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(1) The authority of the Secretary of State to make recommendations to the President for the commissioning of Foreign Service Reserve officers as diplomatic or consular officers, or both, under section 524 of the Foreign Service Act of 1946, as amended, and to make recommendations for the commissioning of Foreign Service staff officers or employees as consuls under section 533 of such act, and the authority of the Secretary to commission Foreign Service staff officers as vice consuls under the said section 533. The Director may, whenever he considers it necessary to carry out the functions transferred to him by the said Reorganization Plan No. 8 of 1953, request the Secretary of State to recommend to the President that persons employed under section 2(a) of this order be commissioned as diplomatic or consular officers, or both, or to grant such persons diplomatic or consular commissions, as appropriate.

(2) The authority vested in the President by sections 443 and 901 of the Foreign Service Act of 1946, as amended, which has been delegated to the Secretary of State by Executive Orders Nos. 10000 and 10011, and successive amendments thereof, to designate places, fix rates and prescribe regulations governing the payment of additional compensation, known as “foreign post differential”, to employees in foreign areas of executive departments and independent establishments of the United States, and to designate places, fix rates, and prescribe regulations, with respect to civilian employees of the Government serving abroad, governing living-quarters allowances, cost-of-living allowances, and representation allowances.

Sec. 3. Authority under various other statutes. The Director is authorized to exercise the authority available to the Secretary of State or the Director of the Foreign Operations Administration, as the case may be, under the following-described provisions of law:

(a) The Foreign Service Buildings Act of 1926, as amended (22 U.S.C. 292–300), regarding the acquisition, construction, alteration, repair, furnishing, exchange, and disposal of buildings and grounds in foreign countries.

(b) The act of July 9, 1949 (5 U.S.C. 170 a, b, and c), regarding the transfer, acquisition, use, and disposal of international broadcasting facilities.

(c) The act of August 3, 1950 (19 U.S.C. 1201, par. 1628), regarding the importation of sound recordings.

(d) The provisions under the first heading “Salaries and Expenses” of the Department of State Appropriation Act, 1954, regarding (1) employment of aliens, by contract, for services abroad, (2) purchase of uniforms, (3) cost of transporting to and from a place of storage and the cost of storing the furniture and household effects of an employee of the Foreign Service who is assigned to a post at which he is unable to use his furniture and effects, under such regulations as the Secretary of State may prescribe, (4) dues for library membership in organizations which issue publications to members only, or to members at a price lower than to others, (5) examination of estimates of appropriations in the field, (6) purchase of ice and drinking water abroad, (7) payment of excise taxes on negotiable instruments abroad, and (8) procurement, by contract or otherwise, of services, supplies, and facilities, as follows: (i) maintenance, improvement, and repair of properties used for international information activities in foreign countries, (ii) fuel and utilities for Government-owned or leased property abroad, and (iii) rental or lease for periods not exceeding ten years of offices, buildings, ground, and living quarters, and the furnishing of living quarters to officers and employees engaged in international information activities abroad (22 U.S.C. 291).

(e) The provisions of the Department of State Appropriation Act, 1954, regarding (1) exchange of funds for payment of expenses in connection with the operation of information establishments abroad without regard to the provisions of section 3651 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 543) (section 103 of the General Provisions of the Department of State Appropriation Act, 1954), (2) payment of travel expenses outside the continental limits of the United States from funds available in the fiscal year that such travel is authorized and actually begins (section 104 of the General Provisions of the Department of State Appropriation Act, 1954), (3) granting authority to the chief of each information Field Staff to approve, with the concurrence of the Chief of Mission, use of Government-owned vehicles for travel under conditions described in section 105 of the General Provisions of the Department of State Appropriation Act, 1954, and (4) purchase with foreign currencies for use abroad of passenger motor vehicles (exclusive of buses, ambulances, and station wagons) at a cost not to exceed the equivalent of $2,200 for each vehicle (section 106 of the General Provisions of the Department of State Appropriation Act, 1954).

(f) Section 202 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (5 U.S.C. 156), so far as it authorizes the Secretary of State to keep the American public informed about the international information aspects of the United States foreign affairs.

(g) Section 504(d) of the Mutual Security Act of 1951, as amended (relating to reduction in personnel), with respect_to personnel transferred from the Mutual Security Agency or the Foreign Operations Administration to the United States Information Agency.

(h) Section 161 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (5 U.S.C. 301) and section 4 of the act of May 26, 1949 (5 U.S.C. 151c), regarding the promulgation of rules and regulations and the delegation of authority.

Sec. 4. Effective date. This order shall become effective on August 1, 1953.

U.S.C. 156), so ptiblic informe foreign affair

2. Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act and

Related Materials

a. Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961,

as amended (Fulbright-Hays Act) Public Law 87-256 (HR. 8666), 76 Stat. 527, approved September 21, 1961;

as amended by Public Law 87-566 (Foreign Assistance Act of 1962, S. 2996), 76 Stat. 255, approved August 1, 1962; Public Law 87-793 (HR. 7927), 76 Stat. 832, approved October 11, 1962; Public Law 89 698 (HR. 14263), 80 Stat. 1066, approved October 29, 1966; Public Law 94-360 (For. eign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1977; S. 3168), 90 Stat. 823, approved July 12, 1976; Public Law 96426 (Foreign Relations Authoriza. tion Act, Fiscal Year 1979; H.R. 12598), 92 Stat. 963 at 973, approved October 7, 1978; Public Law 96 60 (ICA Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1980 and 1981; H.R. 3363) 93 Stat. 396 at 398, approved August 16, 1979; Public Law 96-465 (Foreign Service Act of 1980, H.R. 6790), 94 Stat. 2071 at 2160, approved October 17, 1980; Public Law 96-470 (Congressional Reports Elimination Act of 1980, H.R. 6686), 94 Stat. 2237 at 2246, approved Octo. ber 19, 1980; Public Law 98-164 (Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fis. cal Years 1984 and 1985; H.R. 2915), 87 Stat. 1017, approved November 22, 1983; Public Law 100-204 (Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989; H.R. 1777), 101 Stat. 1331, approved December 22, 1987; Public Law 101-246 (Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991; H.R. 3792), 104 Stat. 16, approved February 16, 1990; Public Law 102-54 (Veterans Programs for Housing and Memorial Affairs Amendments; H.R. 232), 106 Stat. 267, approved June 13, 1991; Public Law 103–199 (FRIENDSHIP Act; H.R. 3000), 107 Stat. 2317, approved December 17, 1993; Public Law 103–236 (Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995; H.R. 2333), 108 Stat. 382, approved April 30, 1994

AN ACT To provide for the improvement and strengthening of the international re

lations of the United States by promoting better mutual understanding among the peoples of the world through educational and cultural exchanges.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the “Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961."

SEC. 101.1 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE.—The purpose of this Act is to enable the Government of the United States to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of other countries by means of educational and cultural exchange; to strengthen the ties which unite us with other nations by demonstrating the educational and cultural interests, developments, and achievements of the people of the United States and other nations, and the contributions being made toward a peaceful and more fruitful life for people throughout the world; to promote international cooperation for educational and cultural advancement; and thus to assist in the development of friendly, sympa

122 U.S.C. 2451. Sec. 107 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1978 (91 Stat. 845), called for a strengthening of educational exchange programs. For text of the congressional findings and reference to a report due from State Department regarding these programs, see page 416.

thetic, and peaceful relations between the United States and the other countries of the world.

SEC. 102.2 (a) The President 3 is authorized, when he considers that it would strengthen international cooperative relations, to provide, by grant, contract, or otherwise, for

(1) educational exchanges, (i) by financing studies, research, instructions, and other educational activities

(A) of or for American citizens and nationals in foreign countries, and

(B) of or for citizens and nationals of foreign countries in American schools and institutions of learning located in

or outside the United States; and (ii) by financing visits and interchanges between the United States and other countries of students, trainees, teachers, instructors, and professors; (2) cultural exchanges, by financing,

(i) visits and interchanges between the United States and other countries of leaders, experts in fields of specialized knowledge or skill, and other influential or distinguished persons;

(ii) tours in countries abroad by creative and performing artists and athletes from the United States, individually and in groups, representing any field of the arts, sports, or any other form of cultural attainment;

(iii) United States representation in international artistic, dramatic, musical, sports, and other cultural festivals, competitions, meetings, and like exhibitions and assemblies;

(iv) participation by groups and individuals from other countries in nonprofit activities in the United States similar to those described in subparagraphs (ii) and (iii) of this paragraph, when the President 3 determines that such par

ticipation is in the national interest. (3)4 United States participation in international fairs and expositions abroad, including trade and industrial fairs and

322 U.S.C. 2452. See also sec. 602 of Public Law 101-610, page 1013. See also Public Law 102–138, sec. 210 (Claude and Mildred Pepper Scholarship Program), sec. 214 (Israeli Arab Scholarship Program), sec. 225 (Eastern Europe Student Exchange Endowment Fund). sec. 226 (Enhanced Educational Exchange Program), sec. 227 (law and business training), sec. 228 (Near and Middle East research and training), and sec. 229 (echolarships for Vietnamese), beginning at page 927.

See also sec. 807 of the Freedom Support Act (Public Law 102-511; 106 Stat. 3353), page 1040.

3 Pursuant to sec. 7(aX1) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1977, all functions vested in the President, Secretary of State, the Department of State, the Director of the United States Infor. mation Agency, and the United States Information Agency by this section except for those in subsecs. (6X6) and (6X10) were transferred to the Director of the International Communication Agency. The codified version of this Act has been changed to reflect this transfer of authority.

Subsequently, sec. 303 of Public Law 97-241 (96 Stat. 291) redesignated the International Communication Agency as the United States Information Agency and stated that any reference to the International Communication Agency in any statute, reorganization plan, Executive order, regulation, agreement, determination, or other official document or proceeding, shall be deemed to be a reference to the United States Information Agency. Sec. 303 also stated that references to the Director or other official of the International Communication Agency shall be deemed to refer to the Director or other official of the United States Information Agency.

This paragraph was amended by sec. 403 of Public Law 87-565 (76 Stat. 263; approved August 1, 1962), inserting the word "abroad" after the word "expositions." The intent of Congress, as stated in the conference report (House Report 2008, 87th Congress) was to make clear that U.S. participation in fairs is limited to fairs held abroad and to conform to the long-established practice by which Congress authorizes on an individual basis U.S. participation in major lain held in the United States. The amendment excepted U.S. participation in fairs or expositions

other public or private demonstrations of United States economic accomplishments and cultural attainments. (b) In furtherance of the purposes of this Act, the President 3 is further authorized to provide for

(1) interchanges between the United States and other countries of handicrafts, scientific, technical, and scholarly books, books of literature, periodicals, and Government publications, and the reproduction and translation of such writings, and the preparation, distribution, and interchange of other educational and research materials, including laboratory and technical equipment for education and research;

(2) establishing and operating in the United States and abroad centers for cultural and technical interchanges to promote better relations and understanding between the United States and other nations through cooperative study, training, and research;

(3) assistance in the establishment, expansion, maintenance, and operation of schools and institutions of learning abroad, founded, operated, or sponsored by citizens or nonprofit institutions of the United States, including such schools and institutions serving as demonstration centers for methods and practices employed in the United States;

(4) fostering and supporting American studies in foreign countries through professorships, lectureships, institutes, seminars, and courses in such subjects as American history, government, economics, language and literature, and other subjects related to American civilization and culture, including financing the attendance at such studies by persons from other countries;

(5) promoting and supporting medical, scientific, cultural, and educational research and development;

(6) promoting modern foreign language training and area studies in United States schools, colleges, and universities by supporting visits and study in foreign countries by teachers and prospective teachers in such schools, colleges, and universities for the purpose of improving their skill in languages and their knowledge of the culture of the people of those countries, and by financing visits by teachers from those countries to the United States for the purpose of participating in foreign language training and area studies in United States schools, colleges, and universities;

(7) United States representation at international nongovernmental educational, scientific, and technical meetings;

(8) participation by groups and individuals from other countries in educational, scientific, and technical meetings held under American auspices in or outside the United States;

(9) encouraging independent research into the problem of educational and cultural exchange;

for which an appropriation had alrcady been provided, specifically participation in the New York World's Fair of 1964-65 for which funds had been approved. (sec. 403, Public Law 87-565.)

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