al Communication Agency, stated that all functions vested in the Secretary

t were transferred to the Director of the International Communication Age

tion with such government, any person 12 in the employ or service of the Government of the United States who has such qualifications, with the approval of the Government agency in which such person is employed or serving. No person shall be assigned for service to or in cooperation with the government of any country unless (1) the Director 11 finds that such assignment is necessary in the national interest of the United States, or (2) such government agrees to reimburse the United States in an amount equal to the compensation, travel expenses, and allowances payable to such person during the period of such assignment in accordance with the provisions of section 302, or (3) such government shall have made an advance of funds, property, or services as provided in section 902. Nothing in this Act, however, shall authorize the assignment of such personnel for service relating to the organization, training, operation, development, or combat equipment of the armed forces of a foreign government.

STATUS AND ALLOWANCES Sec. 302.13 Any person in the employ or service of the Govern. ment of the United States, 14 while assigned for service to or in cooperation with another government under the authority of this Act, shall be considered, for the purpose of preserving his rights, allowances, and privileges as such, an officer or employee of the Government of the United States and of the Government agency from which assigned and he shall continue to receive compensation from that agency. He may also receive, under such regulations as the President may prescribe, representation allowances similar to those allowed under section 905 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980.15 The authorization of such allowances and other benefits and the pay. ment thereof out of any appropriations available therefor shall be considered as meeting all the requirements of section 5536 of title 5, United States Code. 16

ACCEPTANCE OF OFFICE UNDER ANOTHER GOVERNMENT SEC. 303.17 Any person in the employ or service of the Government of the United States, 14 while assigned for service to or in cooperation with another government under authority of this Act may, at the discretion of his Government agency, with the concurrence of the Director of the United States Information Agency, 11 and without additional compensation therefor, accept an office under the government to which he is assigned, if the acceptance of such an office in the opinion of such agency is necessary to permit the effective performance of duties for which he is assigned, including the making or approving on behalf of such foreign government the disbursement of funds provided by such government or of receiving from such foreign government funds for deposit and disbursement on behalf of such government, in carrying out programs undertaken pursuant to this Act: Provided, however, That such acceptance of office shall in no case involve the taking of an oath of allegiance to another government.

12 The word "person" was inserted in lieu of citizen of the United States" by sec. 304(aX1) of Public Law 97-241 (96 Slat. 292).

13 22 U.S.C. 1452.

14 The words 'person in the employ or service of the Government of the United States" were inserted in lieu of "citizen of the United States" by sec. 302(aX1) of Public Law 97-241 (96 Stat. 292).

16 The reference to sec. 905 of the Forcign Service Act of 1980 was inserted in lieu of a reference to sec. 901(3) of the Foreign Service Act of 1946 (60 Stat 990) by sec. 304(aX3) of Public Law 97–241 (96 Stat 292).

16 The reference to 5 U.S.C. 5536 was inserted in lieu of a reference to sec. 1765 of the Revised Statutes by sec. 31 of Public Law 97–241 (96 Stat. 292).

17 22 U.S.C.:

TITLE IV-PARTICIPATION BY GOVERNMENT AGENCIES

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GENERAL AUTHORITY SEC. 401.18 The Secretary 19 is authorized, in carrying on any activity under the authority of this Act, to utilize, with the approval of the President, the services, facilities, and personnel of the other Government agencies. Whenever the Secretary 19 shall use the services, facilities, or personnel of any Government agency for activities under authority of this Act, the Secretary 19 shall pay for such performance out of funds available to the Secretary 19 under this Act, either in advance, by reimbursement, or direct transfer. The Secretary 19 shall include in each report submitted to the Congress under section 1008 a statement of the services, facilities, and personnel of other Government agencies utilized in carrying on activities under the authority of this Act, showing the names and salaries of the personnel utilized, or performing services utilized, during the period covered by such report, and the amounts paid to such other agencies under this section as payment for such performance.

TECHNICAL AND OTHER SERVICES SEC. 402.20 A Government agency, at the request of the Secretary, 19 may perform such technical or other services as such agency may be competent to render for the government of another country desirous of obtaining such services, upon terms and conditions which are satisfactory to the Secretary 19 and to the head of the Government agency, when it is determined by the Secretary 19 that such services will contribute to the purposes of this Act. However, nothing in this Act shall authorize the performance of services relating to the organization, training, operation, development, or combat equipment of the armed forces of a foreign government.

18 22 U.S.C. 1456.

19 Pursuant to sec. 7(aX1) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1977, all functions vested in the President, Secretary of State, the Department of State, the Director of the United States Infor. mation Agency, and the United States Information Agency by this Act were transferred to the Director of the International Communication Agency. The codified version of this Act has been changed to resect this transfer of authority.

Subsequently, sec. 303(b) of Public Law 97-241 (96 Stat. 291) redesignated the International Communication Agency as the United States Information Agency and stated that any reference to the International Communication Agency in any stalule, reorganization plan, Executive order, regulation, agreement, determination, or other official document or proceeding, shall be deemed to be a reference to the United Stales Informalion Agency. Sec. 303 also stated that references to the Director or other official of the International Communication Agency shall be deemed to refer to the Director or other official of the United States Information Agency.

20 22 U.S.C. 1457.

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